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 This is gasp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.0 from gasp.texi. START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY * gasp: (gasp). The GNU Assembler Preprocessor END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". File: gasp.info, Node: Top, Next: Overview, Up: (dir) GASP **** GASP is a preprocessor for assembly programs. This file describes version 1 of GASP. Steve Chamberlain wrote GASP; Roland Pesch wrote this manual. * Menu: * Overview:: What is GASP? * Invoking GASP:: Command line options. * Commands:: Preprocessor commands. * GNU Free Documentation License:: GNU Free Documentation License * Index:: Index. File: gasp.info, Node: Overview, Next: Invoking GASP, Prev: Top, Up: Top What is GASP? ************* The primary purpose of the GNU assembler is to assemble the output of other programs--notably compilers. When you have to hand-code specialized routines in assembly, that means the GNU assembler is an unfriendly processor: it has no directives for macros, conditionals, or many other conveniences that you might expect. In some cases you can simply use the C preprocessor, or a generalized preprocessor like M4; but this can be awkward, since none of these things are designed with assembly in mind. GASP fills this need. It is expressly designed to provide the facilities you need with hand-coded assembly code. Implementing it as a preprocessor, rather than part of the assembler, allows the maximum flexibility: you can use it with hand-coded assembly, without paying a penalty of added complexity in the assembler you use for compiler output. Here is a small example to give the flavor of GASP. This input to GASP .MACRO saveregs from=8 to=14 count .ASSIGNA \from ! save r\from..r\to .AWHILE \&count LE \to mov r\&count,@-sp count .ASSIGNA \&count + 1 .AENDW .ENDM saveregs from=12 bar: mov #H'dead+10,r0 foo .SDATAC "hello"<10> .END generates this assembly program: ! save r12..r14 mov r12,@-sp mov r13,@-sp mov r14,@-sp bar: mov #57005+10,r0 foo: .byte 6,104,101,108,108,111,10 File: gasp.info, Node: Invoking GASP, Next: Commands, Prev: Overview, Up: Top Command Line Options ******************** The simplest way to use GASP is to run it as a filter and assemble its output. In Unix and its ilk, you can do this, for example: gasp prog.asm | as -o prog.o Naturally, there are also a few command-line options to allow you to request variations on this basic theme. Here is the full set of possibilities for the GASP command line. gasp [ -a | --alternate ] [ -c CHAR | --commentchar CHAR ] [ -d | --debug ] [ -h | --help ] [ -M | --mri ] [ -o OUTFILE | --output OUTFILE ] [ -p | --print ] [ -s | --copysource ] [ -u | --unreasonable ] [ -v | --version ] INFILE ... INFILE ...' The input file names. You must specify at least one input file; if you specify more, GASP preprocesses them all, concatenating the output in the order you list the INFILE arguments. Mark the end of each input file with the preprocessor command .END'. *Note Miscellaneous commands: Other Commands. -a' --alternate' Use alternative macro syntax. *Note Alternate macro syntax: Alternate, for a discussion of how this syntax differs from the default GASP syntax. -c 'CHAR'' --commentchar 'CHAR'' Use CHAR as the comment character. The default comment character is !'. For example, to use a semicolon as the comment character, specify -c ';'' on the GASP command line. Since assembler command characters often have special significance to command shells, it is a good idea to quote or escape CHAR when you specify a comment character. For the sake of simplicity, all examples in this manual use the default comment character !'