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@c Copyright 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c This is part of the GAS manual.
@c For copying conditions, see the file as.texinfo.
@ifset GENERIC
@node i860-Dependent
@chapter Intel i860 Dependent Features
@end ifset
@ifclear GENERIC
@node Machine Dependencies
@chapter Intel i860 Dependent Features
@end ifclear
@c FIXME: This is basically a stub for i860. There is tons more information
that I will add later ( The assembler is still being
written. The i860 assembler that existed previously was never finished
and doesn't even build. Further, its not BFD_ASSEMBLER and it doesn't
do ELF (it doesn't do anything, but you get the point).
@end ignore
@cindex i860 support
* Notes-i860:: i860 Notes
* Options-i860:: i860 Command-line Options
* Directives-i860:: i860 Machine Directives
* Opcodes for i860:: i860 Opcodes
@end menu
@node Notes-i860
@section i860 Notes
This is a fairly complete i860 assembler which is compatible with the
UNIX System V/860 Release 4 assembler. However, it does not currently
support SVR4 PIC (i.e., @code{@@GOT, @@GOTOFF, @@PLT}).
Like the SVR4/860 assembler, the output object format is ELF32. Currently,
this is the only supported object format. If there is sufficient interest,
other formats such as COFF may be implemented.
@node Options-i860
@section i860 Command-line Options
@subsection SVR4 compatibility options
@table @code
@item -V
Print assembler version.
@item -Qy
@item -Qn
@end table
@subsection Other options
@table @code
@item -EL
Select little endian output (this is the default).
@item -EB
Select big endian output. Note that the i860 always reads instructions
as little endian data, so this option only effects data and not
@item -mwarn-expand
Emit a warning message if any pseudo-instruction expansions occurred.
For example, a @code{or} instruction with an immediate larger than 16-bits
will be expanded into two instructions. This is a very undesirable feature to
rely on, so this flag can help detect any code where it happens. One
use of it, for instance, has been to find and eliminate any place
where @code{gcc} may emit these pseudo-instructions.
@end table
@node Directives-i860
@section i860 Machine Directives
@cindex machine directives, i860
@cindex i860 machine directives
@table @code
@cindex @code{dual} directive, i860
@item .dual
Enter dual instruction mode. While this directive is supported, the
preferred way to use dual instruction mode is to explicitly code
the dual bit with the @code{d.} prefix.
@end table
@table @code
@cindex @code{enddual} directive, i860
@item .enddual
Exit dual instruction mode. While this directive is supported, the
preferred way to use dual instruction mode is to explicitly code
the dual bit with the @code{d.} prefix.
@end table
@table @code
@cindex @code{atmp} directive, i860
@item .atmp
Change the temporary register used when expanding pseudo operations. The
default register is @code{r31}.
@end table
@node Opcodes for i860
@section i860 Opcodes
@cindex opcodes, i860
@cindex i860 opcodes
All of the Intel i860 machine instructions are supported. Please see
either @emph{i860 Microprocessor Programmer's Reference Manual} or @emph{i860 Microprocessor Architecture} for more information.
@subsection Other instruction support (pseudo-instructions)
For compatibility with some other i860 assemblers, a number of
pseudo-instructions are supported. While these are supported, they are
a very undesirable feature that should be avoided -- in particular, when
they result in an expansion to multiple actual i860 instructions. Below
are the pseudo-instructions that result in expansions.
@itemize @bullet
@item Load large immediate into general register:
The pseudo-instruction @code{mov imm,%rn} (where the immediate does
not fit within a signed 16-bit field) will be expanded into:
orh large_imm@@h,%r0,%rn
or large_imm@@l,%rn,%rn
@end smallexample
@item Load/store with relocatable address expression:
For example, the pseudo-instruction @code{ld.b addr,%rn}
will be expanded into:
orh addr_exp@@ha,%r0,%r31
ld.l addr_exp@@l(%r31),%rn
@end smallexample
The analogous expansions apply to @code{ld.x, st.x, fld.x, pfld.x, fst.x}, and @code{pst.x} as well.
@item Signed large immediate with add/subtract:
If any of the arithmetic operations @code{adds, addu, subs, subu} are used
with an immediate larger than 16-bits (signed), then they will be expanded.
For instance, the pseudo-instruction @code{adds large_imm,%rx,%rn} expands to:
orh large_imm@@h,%r0,%r31
or large_imm@@l,%r31,%r31
adds %r31,%rx,%rn
@end smallexample
@item Unsigned large immediate with logical operations:
Logical operations (@code{or, andnot, or, xor}) also result in expansions.
The pseudo-instruction @code{or large_imm,%rx,%rn} results in:
orh large_imm@@h,%rx,%r31
or large_imm@@l,%r31,%rn
@end smallexample
Similarly for the others, except for @code{and} which expands to:
andnot (-1 - large_imm)@@h,%rx,%r31
andnot (-1 - large_imm)@@l,%r31,%rn
@end smallexample
@end itemize