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The actual order form follows the descriptions of media contents.
Most of this file is excerpted from the January 1997 GNU's Bulletin.
Please send suggestions for improvements to or the postal
address at the end of the order form. Thank You.
FSF Order Form with Descriptions January, 1997
Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
59 Temple Place - Suite 330 Fax: (including Japan) +1-617-542-2652
Boston, MA 02111-1307 Electronic Mail: `'
USA World Wide Web:
There are some sections (e.g. ``Forthcoming GNUs'' and ``How to Get GNU
Software'') which are not in this Order Form file. If you wish to see them,
ask for the complete July, 1996 GNU's Bulletin.
Table of Contents
Donations Translate Into Free Software
Cygnus Matches Donations!
Free Software Redistributors Donate
Help from Free Software Companies
Major Changes in GNU Software and Documentation
The Deluxe Distribution
GNU Documentation
GNU Software
Program/Package Cross Reference
Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
What Do the Different Prices Mean?
Why Is There an Individual Price?
Is There a Maximum Price?
January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
Source Code CD-ROMs
January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs
July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs
CD-ROM Subscription Service
FSF T-shirt
Free Software Foundation Order Form
Donations Translate Into Free Software
If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you
may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember,
*donations translate into more free software!*
Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept
*any* currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.
If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations,
please arrange to: add the FSF to the list of organizations for your
employer's matching gifts program; and have your donation matched (note *Note
Cygnus Matches Donations!::). If you do not know, please ask your personnel
Circle amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your
donation to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330
Boston, MA 02111-1307
$500 $250 $100 $50 Other $_____ Other currency:_____
You can charge a donation to any of Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB,
MasterCard, Visa, or American Express. Charges may also be faxed to
Card type: __________________ Expiration Date: _____________
Account Number: _____________________________________________
Cardholder's Signature: _____________________________________
Name: _______________________________________________________
Street Address: _____________________________________________
City/State/Province: ________________________________________
Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: _______________________________
Telephone Number: ___________________________________________
Email Address: ______________________________________________
Cygnus Matches Donations!
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Solutions
will continue to contribute corporate funds to the FSF to accompany gifts by
its employees, and by its customers and their employees.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible
persons to Cygnus Solutions, which will add its gifts and forward the total
to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt
to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns).
To see if your employer is a Cygnus customer, or for more information,
please contact Cygnus:
Cygnus Solutions
1325 Chesapeake Terrace
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Telephone: +1 408 542 9600
+1 800 Cygnus1 (-294-6871)
Fax: +1 408 542 9700
Electronic-Mail: `'
FTP: `'
World Wide Web: `'
Free Software Redistributors Donate
In adddition to their conference donation, Red Hat Software has agreed to
donate $1.00 to the FSF for every copy of Red Hat Archives sold. They have
also added a GNU logo to the back of that CD with the words "Supports the
Free Software Foundation".
The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF"
to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know just how much of the
price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor.
The Sun Users Group Deutschland has made it even clearer: their CD says,
"Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF." We thank them for their
contribution to our efforts.
Kyoto Micro Computer of Japan regularly gives us 10% of their GNU-related
Mr. Hiroshi, Mr. Kojima, and the other authors of the `Linux Primer' in Japan
have donated money from the sales of their book.
Infomagic has continued to make sizeable donations to the FSF.
At the request of author Arnold Robbins, Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc.
continues to donate 3% of their profits from selling `Effective AWK
Programming'. We would also like to acknowledge the many SSC authors who
have donated their royalties and fees to the FSF.
In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free
software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to
raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors
have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.
You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee
redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by
donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).
The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this
of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give
to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must
compete to be the one who gives the most.
To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as,
"We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague
commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a
basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this
disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated
business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts
as profit.
Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development
they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than
others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program
contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project
<contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else
would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU
compiler or Mach contribute more; major new features & programs contribute
the most.
By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper
thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a
steady flow of resources for making more free software.
Help from Free Software Companies
When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how
much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money
to free software development or by writing free software improvements
themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this
factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to
contribute to its growth.
Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) regularly donates a part of its
income to the FSF to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing
them here is our way of thanking them. Wingnut has made a pledge to donate
10% of their income to the FSF, and has purchased several Deluxe Distribution
packages in Japan. Also see *Note Cygnus Matches Donations!::.
Wingnut Project
Software Research Associates, Inc.
1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 102, Japan
Phone: (+81-3)3234-2611
Fax: (+81-3)3942-5174
E-mail: `'
WWW: `'
Major Changes in GNU Software and Documentation
* Hurd Progress (Also *note What Is the Hurd::.)
We have made two test releases of the Hurd, and we will make another
(version 0.2) in this month. Stability is improving, and we have begun
modifying various user-level utilities to understand new Hurd filesystem
features (fileutils, shellutils, tar, etc.).
One way for people to help out is to compile and run as much third-party
free software as they can; in this way we can find bugs and deficiencies
with some rapidity. Volunteers with a PC are therefore eagerly sought
to get the new 0.2 release and compile their favorite Unix programs and
* GNU System Progress
Version 0.2 of the GNU system will be released in this month, to coincide
with the 0.2 release of the Hurd. This complete GNU system is available
by FTP. We are working with Ian Murdock to develop an excellent package
management system for GNU. This will make administering and upgrading
the system much easier. Because of features only the Hurd has, the GNU
package management system will be simpler and more featureful than
similar package systems for various GNU/Linux distributions.
* New Source Code CD! (See *Note January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs::)
We are releasing the January 1997 (Edition 9) Source Code CD-ROM this
month. Once again, it is a two disk set. It includes several new
programs: `gforth', `gpc', <Meta-HTML>, `stow', `units', VRweb, `wget',
`windows32api', and `xinfo'. On the CD-ROMs are full distributions of
X11R6.3, MIT Scheme, Emacs, GCC, and current versions of all other GNU
Software. *Note GNU Software::, for more about these packages.
* New Compiler Tools CD-ROM
We are releasing the January 1997 (Edition 4) Compiler Tools Binaries
CD. Support is included for several new operating systems.
The Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM contains executables of the GNU
compiler tools for some systems that don't normally come with a
compiler. This allows users of those systems to compile their own
software without having to buy a proprietary compiler.
We hope to include more systems with each update of this CD-ROM. If you
can help build binaries for new systems or have one to suggest, please
contact us at either address on the top menu. For more information, see
*Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.
* New/Updated Manuals since Last Bulletin (See *Note Documentation::)
Since the last bulletin, we have published new editions of: `Debugging
with GDB', for version 4.16 with a new color cover; `Texinfo' Manual,
edition 2.24; & the `GNU Emacs Manual', for version 19.33 with a new
color cover. `Using and Porting GNU CC' has been re-printed in a
lay-flat bound edition with a new color cover. A new Bison Manual with
a new color cover is planned.
* Give to GNU the United Way!
As a 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization, the FSF is eligible to receive
United Way funds. When donating to United Way, one can specify that all
or part of the donation be directed to the FSF. On the donor form,
check the "Specific Requests" box and include the sentence, "Send my
gift to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place, Suite 330,
Boston, MA 02111." We especially appreciate the donations from Microsoft
matching the United Way donations of their employees. Also see *Note
Donations Translate Into Free Software:: and *Note Cygnus Matches
* GNU Software Works on MS-DOS (Also *note GNU Software::.)
GNU Emacs 19 and many other GNU programs have been ported to MS-DOS for
i386/i486/Pentium machines. We ship binaries & sources on the *Note
Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.
* MULE Merge Almost Complete
MULE is the Multi-Lingual Emacs developed by Ken'ichi Handa at the
Electro-Technical Lab in Tsukuba, Japan. Handa has readied the code for
merging into Emacs and we expect to complete the merge soon.
* GCC (For current status on GCC and GNAT, *note GNU Software::.)
New front ends for GCC are being done for Pascal & Chill. Pascal,
`gpc', stagnated for some years, but should be released by the time you
read this. See `'.
GUILE is currently available as a test release. GNU's Ubiquitous
Intelligent Language for Extension is an SCM-based library that can make
any ordinary C program extensible. (For SCM info, see "JACAL" in *Note
GNU Software::.)
Also being developed are SCSH-compatible system call & Tk interfaces, a
module system, dynamic linking support, & a byte-code interpreter.
Support for Emacs Lisp & a more C-like language is coming.
* Texinfo (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)
Texinfo now provides macro facilities and supports multicolumn tables.
It comes with an `install-info' program that packages can use to update
the `dir' file automatically when they install their Info files.
* GNU Common Lisp (For current status, *note GNU Software::.)
Version 2.2.1 of GNU Common Lisp (GCL) was released in December '96. It
now includes a graphical interface to the Tk widget system. All
documentation is now Texinfo-based, with built-in regexp matching used
to access the documentation. A first pass at the Common Lisp condition
system is also included. Version 2.2.1 contains mainly updates to allow
GCL 2.2 to work correctly with current operating system levels, and to
fix bugs. Volunteers to help with the move to the ANSI standard are
most welcome; please contact `'.
* Experimental Electronic Cash
`' is an experimental
implementation of anonymous electronic cash which is to be released as
free software.
* HTML Professional and GPL
The recent development and release of HTML Professional was made under
the terms of the GNU GPL. In order to facilitate distribution, the GPL
text was re-encoded into this more recent version of HTML, and is now
distributed with HTML Pro. An online copy can be retrieved at
HTML Pro is an unofficial version of the HTML DTD. HTML Pro is
distributed for discussion by the `www-html' mailing list. It
composites all other known versions, and allows World Wide Web designers
to use recent experimental additions in a rational and structured manner.
It comes with a `.ced' file for GNU Emacs/psgml-mode and can be gotten at
Documentation is at
* Meta-HTML 5.01 Source Release
Version 5.01 of Universal Access Inc.'s <Meta-HTML> is now available.