. -d' --debug' Show debugging statistics. In this version of GASP, this option produces statistics about the string buffers that GASP allocates internally. For each defined buffersize S, GASP shows the number of strings N that it allocated, with a line like this: strings size S : N GASP displays these statistics on the standard error stream, when done preprocessing. -h' --help' Display a summary of the GASP command line options. -M' --mri' Use MRI compatibility mode. Using this option causes GASP to accept the syntax and pseudo-ops used by the Microtec Research ASM68K' assembler. -o OUTFILE' --output OUTFILE' Write the output in a file called OUTFILE. If you do not use the -o' option, GASP writes its output on the standard output stream. -p' --print' Print line numbers. GASP obeys this option _only_ if you also specify -s' to copy source lines to its output. With -s -p', GASP displays the line number of each source line copied (immediately after the comment character at the beginning of the line). -s' --copysource' Copy the source lines to the output file. Use this option to see the effect of each preprocessor line on the GASP output. GASP places a comment character (!' by default) at the beginning of each source line it copies, so that you can use this option and still assemble the result. -u' --unreasonable' Bypass "unreasonable expansion" limit. Since you can define GASP macros inside other macro definitions, the preprocessor normally includes a sanity check. If your program requires more than 1,000 nested expansions, GASP normally exits with an error message. Use this option to turn off this check, allowing unlimited nested expansions. -v' --version' Display the GASP version number. File: gasp.info, Node: Commands, Next: GNU Free Documentation License, Prev: Invoking GASP, Up: Top Preprocessor Commands ********************* GASP commands have a straightforward syntax that fits in well with assembly conventions. In general, a command extends for a line, and may have up to three fields: an optional label, the command itself, and optional arguments to the command. You can write commands in upper or lower case, though this manual shows them in upper case. *Note Details of the GASP syntax: Syntax Details, for more information. * Menu: * Conditionals:: * Loops:: * Variables:: * Macros:: * Data:: * Listings:: * Other Commands:: * Syntax Details:: * Alternate:: File: gasp.info, Node: Conditionals, Next: Loops, Up: Commands Conditional assembly ==================== The conditional-assembly directives allow you to include or exclude portions of an assembly depending on how a pair of expressions, or a pair of strings, compare. The overall structure of conditionals is familiar from many other contexts. .AIF' marks the start of a conditional, and precedes assembly for the case when the condition is true. An optional .AELSE' precedes assembly for the converse case, and an .AENDI' marks the end of the condition. You may nest conditionals up to a depth of 100; GASP rejects nesting beyond that, because it may indicate a bug in your macro structure. Conditionals are primarily useful inside macro definitions, where you often need different effects depending on argument values. *Note Defining your own directives: Macros, for details about defining macros. .AIF EXPRA CMP EXPRB' .AIF "STRA" CMP "STRB"' The governing condition goes on the same line as the .AIF' preprocessor command. You may compare either two strings, or two expressions. When you compare strings, only two conditional CMP comparison operators are available: EQ' (true if STRA and STRB are identical), and NE' (the opposite). When you compare two expressions, _both expressions must be absolute_ (*note Arithmetic expressions in GASP: Expressions.). You can use these CMP comparison operators with expressions: EQ' Are EXPRA and EXPRB equal? (For strings, are STRA and STRB identical?) NE' Are EXPRA and EXPRB different? (For strings, are STRA and STRB different? LT' Is EXPRA less than EXPRB? (Not allowed for strings.) LE' Is EXPRA less than or equal to EXPRB? (Not allowed for strings.) GT' Is EXPRA greater than EXPRB? (Not allowed for strings.) GE' Is EXPRA greater than or equal to EXPRB? (Not allowed for strings.) .AELSE' Marks the start of assembly code to be included if the condition fails. Optional, and only allowed within a conditional (between .AIF' and .AENDI'). .AENDI' Marks the end of a conditional assembly. File: gasp.info, Node: Loops, Next: Variables, Prev: Conditionals, Up: Commands Repetitive sections of assembly =============================== Two preprocessor directives allow you to repeatedly issue copies of the same block of assembly code. .AREPEAT AEXP' .AENDR' If you simply need to repeat the same block of assembly over and over a fixed number of times, sandwich