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This is, produced by makeinfo version 4.0 from as.texinfo.
* As: (as). The GNU assembler.
This file documents the GNU Assembler "as".
Copyright (C) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no
Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

File:, Node: Integers, Next: Bignums, Up: Numbers
A binary integer is `0b' or `0B' followed by zero or more of the
binary digits `01'.
An octal integer is `0' followed by zero or more of the octal digits
A decimal integer starts with a non-zero digit followed by zero or
more digits (`0123456789').
A hexadecimal integer is `0x' or `0X' followed by one or more
hexadecimal digits chosen from `0123456789abcdefABCDEF'.
Integers have the usual values. To denote a negative integer, use
the prefix operator `-' discussed under expressions (*note Prefix
Operators: Prefix Ops.).

File:, Node: Bignums, Next: Flonums, Prev: Integers, Up: Numbers
A "bignum" has the same syntax and semantics as an integer except
that the number (or its negative) takes more than 32 bits to represent
in binary. The distinction is made because in some places integers are
permitted while bignums are not.

File:, Node: Flonums, Prev: Bignums, Up: Numbers
A "flonum" represents a floating point number. The translation is
indirect: a decimal floating point number from the text is converted by
`as' to a generic binary floating point number of more than sufficient
precision. This generic floating point number is converted to a
particular computer's floating point format (or formats) by a portion
of `as' specialized to that computer.
A flonum is written by writing (in order)
* The digit `0'. (`0' is optional on the HPPA.)
* A letter, to tell `as' the rest of the number is a flonum. `e' is
recommended. Case is not important.
On the H8/300, H8/500, Hitachi SH, and AMD 29K architectures, the
letter must be one of the letters `DFPRSX' (in upper or lower
On the ARC, the letter must be one of the letters `DFRS' (in upper
or lower case).
On the Intel 960 architecture, the letter must be one of the
letters `DFT' (in upper or lower case).
On the HPPA architecture, the letter must be `E' (upper case only).
* An optional sign: either `+' or `-'.
* An optional "integer part": zero or more decimal digits.
* An optional "fractional part": `.' followed by zero or more
decimal digits.
* An optional exponent, consisting of:
* An `E' or `e'.
* Optional sign: either `+' or `-'.
* One or more decimal digits.
At least one of the integer part or the fractional part must be
present. The floating point number has the usual base-10 value.
`as' does all processing using integers. Flonums are computed
independently of any floating point hardware in the computer running

File:, Node: Sections, Next: Symbols, Prev: Syntax, Up: Top
Sections and Relocation
* Menu:
* Secs Background:: Background
* Ld Sections:: Linker Sections
* As Sections:: Assembler Internal Sections
* Sub-Sections:: Sub-Sections
* bss:: bss Section

File:, Node: Secs Background, Next: Ld Sections, Up: Sections
Roughly, a section is a range of addresses, with no gaps; all data
"in" those addresses is treated the same for some particular purpose.
For example there may be a "read only" section.
The linker `ld' reads many object files (partial programs) and
combines their contents to form a runnable program. When `as' emits an
object file, the partial program is assumed to start at address 0.
`ld' assigns the final addresses for the partial program, so that
different partial programs do not overlap. This is actually an
oversimplification, but it suffices to explain how `as' uses sections.
`ld' moves blocks of bytes of your program to their run-time
addresses. These blocks slide to their run-time addresses as rigid
units; their length does not change and neither does the order of bytes
within them. Such a rigid unit is called a _section_. Assigning
run-time addresses to sections is called "relocation". It includes the
task of adjusting mentions of object-file addresses so they refer to
the proper run-time addresses. For the H8/300 and H8/500, and for the
Hitachi SH, `as' pads sections if needed to ensure they end on a word
(sixteen bit) boundary.
An object file written by `as' has at least three sections, any of
which may be empty. These are named "text", "data" and "bss" sections.
When it generates COFF output, `as' can also generate whatever other
named sections you specify using the `.section' directive (*note
`.section': Section.). If you do not use any directives that place
output in the `.text' or `.data' sections, these sections still exist,
but are empty.
When `as' generates SOM or ELF output for the HPPA, `as' can also
generate whatever other named sections you specify using the `.space'
and `.subspace' directives. See `HP9000 Series 800 Assembly Language
Reference Manual' (HP 92432-90001) for details on the `.space' and
`.subspace' assembler directives.
Additionally, `as' uses different names for the standard text, data,
and bss sections when generating SOM output. Program text is placed
into the `$CODE$' section, data into `$DATA$', and BSS into `$BSS$'.
Within the object file, the text section starts at address `0', the
data section follows, and the bss section follows the data section.
When generating either SOM or ELF output files on the HPPA, the text
section starts at address `0', the data section at address `0x4000000',
and the bss section follows the data section.
To let `ld' know which data changes when the sections are relocated,
and how to change that data, `as' also writes to the object file
details of the relocation needed. To perform relocation `ld' must
know, each time an address in the object file is mentioned:
* Where in the object file is the beginning of this reference to an
* How long (in bytes) is this reference?
* Which section does the address refer to? What is the numeric
value of
* Is the reference to an address "Program-Counter relative"?
In fact, every address `as' ever uses is expressed as
Further, most expressions `as' computes have this section-relative
nature. (For some object formats, such as SOM for the HPPA, some
expressions are symbol-relative instead.)
In this manual we use the notation {SECNAME N} to mean "offset N
into section SECNAME."
Apart from text, data and bss sections you need to know about the
"absolute" section. When `ld' mixes partial programs, addresses in the
absolute section remain unchanged. For example, address `{absolute 0}'
is "relocated" to run-time address 0 by `ld'. Although the linker
never arranges two partial programs' data sections with overlapping
addresses after linking, _by definition_ their absolute sections must
overlap. Address `{absolute 239}' in one part of a program is always
the same address when the program is running as address `{absolute
239}' in any other part of the program.
The idea of sections is extended to the "undefined" section. Any
address whose section is unknown at assembly time is by definition
rendered {undefined U}--where U is filled in later. Since numbers are
always defined, the only way to generate an undefined address is to
mention an undefined symbol. A reference to a named common block would
be such a symbol: its value is unknown at assembly time so it has
section _undefined_.
By analogy the word _section_ is used to describe groups of sections
in the linked program. `ld' puts all partial programs' text sections
in contiguous addresses in the linked program. It is customary to
refer to the _text section_ of a program, meaning all the addresses of
all partial programs' text sections. Likewise for data and bss
Some sections are manipulated by `ld'; others are invented for use
of `as' and have no meaning except during assembly.