<Meta-HTML> is a programming language specifically designed to work
within the environment of the World Wide Web. Although it is a genuine
programming language, suitable for large-scale symbolic manipulation,
<Meta-HTML> also provides the most commonly wanted Web functionality as
built-in primitives, so you don't have to write them. You can find out
more about the theory of implementation in this white paper
Web pages are authored using HTML and <Meta-HTML> statements freely
intermixed. When a page is requested by a browser, the page is passed
through the <Meta-HTML> engine, which dynamically processes any
<Meta-HTML> statements to produce a final HTML page which is delivered
to the browser.
The source distribution provides several different interpreter options:
a CGI engine which can be run by any Unix Web server; a full-featured
Web server (mhttpd) with the interpreter built in; a standalone
processor, much like Perl or Tcl; and an interactive debugger, with a
feel similar to GDB (mdb).
There is a user mailing list: `'. You can
subscribe on the Web at `', or by sending
mail to `'.
Pre-compiled distribution sets for some systems are available via the
<Meta-HTML> Web site at `'.
* VRweb Browser
VRweb, a browser for 3D models on the Web written in the Virtual Reality
Modeling Language (VRML), is now available under the GPL. VRweb works
in conjunction with Web browsers on Unix & Windows platforms.
VRweb is a joint project of IICM (home of Hyper-G), NCSA (home of
Mosaic), & the University of Minnesota (home of Gopher). The software
is freely available in binary & source. VRweb 1.2 for Unix has just
been released, VRweb 1.2 for Windows will follow in due course. You can
download VRweb from `'
and numerous mirror sites. Further information on VRweb can be found at
VRML is a non-proprietary, platform-independent file format for 3D
graphics on the Internet. Also see `', the
VRML Repository.
The Deluxe Distribution
The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package
that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only
sources. The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the source code and
includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed manuals, & reference cards.
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of
different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler, the GNU Debugger,
the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.
We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We
may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't
find a suitable machine here. However, we can only compile the programs that
already support your chosen machine/system - porting is a separate matter.
(To commission a port, see the GNU Service Directory; details in *Note Free
Software Support::.) Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe
Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for
a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.
We supply the software on a write-once CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with "Rock
Ridge" extensions), or on one of these tapes in Unix `tar' format: 1600 or
6250bpi 1/2in reel, Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge - QIC24, IBM RS/6000 1/4in
c.t. - QIC 150, Exabyte 8mm c.t., or DAT 4mm c.t. If your computer cannot
read any of these, please contact us to see if we can handle your format.
The manuals included are one each of `Bison', `Calc', `GAWK', `GCC', `GNU C
Library', `GDB', `Flex', `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference', `Programming in Emacs
Lisp: An Introduction', `Make', `Texinfo', & `Termcap' manuals; six copies of
the `GNU Emacs' manual; and ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc,
Flex, & GDB.
Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our
CD-ROMs that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some
systems. The CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.
The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These
sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free
software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the
*note Free Software Foundation Order Form::. and send it to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330
Boston, MA 02111-1307
Telephone: +1-617-542-5942
Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652
Electronic Mail:
World Wide Web:
GNU Documentation
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed
documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts,
describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of
command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which
yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online
hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals
comes with our software; here are the manuals that we publish as printed
books. See the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::., to order them.
Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with "lay-flat" bindings.
This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the
binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that
will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the
`Using and Porting GNU CC', `GDB', `Emacs', `Emacs Lisp Reference',
`Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction', `GNU Awk User's Guide', `Make',
& `Bison' manuals have this binding. Our other manuals also lie flat when
opened, using a GBC binding. Our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in
by 11in `Calc' manual.
The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed
after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.
`Debugging with GDB' (for Version 4.16) tells how to run your program under
GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of
control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The `GNU Emacs Manual' (12th Edition for Version 19.33) describes editing with
GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including outline mode and regular
expression search; how to use special programming modes to write languages
like C++ and TeX; how to use the `tags' utility; how to compile and correct
code; how to make your own keybindings; and other elementary customizations.
`Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction' (October 1995 Edition 1.04) is
for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want
to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs
under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.
`The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual' (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) and
`The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition' (Japanese Draft Revision
1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) cover this programming
language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions,
macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte
compilation, and the operating system interface.
`The GNU Awk User's Guide' (Edition 1.0 for Version 3.0) tells how to use
`gawk'. It is written for those who have never used `awk' and describes
features of this powerful string and record manipulation language. It
clearly delineates those features which are part of POSIX `awk' from `gawk'
extensions, providing a comprehensive guide to `awk' program portability.
`GNU Make' (Edition 0.50 for Version 3.75 Beta) describes GNU `make', a
program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to
write "makefiles", which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its
files depend on each other. Included are an introductory chapter for novice
users and a section about automatically generated dependencies.
The `Flex' manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to write a
lexical scanner definition for the `flex' program to create a C++ or C-coded
scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need no prior knowledge of
`The Bison Manual' (November 1995 Edition for Version 1.25) teaches you how
to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into
C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.
`Using and Porting GNU CC' (November 1995 Edition for Version 2.7.2) tells
how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists
new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C
will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also
covers G++.
The `Texinfo' manual (Edition 2.24 for Version 3) explains the markup
language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies.
It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, accented & special
characters, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes.
`The Termcap Manual' (3rd Edition for Version 1.3), often described as "twice
as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the
termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process
of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for
The `C Library Reference Manual' (Edition 0.08 for Version 2.0) describes the
library's facilities, including both what Unix calls "library functions" &
"system calls." We are doing small copier runs of this manual until it
becomes more stable. Please send fixes to `'.
The `Emacs Calc Manual' (for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference
manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra,
calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.
GNU Software
All our software is available via FTP; see *Note How to Get GNU Software::.
We also offer *Note CD-ROMs::, and printed *Note Documentation::, which
includes manuals and reference cards. In the articles describing the
contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name
was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a newer CD-ROM,
some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher.
See the *note Free Software Foundation Order Form::., for ordering
Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed. We have
software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to patent troubles
with `compress', we use another compression program, `gzip'. (Such
prohibitions on software development are fought by the League for Programming
Freedom; *note What Is the LPF::., for details.)
You may need to build GNU `make' before you build our other software. Some
vendors supply no `make' utility at all and some native `make' programs lack
the `VPATH' feature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full
extent. The GNU `make' sources have a shell script to build `make' itself on
such systems.
We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate
electronic mailing list (*note Free Software Support::.).
Configuring GNU Software
We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages
in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below, in this
article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives
for naming machine and system types.
Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all
at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately.
You can also specify both the host and target system to build
cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated
configure scripts.
GNU Software Now Available
For future programs and features, see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.
Key to cross reference:
BinCD January 1997 Binaries CD-ROM
SrcCD January 1997 Source CD-ROMs
[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell
a reference card for that package. To order them, see the *note Free
Software Foundation Order Form::. *Note Documentation::, for more
information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is
included with each package.
* `acm' (SrcCD)
`acm' is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer, aerial combat simulation that runs
under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat against
one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. We are working on
a more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics.
* Apache *Also see* `' (SrcCD)
Apache is an HTTP server designed as a successor to the NCSA family of
web servers. It adds a significant amount of new functionality, has an
extensive API for modular enhancements, is extremely flexible without
compromising speed, and has an active development group and user
* Autoconf (SrcCD)
Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code
packages. These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like
systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a script for
a package from a template file which lists the operating system features
which the package can use, in the form of `m4' macro calls. Autoconf
requires GNU `m4' to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it
generates do not.
* Automake (SrcCD)
Automake is a tool for generating `'s for use with Autoconf.
The generated makefiles are compliant with GNU Makefile standards.
* BASH (SrcCD)
GNU's shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the Unix `sh'
and offers many extensions found in `csh' and `ksh'. BASH has job
control, `csh'-style command history, command-line editing (with Emacs
and `vi' modes built-in), and the ability to rebind keys via the
`readline' library. BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard.
* `bc' (SrcCD)
`bc' is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision
numbers. GNU `bc' follows the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard with several
extensions, including multi-character variable names, an `else'
statement, and full Boolean expressions. The RPN calculator `dc' is now
distributed as part of the same package, but GNU `bc' is not implemented
as a `dc' preprocessor.
* BFD (BinCD, SrcCD)
The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which operates on
object files (e.g., `ld' or GDB) to support many different formats in a
clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to
know the details of a particular format. One result is that all
programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF.
BFD comes with Texinfo source for a manual (not yet published on paper).
At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with
packages that use it.
* Binutils (BinCD, SrcCD)
Binutils includes these programs: `ar', `c++filt', `demangle', `gas',
`gprof', `ld', `nlmconv', `nm', `objcopy', `objdump', `ranlib', `size',
`strings', & `strip'.
Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library. The GNU assembler, `gas',
supports the a29k, Alpha, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, m68k, m88k,
MIPS, NS32K, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax, and Z8000 CPUs, and attempts to be
compatible with many other assemblers for Unix and embedded systems. It
can produce mixed C and assembly listings, and includes a macro facility
similar to that in some other assemblers. GNU's linker, `ld', emits
source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and
undefined references, and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command
Language, which gives control over where segments are placed in memory.
`nlmconv' converts object files into Novell NetWare Loadable Modules.
`objdump' can disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above, and
can display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from any file
format read by BFD.
* Bison *See *Note Documentation::* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
`yacc'. Texinfo source for the `Bison Manual' and reference card are
* C Library *See *Note Forthcoming GNUs::* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]
The GNU C library supports ISO C-1989, ISO C/amendment 1-1995, POSIX
1003.1-1990, POSIX 1003.1b-1993, POSIX 1003.1c-1995 (when the underlying
system permits), & most of the functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992. It is
nearly compliant with the extended XPG4.2 specification which guarantees
upward compatibility with 4.4BSD & many System V functions.
When used with the GNU Hurd, the C Library performs many functions of the
Unix system calls directly. Mike Haertel has written a fast `malloc'
which wastes less memory than the old GNU version.