one instance of the repeated block between .AREPEAT' and .AENDR'. Specify the number of copies as AEXP (which must be an absolute expression). For example, this repeats two assembly statements three times in succession: .AREPEAT 3 rotcl r2 div1 r0,r1 .AENDR .AWHILE EXPRA CMP EXPRB' .AENDW' .AWHILE STRA CMP STRB' .AENDW' To repeat a block of assembly depending on a conditional test, rather than repeating it for a specific number of times, use .AWHILE'. .AENDW' marks the end of the repeated block. The conditional comparison works exactly the same way as for .AIF', with the same comparison operators (*note Conditional assembly: Conditionals.). Since the terms of the comparison must be absolute expression, .AWHILE' is primarily useful within macros. *Note Defining your own directives: Macros. You can use the .EXITM' preprocessor directive to break out of loops early (as well as to break out of macros). *Note Defining your own directives: Macros. File: gasp.info, Node: Variables, Next: Macros, Prev: Loops, Up: Commands Preprocessor variables ====================== You can use variables in GASP to represent strings, registers, or the results of expressions. You must distinguish two kinds of variables: 1. Variables defined with .EQU' or .ASSIGN'. To evaluate this kind of variable in your assembly output, simply mention its name. For example, these two lines define and use a variable eg': eg .EQU FLIP-64 ... mov.l eg,r0 _Do not use_ this kind of variable in conditional expressions or while loops; GASP only evaluates these variables when writing assembly output. 2. Variables for use during preprocessing. You can define these with .ASSIGNC' or .ASSIGNA'. To evaluate this kind of variable, write \&' before the variable name; for example, opcit .ASSIGNA 47 ... .AWHILE \&opcit GT 0 ... .AENDW GASP treats macro arguments almost the same way, but to evaluate them you use the prefix \' rather than \&'. *Note Defining your own directives: Macros. PVAR .EQU EXPR' Assign preprocessor variable PVAR the value of the expression EXPR. There are no restrictions on redefinition; use .EQU' with the same PVAR as often as you find it convenient. PVAR .ASSIGN EXPR' Almost the same as .EQU', save that you may not redefine PVAR using .ASSIGN' once it has a value. PVAR .ASSIGNA AEXPR' Define a variable with a numeric value, for use during preprocessing. AEXPR must be an absolute expression. You can redefine variables with .ASSIGNA' at any time. PVAR .ASSIGNC "STR"' Define a variable with a string value, for use during preprocessing. You can redefine variables with .ASSIGNC' at any time. PVAR .REG (REGISTER)' Use .REG' to define a variable that represents a register. In particular, REGISTER is _not evaluated_ as an expression. You may use .REG' at will to redefine register variables. All these directives accept the variable name in the "label" position, that is at the left margin. You may specify a colon after the variable name if you wish; the first example above could have started eg:' with the same effect. File: gasp.info, Node: Macros, Next: Data, Prev: Variables, Up: Commands Defining your own directives ============================ The commands .MACRO' and .ENDM' allow you to define macros that generate assembly output. You can use these macros with a syntax similar to built-in GASP or assembler directives. For example, this definition specifies a macro SUM' that adds together a range of consecutive registers: .MACRO SUM FROM=0, TO=9 ! \FROM \TO mov r\FROM,r10 COUNT .ASSIGNA \FROM+1 .AWHILE \&COUNT LE \TO add r\&COUNT,r10 COUNT .ASSIGNA \&COUNT+1 .AENDW .ENDM With that definition, SUM 0,5' generates this assembly output: ! 