File:, Node: Ld Sections, Next: As Sections, Prev: Secs Background, Up: Sections
Linker Sections
`ld' deals with just four kinds of sections, summarized below.
*named sections*
*text section*
*data section*
These sections hold your program. `as' and `ld' treat them as
separate but equal sections. Anything you can say of one section
is true another. When the program is running, however, it is
customary for the text section to be unalterable. The text
section is often shared among processes: it contains instructions,
constants and the like. The data section of a running program is
usually alterable: for example, C variables would be stored in the
data section.
*bss section*
This section contains zeroed bytes when your program begins
running. It is used to hold uninitialized variables or common
storage. The length of each partial program's bss section is
important, but because it starts out containing zeroed bytes there
is no need to store explicit zero bytes in the object file. The
bss section was invented to eliminate those explicit zeros from
object files.
*absolute section*
Address 0 of this section is always "relocated" to runtime address
0. This is useful if you want to refer to an address that `ld'
must not change when relocating. In this sense we speak of
absolute addresses being "unrelocatable": they do not change
during relocation.
*undefined section*
This "section" is a catch-all for address references to objects
not in the preceding sections.
An idealized example of three relocatable sections follows. The
example uses the traditional section names `.text' and `.data'. Memory
addresses are on the horizontal axis.
partial program # 1: |ttttt|dddd|00|
text data bss
seg. seg. seg.
partial program # 2: |TTT|DDD|000|
linked program: | |TTT|ttttt| |dddd|DDD|00000|
addresses: 0 ...

File:, Node: As Sections, Next: Sub-Sections, Prev: Ld Sections, Up: Sections
Assembler Internal Sections
These sections are meant only for the internal use of `as'. They
have no meaning at run-time. You do not really need to know about these
sections for most purposes; but they can be mentioned in `as' warning
messages, so it might be helpful to have an idea of their meanings to
`as'. These sections are used to permit the value of every expression
in your assembly language program to be a section-relative address.
An internal assembler logic error has been found. This means
there is a bug in the assembler.
expr section
The assembler stores complex expression internally as combinations
of symbols. When it needs to represent an expression as a symbol,
it puts it in the expr section.

File:, Node: Sub-Sections, Next: bss, Prev: As Sections, Up: Sections
Assembled bytes conventionally fall into two sections: text and data.
You may have separate groups of data in named sections that you want to
end up near to each other in the object file, even though they are not
contiguous in the assembler source. `as' allows you to use
"subsections" for this purpose. Within each section, there can be
numbered subsections with values from 0 to 8192. Objects assembled
into the same subsection go into the object file together with other
objects in the same subsection. For example, a compiler might want to
store constants in the text section, but might not want to have them
interspersed with the program being assembled. In this case, the
compiler could issue a `.text 0' before each section of code being
output, and a `.text 1' before each group of constants being output.
Subsections are optional. If you do not use subsections, everything
goes in subsection number zero.
Each subsection is zero-padded up to a multiple of four bytes.
(Subsections may be padded a different amount on different flavors of
Subsections appear in your object file in numeric order, lowest
numbered to highest. (All this to be compatible with other people's
assemblers.) The object file contains no representation of
subsections; `ld' and other programs that manipulate object files see
no trace of them. They just see all your text subsections as a text
section, and all your data subsections as a data section.
To specify which subsection you want subsequent statements assembled
into, use a numeric argument to specify it, in a `.text EXPRESSION' or
a `.data EXPRESSION' statement. When generating COFF output, you can
also use an extra subsection argument with arbitrary named sections:
`.section NAME, EXPRESSION'. EXPRESSION should be an absolute
expression. (*Note Expressions::.) If you just say `.text' then
`.text 0' is assumed. Likewise `.data' means `.data 0'. Assembly
begins in `text 0'. For instance:
.text 0 # The default subsection is text 0 anyway.
.ascii "This lives in the first text subsection. *"
.text 1
.ascii "But this lives in the second text subsection."
.data 0
.ascii "This lives in the data section,"
.ascii "in the first data subsection."
.text 0
.ascii "This lives in the first text section,"
.ascii "immediately following the asterisk (*)."
Each section has a "location counter" incremented by one for every
byte assembled into that section. Because subsections are merely a
convenience restricted to `as' there is no concept of a subsection
location counter. There is no way to directly manipulate a location
counter--but the `.align' directive changes it, and any label
definition captures its current value. The location counter of the
section where statements are being assembled is said to be the "active"
location counter.