GNU `stdio' lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few
C functions. Two methods for handling translated messages help writing
internationalized programs & the user can adopt the environment the
program runs in to conform with local conventions. Extended `getopt'
functions are already used to parse options, including long options, in
many GNU utilities. The name lookup functions now are modularized which
makes it easier to select the service which is needed for the specific
database & the document interface makes it easy to add new services.
Texinfo source for the `GNU C Library Reference Manual' is included
(*note Documentation::.).
Previous versions of the GNU C library ran on a large number of systems.
The architecture-dependent parts of the C library have not been updated
since development on version 2.0 started, so today it runs out of the
box only on GNU/Hurd (all platforms GNU/Hurd also runs on) & GNU/Linux
(ix86, Alpha, m68k, work is in progress for MIPS & Sparc). Other
architectures will become available again as soon as somebody does the
* C++ Library (BinCD, SrcCD)
The GNU C++ library (libg++) contains an extensive collection of
container and utility classes, including Obstacks, multiple-precision
Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers, BitSets, and BitStrings.
The distribution also includes the libstdc++ library. This implements
library facilities defined by the forthcoming ANSI/ISO C++ standard,
including strings, the iostream library, and a port of the Standard
Template Library.
* Calc (SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. You
can use Calc as a simple four-function calculator, but it has many more
features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry;
logarithmic, trigonometric, & financial functions; arbitrary precision;
complex numbers; vectors; matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets;
algebraic simplification; & differentiation & integration. It outputs to
`gnuplot', & comes with source for a manual & reference card (*note
* `cfengine' (SrcCD)
`cfengine' is used to maintain site-wide configuration of a
heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language. Its
appearance is similar to `rdist', but allows many more operations to be
performed automatically. See Mark Burgess, "A Site Configuration
Engine", `Computing Systems', Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask `' how
to get a copy).
* Chess (SrcCD)
GNU Chess lets most modern computers play a full game of chess. It has
a plain terminal interface, a curses interface, & the unique X Windows
interface `xboard'. Best results are obtained using GNU C to compile
GNU Chess.
Recent improvements include "configure"-capability, correct thinking on
opponent's time, makefile for Windows NT, full Windows 95/NT
compatibility, parallel Unix & Windows 95/NT versions, major crash bug
fix & various other minor improvements & bug fixes.
Stuart Cracraft founded GNU Chess & is the project lead for the 10+ year
history of GNU Chess. Acknowledgements for this past year's work
include Chua Kong Sian, National Supercomputing Research Center,
Singapore; & Conor McCarthy, Biomolecular/Biomed Science at Griffith
University, Australia.
Send bugs to `' & general comments to
`'. Visit the author's website at
`'. Play GNU Chess on the web at
CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible & Michael Stoll.
It mostly supports the Lisp described by `Common LISP: The Language (2nd
edition)' & the ANSI Common Lisp standard. CLISP includes an
interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS & a foreign language
interface. The user interface language (English, German, French) can be
chosen at run time. An X11 API is available through CLX & Garnet.
CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory & runs on many microcomputers (including
MS-DOS systems, OS/2, Windows NT, Windows 95, Amiga 500-4000, & Acorn
RISC PC) & all kinds of Unix systems.
* Common Lisp *Also *note GNUs Flashes::.* (SrcCD)
GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a compiler
& interpreter for Common Lisp. GCL is very portable & extremely
efficient on a wide class of applications, & compares favorably in
performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem-prover &
symbolic algebra systems. GCL supports the CLtL1 specification but is
moving towards the proposed ANSI standard.
GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler (e.g.,
GCC). A function with a fixed number of args & one value turns into a C
function of the same number of args, returning one value--so GCL is
maximally efficient on such calls. Its conservative garbage collector
gives great freedom to the C compiler to put Lisp values in registers.
It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code & displays
source code in an Emacs window. Its profiler (based on the C profiling
tools) counts function calls & the time spent in each function.
There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system. It runs in a
separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lisp computations or
interact with running computations via a windowing interface.
There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). CLX runs with GCL, as
does PCL (see "PCL" later in this article).
GCL version 2.2.1 is released under the GNU Library General Public
* CLX (SrcCD)
CLX is an X Window interface library for GCL. This is separate from the
built-in TK interface.
* `cpio' (SrcCD)
`cpio' is an archive program with all the features of SVR4 `cpio',
including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' standard. `mt', a
program to position magnetic tapes, is included with `cpio'.
* CVS (SrcCD)
CVS is a version control system (like RCS or SCCS) which allows you to
keep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a log of who,
when, and why changes occurred, etc. It handles multiple developers,
multiple directories, triggers to enable/log/control various operations,
and can work over a wide area network. It does not handle build
management or bug-tracking; these are handled by `make' and GNATS,
* DejaGnu (SrcCD)
DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end for all
tests. DejaGnu's flexibility & consistency makes it easy to write tests.
DejaGnu will also work with remote hosts and embedded systems.
DejaGnu comes with `expect', which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with
* Diffutils (SrcCD)
GNU `diff' compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
flexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. The
Diffutils package has `diff', `diff3', `sdiff', & `cmp'. Future plans
include support for internationalization (e.g., error messages in
Chinese) & some non-Unix PC environments, & a library interface that can
be used by other free software.
* DJGPP *Also see "GCC" in this article* (BinCD)
DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ to i386s running DOS. DJGPP has a 32-bit
i386 DOS extender with a symbolic debugger, development libraries, &
ports of Bison, `flex', & Binutils. Full source code is provided. It
needs at least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512K of RAM to use.
It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation,
`himem.sys', VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), & DPMI (e.g.,
Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI). Version 2 was released in Feb. 1996,
& needs a DPMI environment; a free DPMI server is included.
FTP from `' in `/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/' (or a SimTel
mirror site).
Ask `', to join a DJGPP users mailing list.
* `dld' (SrcCD)
`dld' is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program
with the `dld' library allows you to dynamically load object files into
the running binary. `dld' supports a.out object types on the following
platforms: Convex C-Series (BSD), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Linux), Sequent
Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), Sun-3 (SunOS 3 & 4), Sun-4 (SunOS 4), & VAX
* `doschk' (SrcCD)
This program is a utility to help software developers ensure that their
source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with
14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3 character
* `ed' (SrcCD)
`ed' is the standard text editor. It is line-oriented and can be used
interactively or in scripts.
* Elib (SrcCD)
Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines for
using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.
* Elisp archive (SrcCD)
This is a snapshot of Ohio State's GNU Emacs Lisp FTP Archive. FTP it
from `' in `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive'.
* Emacs *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* [FSFman(s), FSFrc]
In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,
customizable real-time display editor & computing environment. GNU Emacs
is his second implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated
into the editor--for writing extensions & provides an interface to the X
Window System. It runs on Unix, MS-DOS, & Windows NT or 95. In
addition to its powerful native command set, Emacs can emulate the
editors vi & EDT (DEC's VMS editor). Emacs has many other features which
make it a full computing support environment. Source for the `GNU Emacs
Manual' & a reference card comes with the software. Sources for the
`GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual', & `Programming in Emacs Lisp: An
Introduction' are distributed in separate packages. *Note
* Emacs 19 (SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc]
Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window System
(with or without an X toolkit). Features new to Emacs 19 include:
multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with a separate X window for the
minibuffer or a minibuffer attached to each X window; use of the X
toolkit; interfacing with the X resource manager; property lists
associated with regions of text in a buffer; multiple fonts & colors
defined by those properties; simplified/improved processing of function
keys, mouse movement & clicks; X selection processing, including
clipboard selections; hooks to be run if the point or mouse moves
outside a certain range; menu bars & popup menus defined by keymaps;
scrollbars; before- & after-change hooks; a source-level debugger for
Emacs Lisp programs; floating point numbers; improved buffer allocation,
including returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed; many
updated libraries; Autoconf-based configuration; support for version
control systems (CVS, RCS, & SCCS); & European character sets.
Features added recently to Emacs 19 include the ability to open frames
on more than one X display from a single Emacs job, operation under
MS-DOS, MS Windows, and Windows NT, displaying multiple views of an
outline at the same time, Lisp-level timers for real time and idle time,
version control support for CVS and for multiple branches, text
properties for formatting text, commands to edit text properties and
save them in files, and GNU-standard long-named command line options.
Also see *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.
Emacs 19 works on: Acorn RISC (RISCiX); Alliant FX/2800 (BSD); Alpha
(OSF/1 or GNU/Linux); Apollo (DomainOS); Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SysV.3) &
sps7 (SysV.2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx (SysV); Data General
Aviion (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2, OSF/1, not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV);
Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD); Harris Night Hawk 1200, 3000,
4000 & 5000 (cxux); Harris Night Hawk Power PC (powerunix); Honeywell
XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD;
HP-UX 7, 8, 9; NextStep); Intel i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux,
386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, ISC, MS-DOS, NetBSD, SCO3.2v4,
Solaris, SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT, Windows95); IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.2) &
RT/PC (AIX, BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4, m88kbcs);
National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD, Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0);
Paragon (OSF/1); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent Symmetry (BSD,
ptx); Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV); SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony
News/RISC (NewsOS); Stardent i860 (SysV); Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10,
Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0-2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix
XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300 (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV).
* Emacs 18 (SrcCD) [FSFrc]
Emacs 18 is several years old. We no longer maintain it, but still
distribute it for those using platforms which Emacs 19 does not support:
Alliant FX/80, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), AT&T (3Bs & 7300 PC), CCI 5/32
& 6/32, Celerity, DEC (VAX VMS), Dual, Encore (APC, DPC, & XPC), HLH
Orion (original & 1/05), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Masscomp, NCR Tower 32
(SVR2 & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime
EXL, Stride (system rel. 2), Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix 16000,
Triton 88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1), & Wicat.