0 5 mov r0,r10 add r1,r10 add r2,r10 add r3,r10 add r4,r10 add r5,r10 .MACRO MACNAME' .MACRO MACNAME MACARGS ...' Begin the definition of a macro called MACNAME. If your macro definition requires arguments, specify their names after the macro name, separated by commas or spaces. You can supply a default value for any macro argument by following the name with =DEFLT'. For example, these are all valid .MACRO' statements: .MACRO COMM' Begin the definition of a macro called COMM', which takes no arguments. .MACRO PLUS1 P, P1' .MACRO PLUS1 P P1' Either statement begins the definition of a macro called PLUS1', which takes two arguments; within the macro definition, write \P' or \P1' to evaluate the arguments. .MACRO RESERVE_STR P1=0 P2' Begin the definition of a macro called RESERVE_STR', with two arguments. The first argument has a default value, but not the second. After the definition is complete, you can call the macro either as RESERVE_STR A,B' (with \P1' evaluating to A and \P2' evaluating to B), or as RESERVE_STR ,B' (with \P1' evaluating as the default, in this case 0', and \P2' evaluating to B). When you call a macro, you can specify the argument values either by position, or by keyword. For example, SUM 9,17' is equivalent to SUM TO=17, FROM=9'. Macro arguments are preprocessor variables similar to the variables you define with .ASSIGNA' or .ASSIGNC'; in particular, you can use them in conditionals or for loop control. (The only difference is the prefix you write to evaluate the variable: for a macro argument, write \ARGNAME', but for a preprocessor variable, write \&VARNAME'.) NAME .MACRO' NAME .MACRO ( MACARGS ... )' An alternative form of introducing a macro definition: specify the macro name in the label position, and the arguments (if any) between parentheses after the name. Defaulting rules and usage work the same way as for the other macro definition syntax. .ENDM' Mark the end of a macro definition. .EXITM' Exit early from the current macro definition, .AREPEAT' loop, or .AWHILE' loop. \@' GASP maintains a counter of how many macros it has executed in this pseudo-variable; you can copy that number to your output with \@', but _only within a macro definition_. LOCAL NAME [ , ... ]' _Warning: LOCAL' is only available if you select "alternate macro syntax" with -a' or --alternate'._ *Note Alternate macro syntax: Alternate. Generate a string replacement for each of the NAME arguments, and replace any instances of NAME in each macro expansion. The replacement string is unique in the assembly, and different for each separate macro expansion. LOCAL' allows you to write macros that define symbols, without fear of conflict between separate macro expansions. File: gasp.info, Node: Data, Next: Listings, Prev: Macros, Up: Commands Data output =========== In assembly code, you often need to specify working areas of memory; depending on the application, you may want to initialize such memory or not. GASP provides preprocessor directives to help you avoid repetitive coding for both purposes. You can use labels as usual to mark the data areas. * Menu: * Initialized:: * Uninitialized:: File: gasp.info, Node: Initialized, Next: Uninitialized, Up: Data Initialized data ---------------- These are the GASP directives for initialized data, and the standard GNU assembler directives they expand to: .DATA EXPR, EXPR, ...' .DATA.B EXPR, EXPR, ...' .DATA.W EXPR, EXPR, ...' .DATA.L EXPR, EXPR, ...' Evaluate arithmetic expressions EXPR, and emit the corresponding as' directive (labelled with LAB). The unqualified .DATA' emits .long'; .DATA.B' emits .byte'; .DATA.W' emits .short'; and .DATA.L' emits .long'. For example, foo .DATA 1,2,3' emits foo: .long 1,2,3'. .DATAB REPEAT, EXPR' .DATAB.B REPEAT, EXPR' .DATAB.W REPEAT, EXPR' .DATAB.L REPEAT, EXPR' Make as' emit REPEAT copies of the value of the expression EXPR (using the as' directive .fill'). .DATAB.B' repeats one-byte values; .DATAB.W' repeats two-byte values; and .DATAB.L' repeats four-byte values. .DATAB' without a suffix repeats four-byte values, just like .DATAB.L'. REPEAT must be an absolute expression with a positive value. .SDATA "STR" ...' String data. Emits a concatenation of bytes, precisely as you specify them (in particular, _nothing is added to mark the end_ of the string). *Note String and numeric constants: Constants, for details about how to write strings. .SDATA' concatenates multiple arguments, making it easy to switch between string representations. You can use commas to separate the individual arguments for clarity, if you choose. .SDATAB REPEAT, "STR" ...' Repeated string data. The first argument specifies how many copies of the string to emit; the remaining arguments specify the string, in the same way as the arguments to .SDATA'. .SDATAZ "STR" ...' Zero-terminated string data. Just like .SDATA', except that .SDATAZ' writes a zero byte at the end of the string. .SDATAC "STR" ...' Count-prefixed string data. Just like .SDATA', except that GASP precedes the string with a leading one-byte count. For example, .SDATAC "HI"' generates .byte 2,72,73'. Since the count field is only one byte, you can only use .SDATAC' for strings less than 256 bytes in length. File: gasp.info, Node: Uninitialized, Prev: Initialized, Up: Data Uninitialized data ------------------ Use the .RES', .SRES', .SRESC', and .SRESZ' directives to reserve memory and leave it uninitialized. GASP resolves these directives to appropriate calls of the GNU as' .space' directive. .RES COUNT' .RES.B COUNT' .RES.W COUNT' .RES.L COUNT' Reserve room for COUNT uninitialized elements of data. The suffix specifies the size of each element: .RES.B' reserves COUNT bytes, .RES.W' reserves COUNT pairs of bytes, and .RES.L' reserves COUNT quartets. .RES' without a suffix is equivalent to .RES.L'. .SRES COUNT' .SRES.B COUNT' .SRES.W COUNT' .SRES.L COUNT' .SRES' is a synonym for .RES'. .SRESC COUNT' .SRESC.B COUNT' .SRESC.W COUNT' .SRESC.L COUNT' Like .SRES', but reserves space for COUNT+1' elements. .SRESZ COUNT' .SRESZ.B COUNT' .SRESZ.W COUNT' .SRESZ.L COUNT' Like .SRES', but reserves space for COUNT+1' elements. File: gasp.info, Node: Listings, Next: Other Commands, Prev: Data, Up: Commands Assembly listing control ======================== The GASP listing-control directives correspond to related GNU as' directives. .PRINT LIST' .PRINT NOLIST' Print control. This directive emits the GNU as' directive .list' or .nolist', according to its argument. *Note .list': (as.info)List, for details on how these directives interact. .FORM LIN=LN' .FORM COL=COLS' .FORM LIN=LN COL=COLS' Specify the page size for assembly listings: LN represents the number of lines, and COLS the number of columns. You may specify either page dimension independently, or both together. If you do not specify the number of lines, GASP assumes 60 lines; if you do not specify the number of columns, GASP assumes 132 columns. (Any values you may have specified in previous instances of .FORM' do _not_ carry over as defaults.) Emits the .psize' assembler directive. .HEADING STRING' Specify STRING as the title of your assembly listings. Emits .title "STRING"'. .PAGE' Force a new page in assembly listings. Emits .eject'. File: gasp.info, Node: Other Commands, Next: Syntax Details, Prev: Listings, Up: Commands Miscellaneous commands ====================== .ALTERNATE' Use the alternate macro syntax henceforth in the assembly. *Note Alternate macro syntax: Alternate. .ORG' This command is recognized, but not yet implemented. GASP generates an error message for programs that use .ORG'. .RADIX S' GASP understands numbers in any of base two, eight, ten, or sixteen. You can encode the base explicitly in any numeric constant (*note String and numeric constants: Constants.). If you write numbers without an explicit indication of the base, the most recent .RADIX S' command determines how they are interpreted. S is a single letter, one of the following: .RADIX B' Base 2. .RADIX Q' Base 8. .RADIX D' Base 10. This is the original default radix. .RADIX H' Base 16. You may specify the argument S in lower case (any of bqdh') with the same effects. .EXPORT NAME' .GLOBAL NAME' Declare NAME global (emits .global NAME'). The two directives are synonymous. .PROGRAM' No effect: GASP accepts this directive, and silently ignores it. .END' Mark end of each preprocessor file. GASP issues a warning if it reaches end of file without seeing this command. .INCLUDE "STR"' Preprocess the file named by STR, as if its contents appeared where the .INCLUDE' directive does. GASP imposes a maximum limit of 30 stacked include files, as a sanity check. .ALIGN SIZE' Evaluate the absolute expression SIZE, and emit the assembly instruction .align SIZE' using the result. File: gasp.info, Node: Syntax Details, Next: Alternate, Prev: Other Commands, Up: Commands Details of the GASP syntax ========================== Since GASP is meant to work with assembly code, its statement syntax has no surprises for the assembly programmer. _Whitespace_ (blanks or tabs; _not_ newline) is partially significant, in that it delimits up to three