File:, Node: bss, Prev: Sub-Sections, Up: Sections
bss Section
The bss section is used for local common variable storage. You may
allocate address space in the bss section, but you may not dictate data
to load into it before your program executes. When your program starts
running, all the contents of the bss section are zeroed bytes.
The `.lcomm' pseudo-op defines a symbol in the bss section; see
*Note `.lcomm': Lcomm.
The `.comm' pseudo-op may be used to declare a common symbol, which
is another form of uninitialized symbol; see *Note `.comm': Comm.
When assembling for a target which supports multiple sections, such
as ELF or COFF, you may switch into the `.bss' section and define
symbols as usual; see *Note `.section': Section. You may only assemble
zero values into the section. Typically the section will only contain
symbol definitions and `.skip' directives (*note `.skip': Skip.).

File:, Node: Symbols, Next: Expressions, Prev: Sections, Up: Top
Symbols are a central concept: the programmer uses symbols to name
things, the linker uses symbols to link, and the debugger uses symbols
to debug.
_Warning:_ `as' does not place symbols in the object file in the
same order they were declared. This may break some debuggers.
* Menu:
* Labels:: Labels
* Setting Symbols:: Giving Symbols Other Values
* Symbol Names:: Symbol Names
* Dot:: The Special Dot Symbol
* Symbol Attributes:: Symbol Attributes

File:, Node: Labels, Next: Setting Symbols, Up: Symbols
A "label" is written as a symbol immediately followed by a colon
`:'. The symbol then represents the current value of the active
location counter, and is, for example, a suitable instruction operand.
You are warned if you use the same symbol to represent two different
locations: the first definition overrides any other definitions.
On the HPPA, the usual form for a label need not be immediately
followed by a colon, but instead must start in column zero. Only one
label may be defined on a single line. To work around this, the HPPA
version of `as' also provides a special directive `.label' for defining
labels more flexibly.

File:, Node: Setting Symbols, Next: Symbol Names, Prev: Labels, Up: Symbols
Giving Symbols Other Values
A symbol can be given an arbitrary value by writing a symbol,
followed by an equals sign `=', followed by an expression (*note
Expressions::). This is equivalent to using the `.set' directive.
*Note `.set': Set.

File:, Node: Symbol Names, Next: Dot, Prev: Setting Symbols, Up: Symbols
Symbol Names
Symbol names begin with a letter or with one of `._'. On most
machines, you can also use `$' in symbol names; exceptions are noted in
*Note Machine Dependencies::. That character may be followed by any
string of digits, letters, dollar signs (unless otherwise noted in
*Note Machine Dependencies::), and underscores. For the AMD 29K
family, `?' is also allowed in the body of a symbol name, though not at
its beginning.
Case of letters is significant: `foo' is a different symbol name
than `Foo'.
Each symbol has exactly one name. Each name in an assembly language
program refers to exactly one symbol. You may use that symbol name any
number of times in a program.
Local Symbol Names
Local symbols help compilers and programmers use names temporarily.
There are ten local symbol names, which are re-used throughout the
program. You may refer to them using the names `0' `1' ... `9'. To
define a local symbol, write a label of the form `N:' (where N
represents any digit). To refer to the most recent previous definition
of that symbol write `Nb', using the same digit as when you defined the
label. To refer to the next definition of a local label, write
`Nf'--where N gives you a choice of 10 forward references. The `b'
stands for "backwards" and the `f' stands for "forwards".
Local symbols are not emitted by the current GNU C compiler.
There is no restriction on how you can use these labels, but
remember that at any point in the assembly you can refer to at most 10
prior local labels and to at most 10 forward local labels.
Local symbol names are only a notation device. They are immediately
transformed into more conventional symbol names before the assembler
uses them. The symbol names stored in the symbol table, appearing in
error messages and optionally emitted to the object file have these
All local labels begin with `L'. Normally both `as' and `ld'
forget symbols that start with `L'. These labels are used for
symbols you are never intended to see. If you use the `-L' option
then `as' retains these symbols in the object file. If you also
instruct `ld' to retain these symbols, you may use them in
If the label is written `0:' then the digit is `0'. If the label
is written `1:' then the digit is `1'. And so on up through `9:'.
This unusual character is included so you do not accidentally
invent a symbol of the same name. The character has ASCII value
`_ordinal number_'
This is a serial number to keep the labels distinct. The first
`0:' gets the number `1'; The 15th `0:' gets the number `15';
_etc._. Likewise for the other labels `1:' through `9:'.
For instance, the first `1:' is named `L1C-A1', the 44th `3:' is
named `L3C-A44'.