* `es' (SrcCD)
`es' is an extensible shell (based on `rc') with first-class functions,
lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e., functions can
return values other than just numbers). `es''s extensibility comes from
the ability to modify and extend the shell's built-in services, such as
path searching and redirection. Like `rc', it is great for both
interactive use and scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are
much less baroque than the C and Bourne shells.
* `enscript' (SrcCD)
`enscript' is an upwardly-compatible replacement for the Adobe
`enscript' program. It formats ASCII files (outputting in Postscript)
and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the
* Exim (SrcCD)
Exim is a new Internet mail transfer agent, similar in style to Smail 3.
It can handle relatively high volume mail systems, header rewriting,
control over which hosts/nets may use it as a relay, blocking of
unwanted mail from specified hosts/nets/senders, and multiple local
domains on one mail host ("virtual domains") with several options for
the way these are handled.
* `f2c' *Also see "Fortran" below & in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::*
`f2c' converts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be compiled
with GCC or G++. Get bug fixes by FTP from site `'
or by email from `'. For a summary, see the
file `/netlib/f2c/readme.Z'.
* `ffcall' (SrcCD)
`ffcall' is a C library for implementing foreign function calls in
embedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible. It allows C
functions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be called or
emulated (callbacks).
* Fileutils (SrcCD)
The Fileutils are: `chgrp', `chmod', `chown', `cp', `dd', `df', `dir',
`dircolors', `du', `install', `ln', `ls', `mkdir', `mkfifo', `mknod',
`mv', `rm', `rmdir', `sync', `touch', & `vdir'.
* Findutils (SrcCD)
`find' is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to
find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations
on them. Also included are `locate', which scans a database for file
names that match a pattern, and `xargs', which applies a command to a
list of files.
* Finger (SrcCD)
GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs. For sites with
many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger "server" host
and other hosts at that site configured as finger "clients". The server
host collects information about who is logged in on the clients. To
finger a user at a GNU Finger site, a query to any of its client hosts
gets useful information. GNU Finger supports many customization
features, including user output filters and site-programmable output for
special target names.
* `flex' (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
`flex' is a replacement for the `lex' scanner generator. `flex' was
written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates
far more efficient scanners than `lex' does. Sources for the `Flex
Manual' and reference card are included (*note Documentation::.).
* Fortran (`g77') *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD)
GNU Fortran (`g77'), developed by Craig Burley, is available for public
beta testing on the Internet. For now, `g77' produces code that is
mostly object-compatible with `f2c' & uses the same run-time library
* Fontutils (SrcCD)
The Fontutils convert between font formats, create fonts for use with
Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scanned type image & converting the
bitmaps to outlines), etc. It includes: `bpltobzr', `bzrto',
`charspace', `fontconvert', `gsrenderfont', `imageto', `imgrotate',
`limn', & `xbfe'.
* GAWK (SrcCD) [FSFman]
GAWK is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of
`awk'. It also provides several useful extensions not found in other
`awk' implementations. Texinfo source for the `The GNU Awk User's
Guide' comes with the software (*note Documentation::.).
* `gcal' (SrcCD)
`gcal' is a program for printing calendars. It displays different
styled calendar sheets, eternal holiday lists, and fixed date warning
* GCC *Also *note GNUs Flashes::.* (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]
Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports the languages C, C++, and
Objective-C; the source file name suffix or a compiler option selects
the language. (Also see "GNAT" later in this article for Ada language
supports.) Objective-C support was donated by NeXT. The runtime support
needed to run Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC (this
does not include any Objective-C classes aside from `object', but see
"GNUstep" in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::). As much as possible, G++ is
kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI standard, but not with
`cfront' (AT&T's compiler), which has been diverging from ANSI.
GCC is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs many
optimizations. They include: automatic register allocation, common
sub-expression elimination (CSE) (including a certain amount of CSE
between basic blocks - though not all the supported machine descriptions
provide for scheduling or delay slots), invariant code motion from
loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation, copy
propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursion
elimination, integration of inline functions & frame pointer elimination,
instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf
function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, the
ability to assign attributes to instructions, & many local optimizations
automatically deduced from the machine description.
GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type `long long
int'). It supports extended floating point (type `long double') on the
68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional
C, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal
gotos, & taking the address of a label).
GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with a
suitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in these
formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF.
GCC generates code for many CPUs, including the a29k, Alpha, ARM, AT&T,
DSP1610, Clipper, Convex cN, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, i370, i860, i960,
MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS/6000, SH, SPUR,
Tahoe, VAX, & we32k.
Position-independent code is generated for the Clipper, Hitachi H8/300,
HP-PA (1.0 & 1.1), i386/i486/Pentium, m68k, m88k, SPARC, & SPARClite.
Operating systems supported include: GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, ACIS, AIX, AOS,
BSD, Clix, Concentrix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, FreeBSD, Genix, HP-UX, Irix,
ISC, Luna, LynxOS, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS, NeXTStep, OS/2, OSF, OSF-Rose,
RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, System/370, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS, &
Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as
easy as building a native compiler.
Version 1 of GCC, G++, & libg++ are no longer maintained.
Texinfo source for the `Using and Porting GNU CC' manual is included
with GCC (*note Documentation::.).
* GDB (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C, C++, & Fortran.
It provides partial support for Modula-2 & Chill.
GDB can debug both C & C++, & will work with executables made by many
different compilers; but, C++ debugging will have some limitations if
you do not use GCC.
GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has GDB mode as an
interface. Two X interfaces (not distributed or maintained by the FSF)
are: `gdbtk' (FTP it from `' in directory `/pub/gdb'); and
`xxgdb' (FTP it from `' in directory `/contrib/utilities').
Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, which
allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file
formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF). Other features include a rich command
language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints
(breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes).
GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which (so
far) has simulators for the ARM, Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi H8/500, Hitachi
Super-H, PowerPC, WDC 65816, & Zilog Z8001/2.
GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB "targets" a platform
means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB
can "host" a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot
necessarily debug native programs.
GDB can:
* "target" & "host": Amiga 3000 (Amix, NetBSD), DEC Alpha (OSF/1),
DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX), HP
9000/700 (HP-UX 9, 10), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux,
BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO, Windows NT), IBM RS/6000 (AIX
3.x, AIX 4.x, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V, CX/UX), PC532
(NetBSD), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR 3000 (SVR4), PowerPC
(AIX 4.x, MacOS, Windows NT), SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5), SONY News
(NewsOS 3.x), SPARC (LynxOS, NetBSD, Solaris 2.x, & SunOS 4.1 )
Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), & Ultracomputer (a29k running Sym1).
* "target", but not "host": AMD 29000 (COFF & a.out), ARM (RDP),
Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH (CMON, SH3, E7000), HP PA Pro (Winbond,
Oki), i386 (a.out, COFF, OS/9000), i960 (MON960, Nindy, VxWorks),
m68k/m68332 (a.out, COFF, CPU32BUG, EST, ROM68K, VxWorks), MIPS
(ELF, IDT ecoff, PMON, VxWorks), PowerPC (PPCBug), Matra Sparclet,
Fujitsu SPARClite (a.out, COFF), WDC 65816, & Z8000.
* "host", but not "target": IBM RT/PC (AIX), HP/Apollo 68k (BSD), &
m68k Apple Macintosh (MacOS). Sources for the manual,
`Debugging with GDB', and a reference card are included (*note
* `gdbm' (SrcCD)
`gdbm' is the GNU replacement for the traditional `dbm' and `ndbm'
libraries. It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing.
`gdbm' does not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its Unix and BSD
* `gettext' *Also *note Help the GNU Translation Project::.* (SrcCD)
The GNU `gettext' tool set has everything maintainers need to
internationalize a package's user messages. Once a package has been
internationalized, `gettext''s many tools help translators localize
messages to their native language and automate handling the translation
* Generic NQS (SrcCD)
Generic NQS is a network queuing system for spreading batch jobs across a
network of machines. It is designed to be simple to install on a
heterogeneous network of machines, and has optimizations for running on
the high end, symmetric multiprocessing servers that are currently on the
market. It is available for many more UNIX variants than any other
comparable product, and inter-operates with other NQS systems, including
Cray's NQE.
* `geomview' *See* `' (SrcCD)
`geomview' is an interactive geometry viewing program, for UNIX systems
with Motif, using X, GL, or OpenGL graphics. It allows multiple
independently controllable objects and cameras. `geomview' provides
interactive control for motion, appearances (including lighting,
shading, and materials), picking on an object, edge or vertex level, and
snapshots in PPM or SGI image files, Postscript, and Renderman RIB
format. `geomview' can be controlled through direct mouse manipulation,
control panels, and keyboard shortcuts. External programs can also
drive desired aspects of the viewer (such as continually loading
changing geometry or controlling the motion of certain objects) while
allowing interactive control of everything else.
* `gforth' (SrcCD)
`gforth' is a fast, portable implementation of the ANS Forth language.
* Ghostscript (SrcCD)
Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript and PDF graphics
The current version of GNU Ghostscript, 3.33, includes nearly a full
Postscript Level 2 interpreter and a PDF 1.0 interpreter. Significant
new features include: support for anti-aliased characters; the ability
to scan a directory and register all the fonts in it; support for Type 0
(Japanese / Chinese / Korean) fonts; and the ability to compile all the
external initialization files into the executable. This version can
also run as a 32-bit MS Windows application.
Thanks to the generosity of URW++ (Hamburg, Germany), the low-quality
bitmap-derived fonts distributed with older versions have been replaced
with commercial-quality, hinted outline fonts.
Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript language by writing
directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files for
printing later or manipulating with other graphics programs.
Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs
that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also supports
i386/i486/Pentiums running DOS with EGA, VGA or SuperVGA graphics (but
please do *not* ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not
use DOS).