fields in a line. The amount of whitespace does not matter; you may line up fields in separate lines if you wish, but GASP does not require that. The _first field_, an optional "label", must be flush left in a line (with no leading whitespace) if it appears at all. You may use a colon after the label if you wish; GASP neither requires the colon nor objects to it (but will not include it as part of the label name). The _second field_, which must appear after some whitespace, contains a GASP or assembly "directive". Any _further fields_ on a line are "arguments" to the directive; you can separate them from one another using either commas or whitespace. * Menu: * Markers:: * Constants:: * Symbols:: * Expressions:: * String Builtins:: File: gasp.info, Node: Markers, Next: Constants, Up: Syntax Details Special syntactic markers ------------------------- GASP recognizes a few special markers: to delimit comments, to continue a statement on the next line, to separate symbols from other characters, and to copy text to the output literally. (One other special marker, \@', works only within macro definitions; *note Defining your own directives: Macros..) The trailing part of any GASP source line may be a "comment". A comment begins with the first unquoted comment character (!' by default), or an escaped or doubled comment character (\!' or !!' by default), and extends to the end of a line. You can specify what comment character to use with the -c' option (*note Command Line Options: Invoking GASP.). The two kinds of comment markers lead to slightly different treatment: !' A single, un-escaped comment character generates an assembly comment in the GASP output. GASP evaluates any preprocessor variables (macro arguments, or variables defined with .ASSIGNA' or .ASSIGNC') present. For example, a macro that begins like this .MACRO SUM FROM=0, TO=9 ! \FROM \TO issues as the first line of output a comment that records the values you used to call the macro. \!' !!' Either an escaped comment character, or a double comment character, marks a GASP source comment. GASP does not copy such comments to the assembly output. To _continue a statement_ on the next line of the file, begin the second line with the character +'. Occasionally you may want to prevent GASP from preprocessing some particular bit of text. To _copy literally_ from the GASP source to its output, place \(' before the string to copy, and )' at the end. For example, write \(\!)' if you need the characters \!' in your assembly output. To _separate a preprocessor variable_ from text to appear immediately after its value, write a single quote (''). For example, .SDATA "\P'1"' writes a string built by concatenating the value of P' and the digit 1'. (You cannot achieve this by writing just \P1', since P1' is itself a valid name for a preprocessor variable.) File: gasp.info, Node: Constants, Next: Symbols, Prev: Markers, Up: Syntax Details String and numeric constants ---------------------------- There are two ways of writing "string constants" in GASP: as literal text, and by numeric byte value. Specify a string literal between double quotes ("STR"'). Specify an individual numeric byte value as an absolute expression between angle brackets ('. Directives that output strings allow you to specify any number of either kind of value, in whatever order is convenient, and concatenate the result. (Alternate syntax mode introduces a number of alternative string notations; *note Alternate macro syntax: Alternate..) You can write "numeric constants" either in a specific base, or in whatever base is currently selected (either 10, or selected by the most recent .RADIX'). To write a number in a _specific base_, use the pattern S'DDD': a base specifier character S, followed by a single quote followed by digits DDD. The base specifier character matches those you can specify with .RADIX': B' for base 2, Q' for base 8, D' for base 10, and H' for base 16. (You can write this character in lower case if you prefer.) File: gasp.info, Node: Symbols, Next: Expressions, Prev: Constants, Up: Syntax Details Symbols ------- GASP recognizes symbol names that start with any alphabetic character, _', or ', and continue with any of the same characters or with digits. Label names