File:, Node: Dot, Next: Symbol Attributes, Prev: Symbol Names, Up: Symbols
The Special Dot Symbol
The special symbol `.' refers to the current address that `as' is
assembling into. Thus, the expression `melvin: .long .' defines
`melvin' to contain its own address. Assigning a value to `.' is
treated the same as a `.org' directive. Thus, the expression `.=.+4'
is the same as saying `.space 4'.

File:, Node: Symbol Attributes, Prev: Dot, Up: Symbols
Symbol Attributes
Every symbol has, as well as its name, the attributes "Value" and
"Type". Depending on output format, symbols can also have auxiliary
If you use a symbol without defining it, `as' assumes zero for all
these attributes, and probably won't warn you. This makes the symbol
an externally defined symbol, which is generally what you would want.
* Menu:
* Symbol Value:: Value
* Symbol Type:: Type
* a.out Symbols:: Symbol Attributes: `a.out'
* COFF Symbols:: Symbol Attributes for COFF
* SOM Symbols:: Symbol Attributes for SOM

File:, Node: Symbol Value, Next: Symbol Type, Up: Symbol Attributes
The value of a symbol is (usually) 32 bits. For a symbol which
labels a location in the text, data, bss or absolute sections the value
is the number of addresses from the start of that section to the label.
Naturally for text, data and bss sections the value of a symbol changes
as `ld' changes section base addresses during linking. Absolute
symbols' values do not change during linking: that is why they are
called absolute.
The value of an undefined symbol is treated in a special way. If it
is 0 then the symbol is not defined in this assembler source file, and
`ld' tries to determine its value from other files linked into the same
program. You make this kind of symbol simply by mentioning a symbol
name without defining it. A non-zero value represents a `.comm' common
declaration. The value is how much common storage to reserve, in bytes
(addresses). The symbol refers to the first address of the allocated

File:, Node: Symbol Type, Next: a.out Symbols, Prev: Symbol Value, Up: Symbol Attributes
The type attribute of a symbol contains relocation (section)
information, any flag settings indicating that a symbol is external, and
(optionally), other information for linkers and debuggers. The exact
format depends on the object-code output format in use.

File:, Node: a.out Symbols, Next: COFF Symbols, Prev: Symbol Type, Up: Symbol Attributes
Symbol Attributes: `a.out'
* Menu:
* Symbol Desc:: Descriptor
* Symbol Other:: Other

File:, Node: Symbol Desc, Next: Symbol Other, Up: a.out Symbols
This is an arbitrary 16-bit value. You may establish a symbol's
descriptor value by using a `.desc' statement (*note `.desc': Desc.).
A descriptor value means nothing to `as'.

File:, Node: Symbol Other, Prev: Symbol Desc, Up: a.out Symbols
This is an arbitrary 8-bit value. It means nothing to `as'.

File:, Node: COFF Symbols, Next: SOM Symbols, Prev: a.out Symbols, Up: Symbol Attributes
Symbol Attributes for COFF
The COFF format supports a multitude of auxiliary symbol attributes;
like the primary symbol attributes, they are set between `.def' and
`.endef' directives.
Primary Attributes
The symbol name is set with `.def'; the value and type,
respectively, with `.val' and `.type'.
Auxiliary Attributes
The `as' directives `.dim', `.line', `.scl', `.size', and `.tag' can
generate auxiliary symbol table information for COFF.

File:, Node: SOM Symbols, Prev: COFF Symbols, Up: Symbol Attributes
Symbol Attributes for SOM
The SOM format for the HPPA supports a multitude of symbol
attributes set with the `.EXPORT' and `.IMPORT' directives.
The attributes are described in `HP9000 Series 800 Assembly Language
Reference Manual' (HP 92432-90001) under the `IMPORT' and `EXPORT'
assembler directive documentation.

File:, Node: Expressions, Next: Pseudo Ops, Prev: Symbols, Up: Top
An "expression" specifies an address or numeric value. Whitespace
may precede and/or follow an expression.
The result of an expression must be an absolute number, or else an
offset into a particular section. If an expression is not absolute,
and there is not enough information when `as' sees the expression to
know its section, a second pass over the source program might be
necessary to interpret the expression--but the second pass is currently
not implemented. `as' aborts with an error message in this situation.
* Menu:
* Empty Exprs:: Empty Expressions
* Integer Exprs:: Integer Expressions

File:, Node: Empty Exprs, Next: Integer Exprs, Up: Expressions
Empty Expressions
An empty expression has no value: it is just whitespace or null.
Wherever an absolute expression is required, you may omit the
expression, and `as' assumes a value of (absolute) 0. This is
compatible with other assemblers.