* Ghostview (SrcCD)
Tim Theisen, `', created Ghostview, a previewer for
multi-page files with an X Window interface. Ghostview & Ghostscript
work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscript draws in
* GIT (SrcCD)
The GNU Interactive Tools package includes: an extensible file system
browser, an ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer, & other
related utilities & shell scripts. It can be used to increase the speed
& efficiency of many daily tasks, such as copying & moving files &
directories, invoking editors, compressing/uncompressing files, creating
& expanding archives, compiling programs, sending mail, etc. It looks
nice, has colors (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), &
is user-friendly.
* `gmp' (SrcCD)
GNU `mp' is a library for arithmetic on arbitrary precision integers,
rational numbers, and floating-point numbers. It has a rich set of
functions with a regular interface.
A major new release, version 2, came out in Spring '96. Compared to
previous versions, it is much faster, contains lots of new functions, &
has support for arbitrary precision floating-point numbers.
* Gnans (SrcCD)
Gnans is a program (and language) for the numerical study of
deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. The dynamical systems
may evolve in continuous or discrete time. Gnans has graphical &
command line interfaces.
* GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator (SrcCD)
GNAT, a front end for the entire Ada 95 language, including all special
needs annexes, is available via anonymous FTP from `' and
various mirror sites in `/pub/gnat'. SGI, DEC, and Siemens Nixdorf have
chosen GNU Ada 95 as the Ada compiler for their systems. GNAT is
maintained by Ada Core Technologies. For more information, see
GNATS, GNats: A Tracking System, is a bug-tracking system. It is based
upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives
problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail.
Although it has been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so
far, it is sufficiently generalized that it could be used for handling
system administration issues, project management, or any number of other
* GNUMATH (`gnussl') (SrcCD)
GNUMATH is a library (`gnussl') that simplifies scientific programming
in C & C++. Its focus is on problems that can be solved by a
straight-forward application of numerical linear algebra. It also
handles plotting. It is in beta release; it is expected to grow more
versatile & offer a wider scope in time.
* `gnuplot' (SrcCD)
`gnuplot' is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
expressions and data. It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3
dimensions). It was neither written nor named for the GNU Project; the
name is a coincidence. Various GNU programs use `gnuplot'.
* `gnuserv' (SrcCD)
`gnuserv' is an enhanced version of Emacs' `emacsclient' program. It
lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files or evaluate arbitrary
Emacs Lisp constructs from another process.
* GnuGo (SrcCD)
GnuGo plays the game of Go. It is not yet very sophisticated.
* `gperf' (SrcCD)
`gperf' generates perfect hash tables. The C version is in package
cperf. The C++ version is in libg++. Both produce hash functions in
either C or C++.
* Graphics (SrcCD)
GNU Graphics produces x-y plots from ASCII or binary data. It outputs
in Postscript, Tektronix 4010 compatible, and Unix device-independent
"plot" formats. It has a previewer for the X Window System. Features
include a `spline' interpolation program; examples of shell scripts
using `graph' and `plot'; a statistics toolkit; and output in TekniCAD
TDA and ln03 file formats. Email bugs or queries to Rich Murphey,
* grep (SrcCD)
This package has GNU `grep', `egrep', and `fgrep', which find lines that
match entered patterns. They are much faster than the traditional Unix
* Groff (SrcCD)
Groff is a document formatting system based on a device-independent
version of `troff', & includes: `eqn', `nroff', `pic', `refer', `tbl',
`troff'; the `man', `ms', & `mm' macros; & drivers for Postscript, TeX
`dvi' format, the LaserJet 4 series of printers, and typewriter-like
devices. Groff's `mm' macro package is almost compatible with the DWB
`mm' macros with several extensions. Also included is a modified
version of the Berkeley `me' macros and an enhanced version of the X11
`xditview' previewer. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled
with GNU C++ Version 2.7.2 or later.
Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most needed are
complete Texinfo documentation, a `grap' emulation (a `pic' preprocessor
for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to `pm'
(see `Computing Systems', Vol. 2, No. 2; ask `' how to
get a copy), and an ASCII output class for `pic' to integrate `pic' with
Texinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read the
documentation provided with Groff can be sent to
* `gzip' (SrcCD)
`gzip' can expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented
algorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It
also expands files compressed with System V's `pack' program.
* `hello' (SrcCD)
The GNU `hello' program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It
allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would
otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU
General Public License, users are free to share and change it. `hello'
is also a good example of a program that meets the GNU coding standards.
Like any truly useful program, `hello' contains a built-in mail reader.
* `hp2xx' (SrcCD)
GNU `hp2xx' reads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into
elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster
output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported
vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont,
various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing
only) for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, &
HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11
(Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).
* HylaFAX *Also see* `' (SrcCD)
HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix systems. It
supports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of facsimile, as well as
transparent shared data use of the modem.
* Hyperbole (SrcCD)
Hyperbole, written by Bob Weiner in Emacs Lisp, is an open, efficient,
programmable information management, autonumbered outliner, & hypertext
system, intended for everyday work on any platform Emacs runs on.
* ID Utils (SrcCD)
ID Utils is a package of simple, fast, high-capacity,
language-independent tools that index program identifiers, literal
numbers, or words of human-readable text. Queries can be issued from
the command-line, or from within Emacs, serving as an augmented tags
* `indent' (SrcCD)
GNU `indent' formats C source code into the GNU, BSD, K&R, or your own
special indentation style. GNU `indent' is more robust & provides more
functionality than other such programs, including handling C++ comments.
It runs on Unix, DOS, VMS and ATARI systems.
The next version will also format C++ source code. A Java version may
be considered in the future.
* Inetutils (SrcCD)
Inetutils has common networking utilities & servers.
This release is mainly support the GNU Hurd, which is source compatible
with BSD in many ways, & will probably only work on systems that are
similarly compatible.
* Ispell (SrcCD)
Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" to
replace unrecognized words. System & user-maintained dictionaries for
multiple languages can be used. Standalone & Emacs interfaces are
* JACAL *Not available from the FSF except by FTP*
JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation &
simplification of algebraic equations & expressions. It is written in
Scheme using the SLIB portable Scheme Library. JACAL comes with SCM, an
IEEE P1178 & R4RS compliant Scheme implementation written in C. SCM runs
on Amiga, Atari-ST, MacOS, MS-DOS, OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS, Unix, &
similar systems.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media. You can FTP it
or get it from the Web site below. Documentation is at
* Karma (SrcCD)
Karma is a signal and image processing library and visualization toolkit
that provides interprocess communications, authentication, graphics
display, and user interface to and manipulation of the Karma network
data structure. Several foreign data formats are also supported. Karma
comes packaged with a number of generic visualization tools and some
astronomy-specific tools.
* `less' (SrcCD)
`less' is a display paginator similar to `more' and `pg', but with
various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most
pagers lack.
* Lynx *Also see* `' (SrcCD)
Lynx is a text-only World Wide Web browser for those running
character-only ("cursor-addressable") terminals or terminal emulators.
* `m4' (SrcCD)
GNU `m4' is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor.
It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g.,
handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros). `m4' also has
built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing
arithmetic, etc.
* `make' (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]
GNU `make' supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features
of the BSD and System V versions of `make', and runs on MS-DOS,
AmigaDOS, VMS, & Windows NT or 95, as well as all Unix-compatible
systems. GNU extensions include long options, parallel compilation,
flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, & powerful text
manipulation functions. Source for the `Make Manual' comes with the
program (*note Documentation::.).
* MandelSpawn (SrcCD)
A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.
* Maxima (SrcCD)
Maxima is a Common Lisp implementation of MIT's Macsyma system for
computer based algebra.
* Meta-HTML (SrcCD)
<Meta-HTML> is a programming language specifically designed for working
within the World Wide Web environment. Although it is a genuine
programming language, suitable for large-scale symbolic manipulation, it
provides the most commonly wanted Web functionality as built-in
primitives, so you don't have to write them.
* Midnight Commander (`mc') (SrcCD)
The Midnight Commander is a user friendly & colorful Unix file manager &
shell, useful to novice & guru alike. It has a built-in virtual file
system that manipulates files inside tar files or files on remote
machines using the FTP protocol. This mechanism is extendable with
external Unix programs.
* Miscellaneous Files Distribution (SrcCD)
The GNU Miscellaneous Files are non-crucial files that are common on
various systems, including word lists, airport codes, ZIP codes etc.
* `mkisofs' (SrcCD)
`mkisofs' is a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system.
It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binary image which
corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to a block device.
It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol records of the Rock
Ridge Interchange Protocol (used to further describe the files in an ISO
9660 file system to a Unix host; it provides information such as longer
filenames, uid/gid, permissions, and device nodes).
The `mkisofs' program is often used with `cdwrite'. The `cdwrite'
program works by taking the image that `mkisofs' generates and driving a
cdwriter drive to actually burn the disk. `cdwrite' works under
GNU/Linux, and supports popular cdwriter drives. Older versions of
`cdwrite' were included with older versions of `mkisofs';
`' has the latest version:
* `mtools' (SrcCD)
`mtools' is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems to
read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (usually a
* MULE (SrcCD)
MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs. MULE text buffers can
contain a mix of characters from many languages including: Japanese,
Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, modern European languages (including
Greek & Russian), Arabic, & Hebrew. MULE also provides input methods
for all of them. MULE is being merged into GNU Emacs. *Note GNU &
Other Free Software in Japan::, for more information about MULE.
* `ncurses' (SrcCD)
`ncurses' implements the Unix `curses' API for developing screen-based
programs that are terminal independent. It is not merely an emulation
of old (BSD) curses/termcap, but is fully compatible with SVR4
curses/terminfo. It includes color, multiple-highlight, & xterm
mouse-event support.
* NetHack (SrcCD)
NetHack is a Rogue-like adventure game supporting character & X displays.
* NIH Class Library (SrcCD)
The NIH Class Library is a set of C++ classes (similar to
Smalltalk-80's) written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutes
of Health (NIH).