follow the same rules. File: gasp.info, Node: Expressions, Next: String Builtins, Prev: Symbols, Up: Syntax Details Arithmetic expressions in GASP ------------------------------ There are two kinds of expressions, depending on their result: "absolute" expressions, which resolve to a constant (that is, they do not involve any values unknown to GASP), and "relocatable" expressions, which must reduce to the form ADDSYM+CONST-SUBSYM where ADDSYM and SUBSYM are assembly symbols of unknown value, and CONST is a constant. Arithmetic for GASP expressions follows very similar rules to C. You can use parentheses to change precedence; otherwise, arithmetic primitives have decreasing precedence in the order of the following list. 1. Single-argument +' (identity), -' (arithmetic opposite), or ~' (bitwise negation). _The argument must be an absolute expression._ 2. *' (multiplication) and /' (division). _Both arguments must be absolute expressions._ 3. +' (addition) and -' (subtraction). _At least one argument must be absolute._ 4. &' (bitwise and). _Both arguments must be absolute._ 5. |' (bitwise or) and ~' (bitwise exclusive or; ^' in C). _Both arguments must be absolute._ File: gasp.info, Node: String Builtins, Prev: Expressions, Up: Syntax Details String primitives ----------------- You can use these primitives to manipulate strings (in the argument field of GASP statements): .LEN("STR")' Calculate the length of string "STR"', as an absolute expression. For example, .RES.B .LEN("sample")' reserves six bytes of memory. .INSTR("STRING", "SEG", IX)' Search for the first occurrence of SEG after position IX of STRING. For example, .INSTR("ABCDEFG", "CDE", 0)' evaluates to the absolute result 2'. The result is -1' if SEG does not occur in STRING after position IX. .SUBSTR("STRING",START,LEN)' The substring of STRING beginning at byte number START and extending for LEN bytes. File: gasp.info, Node: Alternate, Prev: Syntax Details, Up: Commands Alternate macro syntax ====================== If you specify -a' or --alternate' on the GASP command line, the preprocessor uses somewhat different syntax. This syntax is reminiscent of the syntax of Phar Lap macro assembler, but it is _not_ meant to be a full emulation of Phar Lap or similar assemblers. In particular, GASP does not support directives such as DB' and IRP', even in alternate syntax mode. In particular, -a' (or --alternate') elicits these differences: _Preprocessor directives_ You can use GASP preprocessor directives without a leading .' dot. For example, you can write SDATA' with the same effect as .SDATA'. _LOCAL_ One additional directive, LOCAL', is available. *Note Defining your own directives: Macros, for an explanation of how to use LOCAL'. _String delimiters_ You can write strings delimited in these other ways besides "STRING"': 'STRING'' You can delimit strings with single-quote charaters. ' You can delimit strings with matching angle brackets. _single-character string escape_ To include any single character literally in a string (even if the character would otherwise have some special meaning), you can prefix the character with !' (an exclamation mark). For example, you can write <4.3 !> 5.4!!>' to get the literal text 4.3 > 5.4!'. _Expression results as strings_ You can write `%EXPR' to evaluate the expression EXPR and use the result as a string. File: gasp.info, Node: GNU Free Documentation License, Next: Index, Prev: Commands, Up: Top GNU Free Documentation License ****************************** GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.1, March 2000 Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. 