File:, Node: Integer Exprs, Prev: Empty Exprs, Up: Expressions
Integer Expressions
An "integer expression" is one or more _arguments_ delimited by
* Menu:
* Arguments:: Arguments
* Operators:: Operators
* Prefix Ops:: Prefix Operators
* Infix Ops:: Infix Operators

File:, Node: Arguments, Next: Operators, Up: Integer Exprs
"Arguments" are symbols, numbers or subexpressions. In other
contexts arguments are sometimes called "arithmetic operands". In this
manual, to avoid confusing them with the "instruction operands" of the
machine language, we use the term "argument" to refer to parts of
expressions only, reserving the word "operand" to refer only to machine
instruction operands.
Symbols are evaluated to yield {SECTION NNN} where SECTION is one of
text, data, bss, absolute, or undefined. NNN is a signed, 2's
complement 32 bit integer.
Numbers are usually integers.
A number can be a flonum or bignum. In this case, you are warned
that only the low order 32 bits are used, and `as' pretends these 32
bits are an integer. You may write integer-manipulating instructions
that act on exotic constants, compatible with other assemblers.
Subexpressions are a left parenthesis `(' followed by an integer
expression, followed by a right parenthesis `)'; or a prefix operator
followed by an argument.

File:, Node: Operators, Next: Prefix Ops, Prev: Arguments, Up: Integer Exprs
"Operators" are arithmetic functions, like `+' or `%'. Prefix
operators are followed by an argument. Infix operators appear between
their arguments. Operators may be preceded and/or followed by

File:, Node: Prefix Ops, Next: Infix Ops, Prev: Operators, Up: Integer Exprs
Prefix Operator
`as' has the following "prefix operators". They each take one
argument, which must be absolute.
"Negation". Two's complement negation.
"Complementation". Bitwise not.

File:, Node: Infix Ops, Prev: Prefix Ops, Up: Integer Exprs
Infix Operators
"Infix operators" take two arguments, one on either side. Operators
have precedence, but operations with equal precedence are performed left
to right. Apart from `+' or `-', both arguments must be absolute, and
the result is absolute.
1. Highest Precedence
"Division". Truncation is the same as the C operator `/'
"Shift Left". Same as the C operator `<<'.
"Shift Right". Same as the C operator `>>'.
2. Intermediate precedence
"Bitwise Inclusive Or".
"Bitwise And".
"Bitwise Exclusive Or".
"Bitwise Or Not".
3. Low Precedence
"Addition". If either argument is absolute, the result has
the section of the other argument. You may not add together
arguments from different sections.
"Subtraction". If the right argument is absolute, the result
has the section of the left argument. If both arguments are
in the same section, the result is absolute. You may not
subtract arguments from different sections.
"Is Equal To"
"Is Not Equal To"
"Is Less Than"
"Is Greater Than"
"Is Greater Than Or Equal To"
"Is Less Than Or Equal To"
The comparison operators can be used as infix operators. A
true results has a value of -1 whereas a false result has a
value of 0. Note, these operators perform signed
4. Lowest Precedence
"Logical And".
"Logical Or".
These two logical operations can be used to combine the
results of sub expressions. Note, unlike the comparison
operators a true result returns a value of 1 but a false
results does still return 0. Also note that the logical or
operator has a slightly lower precedence than logical and.
In short, it's only meaningful to add or subtract the _offsets_ in an
address; you can only have a defined section in one of the two