* `nvi' (SrcCD)
`nvi' is an implementation of the `ex'/`vi' Unix editor. It has all the
functionality of the original `ex'/`vi', except `open' mode & the `lisp'
edit option. Enhancements include multiple buffers, command-line
editing & path completion, integrated Perl5 & Tcl scripting languages,
Cscope support & tag stacks, 8-bit data support, infinite file/line
lengths, infinite undo, language catalogs, incremental search, extended
regular expressions, and security fixes. It uses Autoconf for
configuration and runs on any Unix-like system.
* Oaklisp (SrcCD)
Oaklisp is a fast, portable, object-oriented Scheme with first class
* Objective-C Library (SrcCD)
Our Objective-C Class Library (`gstep-base.tar.gz', `libgnustep-base')
has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C objects written by Andrew
McCallum & others. It includes collection classes for maintaining
groups of objects, I/O streams, coders for formatting objects & C types
to streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects
(remote object messaging), string classes, invocations, notifications,
event loops, timers, exceptions, pseudo-random number generators, &
more. It has the base classes for the GNUstep project; all but a few of
them have already been written. Send queries & bugs to
`'. See "GNUstep" in *Note Forthcoming GNUs::.
* OBST (SrcCD)
OBST is a persistent object management system with bindings to C++.
OBST supports incremental loading of methods. Its graphical tools
require the X Window System. It features a hands-on tutorial including
sample programs. It compiles with G++, and should install easily on
most Unix platforms.
* Octave *Also see* `' (SrcCD)
Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices, solves
sets of nonlinear algebraic equations, integrates systems of ordinary
differential & differential-algebraic equations, and integrates
functions over finite & infinite intervals. Two- & three-dimensional
plotting is available using `gnuplot'.
Version 2.0 of Octave was released in December '96. It includes support
for dynamically linked functions, user-defined data types, many new
functions, & a completely revised manual. Octave works on most Unix
systems & OS/2. A port to Windows NT/95 is underway.
* Oleo (SrcCD)
Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive
spreadsheets). It supports the X Window System and character-based
terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets.
Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable.
Oleo supports multiple variable-width fonts when used under the X Window
System or outputting to Postscript devices.
* `p2c' (SrcCD)
`p2c' is Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator. It inputs many
dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, etc.) & generates readable,
maintainable, portable C.
* `patch' (SrcCD)
`patch' is our version of Larry Wall's program to take `diff''s output
and apply those differences to an original file to generate the modified
* PCL (SrcCD)
PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp
Object System. It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above.
* `perl' (SrcCD)
Larry Wall's `perl' combines the features & capabilities of C, `sed',
`awk', & `sh', and provides interfaces to the Unix system calls & many C
library routines.
* `pine' *Also *note Bad News and Good News about Pine::.* (SrcCD)
`pine' is a friendly menu-driven electronic mail manager and user
* `ptx' *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD)
GNU `ptx' is our version of the traditional permuted index generator.
It handles multiple input files at once, has TeX compatible output, &
outputs readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context) indexes without using
It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.
* `rc' (SrcCD)
`rc' is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than `csh')
and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's
intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing
scripts. It inspired the shell `es'.
* RCS (SrcCD)
RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control &
management of software projects. Used with GNU `diff', RCS can handle
binary files (8-bit data, executables, object files, etc). RCS now
conforms to GNU configuration standards & to POSIX 1003.1b-1993. Also
see the CVS item above.
* `recode' *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD)
GNU `recode' converts files between character sets and usages. When
exact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the offending
characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or
outputs nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate
files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are
* `regex' (SrcCD)
The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for
internationalization features. It is included in many GNU programs which
do regular expression matching & is available separately. An alternate
regular expression package, `rx', is faster than `regex' in many cases;
we were planning to replace `regex' with `rx', but it is not certain
this will happen.
* Roxen (SrcCD)
Roxen is a modularized, object-oriented, non-forking World Wide Web
server with high performance and throughput. It was formerly named
Spinner, but was renamed for trademark reasons.
* `rx' (SrcCD)
Tom Lord has written `rx', a new regular expression library which is
faster than the older GNU `regex' library. It is being distributed with
`sed'. `rx' is also an installation option for `fileutils', `id-utils',
and `textutils', and maybe for future versions of `cpio', `m4' and `ptx'.
* SAOimage (SrcCD)
SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer. It reads array data
images, which may be in specific formats, and displays them with a
pseudocolor colormap. There is full interactive control of the
colormap, panning and zooming, graphical annotation, and cursor tracking
in pixel and sky coordinates, among other features.
* Scheme (SrcCD)
Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was
designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of
programming and to research new parallel programming constructs and
compilation techniques.
We now distribute MIT Scheme 7.3, which conforms to the "Revised^4
Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for
which TeX source is included. It is written partly in C, but is
presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries to bootstrap it exist for: HP9000
series 300, 400, 700, & 800 (running HP-UX 9.0), NeXT (NeXT OS 2 or 3.2),
DEC Alpha (OSF/1), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), Sun-3 or Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1),
DECstation 3100/5100 (Ultrix 4.0), Sony NeWS-3250 (NEWS OS 5.01), &
Intel i386 (MS-DOS, Windows 3.1 or NT). If your system isn't on this
list & you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see "JACAL" earlier in
this article.
* `screen' (SrcCD)
`screen' is a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens"
(ttys) on a single character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal
emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI
X3.64) functions, including color. Arbitrary keyboard input translation
is also supported. `screen' sessions can be detached and resumed later
on a different terminal type. Output in detached sessions is saved for
later viewing.
* `sed' (SrcCD)
`sed' is a stream-oriented version of `ed'. It comes with the `rx'
* Sharutils (SrcCD)
`shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them
for transmission by electronic mail services; `unshar' helps unpack
these shell archives after reception. `uuencode' and `uudecode' are
POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of programs which transform
files into a format that can be safely transmitted across a 7-bit ASCII
* Shellutils (SrcCD)
The Shellutils are: `basename', `chroot', `date', `dirname', `echo',
`env', `expr', `factor', `false', `groups', `hostname', `id', `logname',
`nice', `nohup', `pathchk', `printenv', `printf', `pwd', `seq', `sleep',
`stty', `su', `tee', `test', `true', `tty', `uname', `uptime', `users',
`who', `whoami', & `yes'.
* Shogi (SrcCD)
Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is that
captured pieces can be returned into play.
GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features &
similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of partial board
patterns can be introduced to help the program play toward specific
opening patterns. It has both character and X display interfaces.
It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.
* SIPP (SrcCD)
SIPP is a library for photorealisticly rendering 3D scenes. Scenes can
be illuminated by an arbitrary number of light sources; they are built up
of object hierarchies, with arbitrarily many subobjects and subsurfaces.
Surfaces can be rendered with either Phong, Gouraud, or flat shading.
The library supports programmable shaders and texture mapping.
* Smail (SrcCD)
Smail is a mail transport system, designed as a compatible drop-in
replacement for `sendmail'. It uses a much simpler configuration format
than `sendmail' and is designed to be setup with minimal effort.
* Smalltalk *Also *note Forthcoming GNUs::.* (SrcCD)
GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language
system written in highly portable C. It has been ported to DOS, many
Unix, & other OSes. Features include a binary image save capability,
the ability to call user-written C code with parameters, an Emacs
editing mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk,
optional byte-code compilation and/or execution tracing, & automatically
loaded per-user initialization files. It implements all of the classes
& protocol in the book "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the
graphic user interface (GUI) related classes.
* SNePS (SrcCD)
SNePS is the Semantic Network Processing System. It is an
implementation of a fully intensional theory of propositional knowledge
representation and reasoning. SNePS runs under CLISP or GCL.
* Superopt (SrcCD)
Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for
a given function. You provide a function as input, a CPU to generate
code for, and how many instructions you want. Its use in GCC is
described in the `ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 Proceedings'. It supports: SPARC,
m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM POWER and PowerPC, AMD 29k, Intel x86 & 960,
Pyramid, DEC Alpha, Hitachi SH, & HP-PA.
* `stow' (SrcCD)
`stow' manages the installation of software packages, keeping them
separate while making them appear to be installed in the same place.
* `tar' (SrcCD)
GNU `tar' includes multi-volume support, the ability to archive sparse
files, compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features
that allow `tar' to be used for incremental and full backups. GNU `tar'
uses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' format which is
different from the final version. This will be corrected in the future.
* Termcap Library (SrcCD) [FSFman]
The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on
any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap
entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for the
`Termcap Manual' in Texinfo format (*note Documentation::.).
* Termutils (SrcCD)
The Termutils package contains programs for controlling terminals.
`tput' is a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal
capabilities. `tabs' is a program to set hardware terminal tab settings.
* TeX (SrcCD)
TeX is a document formatting system that handles complicated
typesetting, including mathematics. It is GNU's standard text formatter.
The University of Washington maintains & supports a tape distribution of
TeX for Unix systems. The core material is Karl Berry's `web2c' TeX
package. Sources are available via anonymous FTP; retrieval
instructions are in `/pub/tex/unixtex.ftp' on `'. If you
receive any installation support from the University of Washington,
consider sending them a donation.
To order a full distribution written in `tar' on either a 1/4inch
4-track QIC-24 cartridge or a 4mm DAT cartridge, send $210.00 to:
Pierre A. MacKay
Department of Classics
DH-10, Denny Hall 218
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
Electronic-Mail: `'
Telephone: +1-206-543-2268
Please make checks payable to: `University of Washington'. Do not
specify any other payee. That causes accounting problems. Checks must
be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank. Only prepaid orders can be
handled. Overseas sites: please add to the base cost $20.00 to ship via
air parcel post or $30.00 to ship via courier. Please check with the
above for current prices & formats.
* Texinfo (SrcCD) [FSFman]
Texinfo is a set of utilities (`makeinfo', `info', `install-info',
`texi2dvi', `texindex', & `texinfmt.el') which generate printed manuals,
plain ASCII text, & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), &
can read online Info documents; Info files can also be read in Emacs.
Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp & standalone programs written in C or as
shell scripts. Texinfo mode for Emacs enables easy editing & updating
of Texinfo files. Source for the `Texinfo Manual' is included (*note
* Textutils (SrcCD)
The Textutils programs manipulate textual data. They include: `cat',
`cksum', `comm', `csplit', `cut', `expand', `fmt', `fold', `head',
`join', `md5sum', `nl', `od', `paste', `pr', `sort', `split', `sum',
`tac', `tail', `tr', `unexpand', `uniq', and `wc'.
* TIFF library (SrcCD)
The TIFF library, `libtiff', is a library for manipulating Tagged Image
File Format files, a commonly used bitmap graphics format.
* Tile Forth (SrcCD)
Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth-83 standard written
in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems & extended with any
C-function (graphics, windowing, etc).
Many documented Forth libraries are available, e.g. top-down parsing,
multi-threads, & object-oriented programming.
* `time' (SrcCD)
`time' reports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time used
by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, page
faults, etc.
* `ucblogo' (SrcCD)
`ucblogo' implements the classic teaching language, Logo.
* UUCP (SrcCD)
GNU's UUCP system (written by Ian Lance Taylor) supports the `f', `g'
(all window & packet sizes), `v', `G', `t', `e', Zmodem, & two new
bidirectional (`i' & `j') protocols. With a BSD sockets library, it can
make TCP connections. With TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections.
Source is included for a manual (not yet published by the FSF).
* viewfax (SrcCD)
Viewfax is a tool for displaying fax files on an X display. It can
display raw, digifax or tiff/f files, such as those received by HylaFAX.
* W3 (SrcCD)
W3 (written by William Perry in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
World Wide Web browser that runs as part of Emacs. It understands many
protocols & file formats: FTP, gopher, HTML, SMTP, Telnet, WAIS, etc.
* `wdiff' (SrcCD)
`wdiff' is a front-end to GNU `diff'. It compares two files, finding
the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It has many
output formats and works well with terminals and pagers. `wdiff' is
very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs
have been refilled.
* `wget' (SrcCD)
`wget' non-interactively retrieves files from the WWW using HTTP & FTP.
It is suitable for use in shell scripts.
* `windows32api' (SrcCD)
`windows32' is a set of header files & import libraries that can be used
by GNU tools for compiling & linking programs to be run on Windows NT/95.
* WN (SrcCD)
WN is a World Wide Web server designed to be secure and flexible. It
offers many different capabilities in pre-parsing files before passing
them to the client, and has a very different design from Apache and the
NCSA server.
* X11 (SrcCD)
We distribute Version 11, Release 6.3 of the X Window System with the
latest patches & bug fixes. X11 includes all of the core software,
documentation, contributed clients, libraries, & toolkits, games, etc.
While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the November 1993
Source Code CD-ROM.
* `xboard' (SrcCD)
`xboard' is a graphical chessboard for X Windows. It can serve as a
user interface to the Crafty or GNU chess programs, the Internet Chess
Servers, e-mail correspondence chess, or games saved in Portable Game
* `xgrabsc' (SrcCD)
`xgrabsc' is a screen capture program similar to `xwd' but with a
graphical user interface, more ways of selecting the part of the screen
to capture, & different types of output: Postscript, color Postscript,
xwd, bitmap, pixmap, & puzzle.
* `xinfo' (SrcCD)
`xinfo' is an X-windows program for reading Info files. It uses a
special widget, which is available for use in other programs.
* `xshogi' (SrcCD)
`xshogi' is a graphical Shogi (Japanese Chess) board for the X Window
System. It can serve as a user interface to GNU Shogi, as a referee for
games between two humans, or as a client for the Internet Shogi Server.
* `Ygl' (SrcCD)
`Ygl' emulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under
X11 on most platforms with an ANSI C compiler (including GCC). It has
most two-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device & query
routines, double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, FORTRAN bindings,
Program/Package Cross Reference
Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in. You can FTP
the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host
(listed in *Note How to Get GNU Software::).
* 4dview geomview
* a2p perl
* a2x xopt
* ac bsd44
* accton bsd44
* ackpfd phttpd
* acl bsd44
* acm acm
* acms acm
* addbbox geomview
* addftinfo Groff
* adventure bsd44
* afm2tfm TeX
* aid ID Utils
* amd bsd44
* ansitape bsd44
* AnswerGarden xopt
* apply bsd44
* appres xreq
* apropos bsd44
* ar Binutils
* arithmetic bsd44
* arp bsd44
* atc bsd44
* authwn WN
* autoconf Autoconf
* autoheader Autoconf
* automake Automake
* autoreconf Autoconf
* autoscan Autoconf
* autoupdate Autoconf
* auto_box xopt
* auto_box xreq
* b2m Emacs
* backgammon bsd44
* bad144 bsd44
* badsect bsd44
* banner bsd44
* basename Shellutils
* bash BASH
* battlestar bsd44
* bc bc
* bcd bsd44
* bdes bsd44
* bdftops Ghostscript
* beach_ball xopt
* beach_ball xreq
* beach_ball2 xopt
* bibtex TeX
* biff bsd44
* bison Bison
* bitmap xreq
* boggle bsd44
* bpltobzr Fontutils
* bugfiler bsd44
* buildhash Ispell
* bzrto Fontutils
* c++ GCC
* c++filt Binutils
* c2ph perl
* ca100 xopt
* caesar bsd44
* cal bsd44
* calendar bsd44
* canfield bsd44
* cat Textutils
* cbars wdiff
* cc GCC
* cc1 GCC
* cc1obj GCC
* cc1plus GCC
* cccp GCC
* cdwrite mkisofs
* cfengine cfengine
* cgi Spinner
* charspace Fontutils
* checknr bsd44
* chess bsd44
* chflags bsd44
* chgrp Fileutils
* ching bsd44
* chmod Fileutils
* chown Fileutils
* chpass bsd44
* chroot bsd44
* ci RCS
* cksum Textutils
* cktyps g77
* clisp CLISP
* clri bsd44
* cmail xboard
* cmmf TeX
* cmodext xopt
* cmp Diffutils
* co RCS
* col bsd44
* colcrt bsd44
* colrm bsd44
* column bsd44
* comm Textutils
* compress bsd44
* comsat bsd44
* connectd bsd44
* cp Fileutils
* cpicker xopt
* cpio cpio
* cpp GCC
* cppstdin perl
* cribbage bsd44
* crock xopt
* csh bsd44
* csplit Textutils
* ctags Emacs
* ctwm xopt
* cu UUCP
* cut Textutils
* cvs CVS
* cvscheck CVS
* cvtmail Emacs
* cxterm xopt
* d Fileutils
* date Shellutils
* dc bc
* dd Fileutils
* ddd DDD
* defid ID Utils
* delatex TeX
* demangle Binutils
* descend CVS
* detex TeX
* df Fileutils
* dhtppd phttpd
* diff Diffutils
* diff3 Diffutils
* diffpp enscript
* digest-doc Emacs
* dipress bsd44
* dir Fileutils
* dircolors Fileutils
* dirname Shellutils
* dish xopt
* disklabel bsd44
* diskpart bsd44
* dld dld
* dm bsd44
* dmesg bsd44
* doschk doschk
* dox xopt
* du Fileutils
* dump bsd44
* dump mkisofs
* dumpfs bsd44
* dvi2tty TeX
* dvicopy TeX
* dvips TeX
* dvitype TeX
* ecc ecc
* echo Shellutils
* ed ed
* edit-pr GNATS
* editres xreq
* edquota bsd44
* eeprom bsd44
* egrep grep
* eid ID Utils
* emacs Emacs
* emacsclient Emacs
* emacsserver Emacs
* emacstool Emacs
* emu xopt
* enscript enscript
* env Shellutils
* eqn Groff
* error bsd44
* es es
* esdebug es
* etags Emacs
* ex nvi
* example geomview
* exicyclog Exim
* exigrep Exim
* exim Exim
* eximon Exim
* eximon Exim
* eximstats Exim
* exinext Exim
* exiwhat Exim
* expand Textutils
* expect DejaGnu
* expr Shellutils
* exterm xopt
* f2c f2c
* factor bsd44
* fakemail Emacs
* false Shellutils
* fastboot bsd44
* fax2ps HylaFAX
* faxalter HylaFAX
* faxanswer HylaFAX
* faxcover HylaFAX
* faxd HylaFAX
* faxd.recv HylaFAX
* faxmail HylaFAX