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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software. File: gasp.info, Node: Index, Prev: GNU Free Documentation License, Up: Top Index ***** * Menu: * ! default comment char: Invoking GASP. * +: Markers. * --alternate: Invoking GASP. * --commentchar 'CHAR': Invoking GASP. * --copysource: Invoking GASP. * --debug: Invoking GASP. * --help: Invoking GASP. * --mri: Invoking GASP. * --output OUTFILE: Invoking GASP. * --print: Invoking GASP. * --unreasonable: Invoking GASP. * --version: Invoking GASP. * -a: Invoking GASP. * -c 'CHAR': Invoking GASP. * -d: Invoking GASP. * -h: Invoking GASP. * -M: Invoking GASP. * -o OUTFILE: Invoking GASP. * -p: Invoking GASP. * -s: Invoking GASP. * -u: Invoking GASP. * -v: Invoking GASP. * .AELSE: Conditionals. * .AENDI: Conditionals. * .AENDR: Loops. * .AENDW: Loops. * .AIF "STRA" CMP "STRB": Conditionals. * .AIF EXPRA CMP EXPRB: Conditionals. * .ALIGN SIZE: Other Commands. * .ALTERNATE: Other Commands. * .AREPEAT AEXP: Loops. * .AWHILE EXPRA CMP EXPRB: Loops. * .AWHILE STRA CMP STRB: Loops. * .DATA EXPR, EXPR, ...: Initialized. * .DATA.B EXPR, EXPR, ...: Initialized. * .DATA.L EXPR, EXPR, ...: Initialized. * .DATA.W EXPR, EXPR, ...: Initialized. * .DATAB REPEAT, EXPR: Initialized. * .DATAB.B REPEAT, EXPR: Initialized. * .DATAB.L REPEAT, EXPR: Initialized. * .DATAB.W REPEAT, EXPR: Initialized. * .END: Other Commands. * .ENDM: Macros. * .EXITM: Macros. * .EXPORT NAME: Other Commands. * .FORM COL=COLS: Listings. * .FORM LIN=LN: Listings. * .FORM LIN=LN COL=COLS: Listings. * .GLOBAL NAME: Other Commands. * .HEADING STRING: Listings. * .INCLUDE "STR": Other Commands. * .INSTR("STRING", "SEG", IX): String Builtins. * .LEN("STR"): String Builtins. * .MACRO MACNAME: Macros. * .MACRO MACNAME MACARGS ...: Macros. * .ORG: Other Commands. * .PAGE: Listings. * .PRINT LIST: Listings. * .PRINT NOLIST: Listings. * .PROGRAM: Other Commands. * .RADIX S: Other Commands. * .RES COUNT: Uninitialized. * .RES.B COUNT: Uninitialized. * .RES.L COUNT: Uninitialized. * .RES.W COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SDATA "STR" ...: Initialized. * .SDATAB REPEAT, "STR" ...: Initialized. * .SDATAC "STR" ...: Initialized. * .SDATAZ "STR" ...: Initialized. * .SRES COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRES.B COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRES.L COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRES.W COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESC COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESC.B COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESC.L COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESC.W COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESZ COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESZ.B COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESZ.L COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SRESZ.W COUNT: Uninitialized. * .SUBSTR("STRING",START,LEN): String Builtins. * ; as comment char: Invoking GASP. * \@: Macros. * absolute expressions: Expressions. * argument fields: Syntax Details. * avoiding preprocessing: Markers. * bang, as comment: Invoking GASP. * breaking out of loops: Loops. * comment character, changing: Invoking GASP. * comments: Markers. * continuation character: Markers. * copying literally to output: Markers. * directive field: Syntax Details. * EQ: Conditionals. * exclamation mark, as comment: Invoking GASP. * fields of GASP source line: Syntax Details. * GE: Conditionals. * GT: Conditionals. * INFILE ...: Invoking GASP. * label field: Syntax Details. * LE: Conditionals. * literal copy to output: Markers. * LOCAL NAME [ , ... ]: Macros. * loops, breaking out of: Loops. * LT: Conditionals. * macros, count executed: Macros. * NAME .MACRO: Macros. * NAME .MACRO ( MACARGS ... ): Macros. * NE: Conditionals. * number of macros executed: Macros. * preprocessing, avoiding: Markers. * PVAR .ASSIGN EXPR: Variables. * PVAR .ASSIGNA AEXPR: Variables. * PVAR .ASSIGNC "STR": Variables. * PVAR .EQU EXPR: Variables. * PVAR .REG (REGISTER): Variables. * relocatable expressions: Expressions. * semicolon, as comment: Invoking GASP. * shriek, as comment: Invoking GASP. * symbol separator: Markers. * symbols, separating from text: Markers. * text, separating from symbols: Markers. * whitespace: Syntax Details. Tag Table: Node: Top643 Node: Overview1144 Node: Invoking GASP2810 Node: Commands6546 Node: Conditionals7247 Node: Loops9539 Node: Variables11064 Node: Macros13459 Node: Data17421 Node: Initialized17869 Node: Uninitialized20148 Node: Listings21159 Node: Other Commands22355 Node: Syntax Details24107 Node: Markers25243 Node: Constants27491 Node: Symbols28693 Node: Expressions28989 Node: String Builtins30221 Node: Alternate31002 Node: GNU Free Documentation License32620 Node: Index51038 End Tag Table