File:, Node: Pseudo Ops, Next: Machine Dependencies, Prev: Expressions, Up: Top
Assembler Directives
All assembler directives have names that begin with a period (`.').
The rest of the name is letters, usually in lower case.
This chapter discusses directives that are available regardless of
the target machine configuration for the GNU assembler. Some machine
configurations provide additional directives. *Note Machine
* Menu:
* Abort:: `.abort'
* Align:: `.align ABS-EXPR , ABS-EXPR'
* Ascii:: `.ascii "STRING"'...
* Asciz:: `.asciz "STRING"'...
* Balign:: `.balign ABS-EXPR , ABS-EXPR'
* Byte:: `.byte EXPRESSIONS'
* Comm:: `.comm SYMBOL , LENGTH '
* Data:: `.data SUBSECTION'
* Def:: `.def NAME'
* Dim:: `.dim'
* Double:: `.double FLONUMS'
* Eject:: `.eject'
* Else:: `.else'
* Elseif:: `.elseif'
* End:: `.end'
* Endef:: `.endef'
* Endfunc:: `.endfunc'
* Endif:: `.endif'
* Equiv:: `.equiv SYMBOL, EXPRESSION'
* Err:: `.err'
* Exitm:: `.exitm'
* Extern:: `.extern'
* Fail:: `.fail'
* File:: `.file STRING'
* Fill:: `.fill REPEAT , SIZE , VALUE'
* Float:: `.float FLONUMS'
* Func:: `.func'
* Global:: `.global SYMBOL', `.globl SYMBOL'
* Hidden:: `.hidden NAMES'
* hword:: `.hword EXPRESSIONS'
* Ident:: `.ident'
* Include:: `.include "FILE"'
* Int:: `.int EXPRESSIONS'
* Internal:: `.internal NAMES'
* Irp:: `.irp SYMBOL,VALUES'...
* Irpc:: `.irpc SYMBOL,VALUES'...
* Lcomm:: `.lcomm SYMBOL , LENGTH'
* Lflags:: `.lflags'
* Line:: `.line LINE-NUMBER'
* Ln:: `.ln LINE-NUMBER'
* Linkonce:: `.linkonce [TYPE]'
* List:: `.list'
* Long:: `.long EXPRESSIONS'
* Macro:: `.macro NAME ARGS'...
* MRI:: `.mri VAL'
* Nolist:: `.nolist'
* Octa:: `.octa BIGNUMS'
* Org:: `.org NEW-LC , FILL'
* P2align:: `.p2align ABS-EXPR , ABS-EXPR'
* PopSection:: `.popsection'
* Previous:: `.previous'
* Print:: `.print STRING'
* Protected:: `.protected NAMES'
* Psize:: `.psize LINES, COLUMNS'
* Purgem:: `.purgem NAME'
* PushSection:: `.pushsection NAME'
* Quad:: `.quad BIGNUMS'
* Rept:: `.rept COUNT'
* Sbttl:: `.sbttl "SUBHEADING"'
* Scl:: `.scl CLASS'
* Section:: `.section NAME, SUBSECTION'
* Short:: `.short EXPRESSIONS'
* Single:: `.single FLONUMS'
* Size:: `.size [NAME , EXPRESSION]'
* Skip:: `.skip SIZE , FILL'
* Sleb128:: `.sleb128 EXPRESSIONS'
* Space:: `.space SIZE , FILL'
* Stab:: `.stabd, .stabn, .stabs'
* String:: `.string "STR"'
* Struct:: `.struct EXPRESSION'
* SubSection:: `.subsection'
* Symver:: `.symver NAME,NAME2@NODENAME'
* Tag:: `.tag STRUCTNAME'
* Text:: `.text SUBSECTION'
* Title:: `.title "HEADING"'
* Type:: `.type <INT | NAME , TYPE DESCRIPTION>'
* Uleb128:: `.uleb128 EXPRESSIONS'
* Val:: `.val ADDR'
* Version:: `.version "STRING"'
* VTableEntry:: `.vtable_entry TABLE, OFFSET'
* VTableInherit:: `.vtable_inherit CHILD, PARENT'
* Weak:: `.weak NAMES'
* Word:: `.word EXPRESSIONS'
* Deprecated:: Deprecated Directives

File:, Node: Abort, Next: ABORT, Up: Pseudo Ops
This directive stops the assembly immediately. It is for
compatibility with other assemblers. The original idea was that the
assembly language source would be piped into the assembler. If the
sender of the source quit, it could use this directive tells `as' to
quit also. One day `.abort' will not be supported.

File:, Node: ABORT, Next: Align, Prev: Abort, Up: Pseudo Ops
When producing COFF output, `as' accepts this directive as a synonym
for `.abort'.
When producing `b.out' output, `as' accepts this directive, but
ignores it.

File:, Node: Align, Next: Ascii, Prev: ABORT, Up: Pseudo Ops
Pad the location counter (in the current subsection) to a particular
storage boundary. The first expression (which must be absolute) is the
alignment required, as described below.
The second expression (also absolute) gives the fill value to be
stored in the padding bytes. It (and the comma) may be omitted. If it
is omitted, the padding bytes are normally zero. However, on some
systems, if the section is marked as containing code and the fill value
is omitted, the space is filled with no-op instructions.
The third expression is also absolute, and is also optional. If it
is present, it is the maximum number of bytes that should be skipped by
this alignment directive. If doing the alignment would require
skipping more bytes than the specified maximum, then the alignment is
not done at all. You can omit the fill value (the second argument)
entirely by simply using two commas after the required alignment; this
can be useful if you want the alignment to be filled with no-op
instructions when appropriate.
The way the required alignment is specified varies from system to
system. For the a29k, hppa, m68k, m88k, w65, sparc, and Hitachi SH,
and i386 using ELF format, the first expression is the alignment
request in bytes. For example `.align 8' advances the location counter
until it is a multiple of 8. If the location counter is already a
multiple of 8, no change is needed.
For other systems, including the i386 using a.out format, and the
arm and strongarm, it is the number of low-order zero bits the location
counter must have after advancement. For example `.align 3' advances
the location counter until it a multiple of 8. If the location counter
is already a multiple of 8, no change is needed.
This inconsistency is due to the different behaviors of the various
native assemblers for these systems which GAS must emulate. GAS also
provides `.balign' and `.p2align' directives, described later, which
have a consistent behavior across all architectures (but are specific
to GAS).

File:, Node: Ascii, Next: Asciz, Prev: Align, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.ascii "STRING"'...
`.ascii' expects zero or more string literals (*note Strings::)
separated by commas. It assembles each string (with no automatic
trailing zero byte) into consecutive addresses.

File:, Node: Asciz, Next: Balign, Prev: Ascii, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.asciz "STRING"'...
`.asciz' is just like `.ascii', but each string is followed by a
zero byte. The "z" in `.asciz' stands for "zero".

File:, Node: Balign, Next: Byte, Prev: Asciz, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.balign[wl] ABS-EXPR, ABS-EXPR, ABS-EXPR'
Pad the location counter (in the current subsection) to a particular
storage boundary. The first expression (which must be absolute) is the
alignment request in bytes. For example `.balign 8' advances the
location counter until it is a multiple of 8. If the location counter
is already a multiple of 8, no change is needed.
The second expression (also absolute) gives the fill value to be
stored in the padding bytes. It (and the comma) may be omitted. If it
is omitted, the padding bytes are normally zero. However, on some
systems, if the section is marked as containing code and the fill value
is omitted, the space is filled with no-op instructions.
The third expression is also absolute, and is also optional. If it
is present, it is the maximum number of bytes that should be skipped by
this alignment directive. If doing the alignment would require
skipping more bytes than the specified maximum, then the alignment is
not done at all. You can omit the fill value (the second argument)
entirely by simply using two commas after the required alignment; this
can be useful if you want the alignment to be filled with no-op
instructions when appropriate.
The `.balignw' and `.balignl' directives are variants of the
`.balign' directive. The `.balignw' directive treats the fill pattern
as a two byte word value. The `.balignl' directives treats the fill
pattern as a four byte longword value. For example, `.balignw
4,0x368d' will align to a multiple of 4. If it skips two bytes, they
will be filled in with the value 0x368d (the exact placement of the
bytes depends upon the endianness of the processor). If it skips 1 or
3 bytes, the fill value is undefined.

File:, Node: Byte, Next: Comm, Prev: Balign, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.byte' expects zero or more expressions, separated by commas. Each
expression is assembled into the next byte.

File:, Node: Comm, Next: Data, Prev: Byte, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.comm SYMBOL , LENGTH '
`.comm' declares a common symbol named SYMBOL. When linking, a
common symbol in one object file may be merged with a defined or common
symbol of the same name in another object file. If `ld' does not see a
definition for the symbol-just one or more common symbols-then it will
allocate LENGTH bytes of uninitialized memory. LENGTH must be an
absolute expression. If `ld' sees multiple common symbols with the
same name, and they do not all have the same size, it will allocate
space using the largest size.
When using ELF, the `.comm' directive takes an optional third
argument. This is the desired alignment of the symbol, specified as a
byte boundary (for example, an alignment of 16 means that the least
significant 4 bits of the address should be zero). The alignment must
be an absolute expression, and it must be a power of two. If `ld'
allocates uninitialized memory for the common symbol, it will use the
alignment when placing the symbol. If no alignment is specified, `as'
will set the alignment to the largest power of two less than or equal
to the size of the symbol, up to a maximum of 16.
The syntax for `.comm' differs slightly on the HPPA. The syntax is
`SYMBOL .comm, LENGTH'; SYMBOL is optional.

File:, Node: Data, Next: Def, Prev: Comm, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.data' tells `as' to assemble the following statements onto the end
of the data subsection numbered SUBSECTION (which is an absolute
expression). If SUBSECTION is omitted, it defaults to zero.

File:, Node: Def, Next: Desc, Prev: Data, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.def NAME'
Begin defining debugging information for a symbol NAME; the
definition extends until the `.endef' directive is encountered.
This directive is only observed when `as' is configured for COFF
format output; when producing `b.out', `.def' is recognized, but

File:, Node: Desc, Next: Dim, Prev: Def, Up: Pseudo Ops
This directive sets the descriptor of the symbol (*note Symbol
Attributes::) to the low 16 bits of an absolute expression.
The `.desc' directive is not available when `as' is configured for
COFF output; it is only for `a.out' or `b.out' object format. For the
sake of compatibility, `as' accepts it, but produces no output, when
configured for COFF.

File:, Node: Dim, Next: Double, Prev: Desc, Up: Pseudo Ops
This directive is generated by compilers to include auxiliary
debugging information in the symbol table. It is only permitted inside
`.def'/`.endef' pairs.
`.dim' is only meaningful when generating COFF format output; when
`as' is generating `b.out', it accepts this directive but ignores it.

File:, Node: Double, Next: Eject, Prev: Dim, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.double FLONUMS'
`.double' expects zero or more flonums, separated by commas. It
assembles floating point numbers. The exact kind of floating point
numbers emitted depends on how `as' is configured. *Note Machine

File:, Node: Eject, Next: Else, Prev: Double, Up: Pseudo Ops
Force a page break at this point, when generating assembly listings.

File:, Node: Else, Next: Elseif, Prev: Eject, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.else' is part of the `as' support for conditional assembly; *note
`.if': If.. It marks the beginning of a section of code to be
assembled if the condition for the preceding `.if' was false.

File:, Node: Elseif, Next: End, Prev: Else, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.elseif' is part of the `as' support for conditional assembly;
*note `.if': If.. It is shorthand for beginning a new `.if' block that
would otherwise fill the entire `.else' section.

File:, Node: End, Next: Endef, Prev: Elseif, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.end' marks the end of the assembly file. `as' does not process
anything in the file past the `.end' directive.

File:, Node: Endef, Next: Endfunc, Prev: End, Up: Pseudo Ops
This directive flags the end of a symbol definition begun with
`.endef' is only meaningful when generating COFF format output; if
`as' is configured to generate `b.out', it accepts this directive but
ignores it.

File:, Node: Endfunc, Next: Endif, Prev: Endef, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.endfunc' marks the end of a function specified with `.func'.

File:, Node: Endif, Next: Equ, Prev: Endfunc, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.endif' is part of the `as' support for conditional assembly; it
marks the end of a block of code that is only assembled conditionally.
*Note `.if': If.

File:, Node: Equ, Next: Equiv, Prev: Endif, Up: Pseudo Ops
This directive sets the value of SYMBOL to EXPRESSION. It is
synonymous with `.set'; *note `.set': Set..
The syntax for `equ' on the HPPA is `SYMBOL .equ EXPRESSION'.

File:, Node: Equiv, Next: Err, Prev: Equ, Up: Pseudo Ops
The `.equiv' directive is like `.equ' and `.set', except that the
assembler will signal an error if SYMBOL is already defined.
Except for the contents of the error message, this is roughly
equivalent to
.ifdef SYM
.equ SYM,VAL

File:, Node: Err, Next: Exitm, Prev: Equiv, Up: Pseudo Ops
If `as' assembles a `.err' directive, it will print an error message
and, unless the `-Z' option was used, it will not generate an object
file. This can be used to signal error an conditionally compiled code.

File:, Node: Exitm, Next: Extern, Prev: Err, Up: Pseudo Ops
Exit early from the current macro definition. *Note Macro::.

File:, Node: Extern, Next: Fail, Prev: Exitm, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.extern' is accepted in the source program--for compatibility with
other assemblers--but it is ignored. `as' treats all undefined symbols
as external.

File:, Node: Fail, Next: File, Prev: Extern, Up: Pseudo Ops
Generates an error or a warning. If the value of the EXPRESSION is
500 or more, `as' will print a warning message. If the value is less
than 500, `as' will print an error message. The message will include
the value of EXPRESSION. This can occasionally be useful inside
complex nested macros or conditional assembly.

File:, Node: File, Next: Fill, Prev: Fail, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.file STRING'
`.file' tells `as' that we are about to start a new logical file.
STRING is the new file name. In general, the filename is recognized
whether or not it is surrounded by quotes `"'; but if you wish to
specify an empty file name, you must give the quotes-`""'. This
statement may go away in future: it is only recognized to be compatible
with old `as' programs. In some configurations of `as', `.file' has
already been removed to avoid conflicts with other assemblers. *Note
Machine Dependencies::.

File:, Node: Fill, Next: Float, Prev: File, Up: Pseudo Ops
RESULT, SIZE and VALUE are absolute expressions. This emits REPEAT
copies of SIZE bytes. REPEAT may be zero or more. SIZE may be zero or
more, but if it is more than 8, then it is deemed to have the value 8,
compatible with other people's assemblers. The contents of each REPEAT
bytes is taken from an 8-byte number. The highest order 4 bytes are
zero. The lowest order 4 bytes are VALUE rendered in the byte-order of
an integer on the computer `as' is assembling for. Each SIZE bytes in
a repetition is taken from the lowest order SIZE bytes of this number.
Again, this bizarre behavior is compatible with other people's
SIZE and VALUE are optional. If the second comma and VALUE are
absent, VALUE is assumed zero. If the first comma and following tokens
are absent, SIZE is assumed to be 1.

File:, Node: Float, Next: Func, Prev: Fill, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.float FLONUMS'
This directive assembles zero or more flonums, separated by commas.
It has the same effect as `.single'. The exact kind of floating point
numbers emitted depends on how `as' is configured. *Note Machine

File:, Node: Func, Next: Global, Prev: Float, Up: Pseudo Ops
`.func NAME[,LABEL]'
`.func' emits debugging information to denote function NAME, and is
ignored unless the file is assembled with debugging enabled. Only
`--gstabs' is currently supported. LABEL is the entry point of the
function and if omitted NAME prepended with the `leading char' is used.
`leading char' is usually `_' or nothing, depending on the target. All
functions are currently defined to have `void' return type. The
function must be terminated with `.endfunc'.