* faxquit HylaFAX
* faxrcvd HylaFAX
* faxrm HylaFAX
* faxstat HylaFAX
* fc f2c
* fdraw xopt
* ffe g77
* fgrep grep
* fid ID Utils
* file bsd44
* find Findutils
* find2perl perl
* finger Finger
* fingerd Finger
* fish bsd44
* fixfonts Texinfo
* fixinc.svr4 GCC
* fixincludes GCC
* flex flex
* flex++ flex
* flythrough geomview
* fmt bsd44
* fnid ID Utils
* fold Textutils
* font2c Ghostscript
* fontconvert Fontutils
* forth Tile Forth
* forthicon Tile Forth
* forthtool Tile Forth
* fortune bsd44
* fpr bsd44
* freq Ispell
* freqtbl Ispell
* from bsd44
* fsck bsd44
* fsplit bsd44
* fstat bsd44
* ftp bsd44
* ftp Inetutils
* ftpd bsd44
* ftpd Inetutils
* g++ GCC
* gas Binutils
* gawk GAWK
* gcal gcal
* gcc GCC
* gcore bsd44
* gdb GDB
* genclass libg++
* geomstuff geomview
* gettext gettext
* getty bsd44
* gftodvi TeX
* gftopk TeX
* gftype TeX
* ghostview Ghostview
* gid ID Utils
* ginsu geomview
* git GIT
* gitaction GIT
* gitcmp GIT
* gitkeys GIT
* gitmatch GIT
* gitmount GIT
* gitps GIT
* gitredir GIT
* gitrgrep GIT
* gitview GIT
* gitwipe GIT
* gn GN
* gnans Gnans
* gnanslator Gnans
* gnats GNATS
* gnuchess Chess
* gnuchessc Chess
* gnuchessn Chess
* gnuchessr Chess
* gnuchessx Chess
* gnuclient gnuserv
* gnudoit gnuserv
* gnupdisp Shogi
* gnuplot gnuplot
* gnuplot_x11 gnuplot
* gnuserv gnuserv
* gnushogi Shogi
* gnushogir Shogi
* gnushogix Shogi
* go GnuGo
* gpc xopt
* gpc xreq
* gperf cperf
* gperf libg++
* gprof Binutils
* graffiti geomview
* graph Graphics
* grep grep
* grodvi Groff
* groff Groff
* grops Groff
* grotty Groff
* groups Shellutils
* gs Ghostscript
* gsbj Ghostscript
* gsdj Ghostscript
* gslj Ghostscript
* gslp Ghostscript
* gsnd Ghostscript
* gsrenderfont Fontutils
* gunzip gzip
* gvclock geomview
* gwm xopt
* gzexe gzip
* gzip gzip
* h2ph perl
* h2pl perl
* hack bsd44
* hangman bsd44
* head Textutils
* hello hello
* hexdump bsd44
* hexl Emacs
* hinge geomview
* hostname Shellutils
* hp2xx hp2xx
* hterm xopt
* htmlencode phttpd
* httpd apache
* httpdecode phttpd
* i18nOlwmV2 xopt
* i2mif xopt
* ico xopt
* ico xreq
* id Shellutils
* ident RCS
* ifconfig bsd44
* ifnames Autoconf
* ImageMagick xopt
* imageto Fontutils
* iman xopt
* imgrotate Fontutils
* indent indent
* indxbib Groff
* inetd bsd44
* inetd Inetutils
* info Texinfo
* inimf TeX
* init bsd44
* initex TeX
* inn bsd44
* install Fileutils
* iostat bsd44
* isodiag mkisofs
* isodump mkisofs
* ispell Ispell
* ixterm xopt
* ixx xopt
* join Textutils
* jot bsd44
* jove bsd44
* kdestroy bsd44
* kdump bsd44
* kermit bsd44
* kgames xopt
* kgmon bsd44
* kill bsd44
* kinit bsd44
* kinput2 xopt
* klist bsd44
* kpasswdd bsd44
* ksrvtgt bsd44
* kterm xopt
* ktrace bsd44
* lam bsd44
* larn bsd44
* lasergnu gnuplot
* last bsd44
* lastcomm bsd44
* latex TeX
* lclock xopt
* ld Binutils
* leave bsd44
* less less
* lesskey less
* libavcall.a ffcall
* libbfd.a Binutils
* libbfd.a GDB
* libbzr.a Fontutils
* libc.a C Library
* libcompat.a bsd44
* libcurses.a bsd44
* libcurses.a ncurses
* libdcurses.a ncurses
* libedit.a bsd44
* libF77.a f2c
* libF77.a g77
* libg++.a libg++
* libgdbm.a gdbm
* libgf.a Fontutils
* libgmp.a gmp
* libgnanslib.a Gnans
* libgnussl.a gnussl
* libI77.a f2c
* libI77.a g77
* libkvm.a bsd44
* libm.a bsd44
* libncurses.a ncurses
* libnihcl.a NIHCL
* libnihclmi.a NIHCL
* libnihclvec.a NIHCL
* libnls.a xreq
* libobjects.a libobjects
* liboctave.a Octave
* liboldX.a xreq
* libpbm.a Fontutils
* libPEXt.a xopt
* libpk.a Fontutils
* libresolv.a bsd44
* librpc.a bsd44
* libsipp.a SIPP
* libtcl.a DejaGnu
* libtelnet.a bsd44
* libterm.a bsd44
* libtermcap.a Termcap
* libtfm.a Fontutils
* libtiff.a tiff
* libutil.a bsd44
* libvacall.a ffcall
* libWc.a xopt
* libwidgets.a Fontutils
* libX.a xreq
* libXau.a xreq
* libXaw.a xreq
* libXcp.a xopt
* libXcu.a xopt
* libXdmcp.a xreq
* libXmp.a xopt
* libXmu.a xreq
* libXO.a xopt
* libXop.a xopt
* libXp.a xopt
* libXpex.a xopt
* libXt.a xopt
* libXt.a xreq
* libXwchar.a xopt
* liby.a bsd44
* libYgl.a Ygl
* lid ID Utils
* limn Fontutils
* listres xopt
* listres xreq
* lkbib Groff
* ln Fileutils
* locate Findutils
* lock bsd44
* logcvt-ip2n phttpd
* logger bsd44
* login bsd44
* logname Shellutils
* logo ucblogo
* lookbib Groff
* lorder bsd44
* lpr bsd44
* ls Fileutils
* lynx lynx
* m4 m4
* mail bsd44
* mail-files Sharutils
* mailq smail
* mailshar Sharutils
* make make
* make-docfile Emacs
* make-path Emacs
* makeindex TeX
* makeinfo Texinfo
* MakeTeXPK TeX
* man bsd44
* man-macros Groff
* maniview geomview
* mattrib mtools
* maze xopt
* maze xreq
* mazewar xopt
* mc mc
* mcd mtools
* mcopy mtools
* mcserv mc
* md5sum Textutils
* mdel mtools
* mdir mtools
* me-macros Groff
* medit2gv geomview
* merge RCS
* mesg bsd44
* mf TeX
* mformat mtools
* mft TeX
* mgdiff xopt
* mh bsd44
* mille bsd44
* mkafmmap enscript
* mkcache GN
* mkdep bsd44
* mkdir Fileutils
* mkfifo Fileutils
* mkid ID Utils
* mkisofs mkisofs
* mklocale bsd44
* mkmanifest mtools
* mkmf bsd44
* mkmodules CVS
* mknod Fileutils
* mkstr bsd44
* mlabel mtools
* mm-macros Groff
* mmd mtools
* monop bsd44
* more bsd44
* morse bsd44
* mount bsd44
* mountd bsd44
* movemail Emacs
* mprof bsd44
* mrd mtools
* mread mtools
* mren mtools
* ms-macros Groff
* msgcmp gettext
* msgfmt gettext
* msgmerge gettext
* msgs bsd44
* msgunfmt gettext
* mst Smalltalk
* mt cpio
* mterm xopt
* mtree bsd44
* mtype mtools
* mule MULE
* muncher xopt
* mv Fileutils
* mvdir Fileutils
* mwrite mtools
* NDview geomview
* nethack NetHack
* netstat bsd44
* newfs bsd44
* nfsd bsd44
* nfsiod bsd44
* nfsstat bsd44
* nice Shellutils
* nl Textutils
* nlmconv Binutils
* nm Binutils
* nohup Shellutils
* nose geomview
* notify HylaFAX
* nroff Groff
* number bsd44
* objc GCC
* objcopy Binutils
* objdump Binutils
* objective-c GCC
* obst-boot OBST
* obst-CC OBST
* obst-cct OBST
* obst-cgc OBST
* obst-cmp OBST
* obst-cnt OBST
* obst-cpcnt OBST
* obst-csz OBST
* obst-dir OBST
* obst-dmp OBST
* obst-gen OBST
* obst-gsh OBST
* obst-init OBST
* obst-scp OBST
* obst-sil OBST
* obst-stf OBST
* oclock xreq
* octave Octave
* od Textutils
* oleo Oleo
* ora-examples xopt
* p2c p2c
* pagesize bsd44
* palette xopt
* pascal bsd44
* passwd bsd44
* paste Textutils
* patch patch
* patgen TeX
* pathalias bsd44
* pathchk Shellutils
* pathto smail
* pax bsd44
* pbmplus xopt
* perl perl
* pfbtops Groff
* phantasia bsd44
* phttpd phttpd
* pic Groff
* pico pine
* pig bsd44
* pine pine
* ping bsd44
* pixedit xopt
* pixmap xopt
* pktogf TeX
* pktype TeX
* plaid xopt
* plot2fig Graphics
* plot2plot Graphics
* plot2ps Graphics
* plot2tek Graphics
* pltotf TeX
* pollrcvd HylaFAX
* pom bsd44
* pooltype TeX
* portmap bsd44
* ppt bsd44
* pr Textutils
* pr-addr GNATS
* pr-edit GNATS
* primes bsd44
* printenv Shellutils
* printf Shellutils
* protoize GCC
* proxygarb Spinner
* ps bsd44
* ps2ascii Ghostscript
* ps2epsi Ghostscript
* ps2fax HylaFAX
* psbb Groff
* pstat bsd44
* psycho xopt
* ptester phttpd
* ptx ptx
* pubdic+ xopt
* puzzle xopt
* puzzle xreq
* pwd Shellutils
* pyramid xopt
* query-pr GNATS
* quiz bsd44
* quot bsd44
* quota bsd44
* quotacheck bsd44
* quotaon bsd44
* rain bsd44
* random bsd44
* ranlib Binutils
* rbootd bsd44
* rc rc
* rcp bsd44
* rcp Inetutils
* rcs RCS
* rcs-to-cvs CVS
* rcs2log Emacs
* rcsdiff RCS
* rcsfreeze RCS
* rcsmerge RCS
* rdist bsd44
* reboot bsd44
* recode recode
* recvstats HylaFAX
* red ed
* refer Groff
* remsync Sharutils
* renice bsd44
* repquota bsd44
* restore bsd44
* rev bsd44
* rexecd bsd44
* rexecd Inetutils
* rlog RCS
* rlogin bsd44
* rlogin Inetutils
* rlogind bsd44
* rlogind Inetutils
* rm Fileutils
* rmail bsd44
* rmdir Fileutils
* rmt cpio
* rmt tar
* robots bsd44
* rogue bsd44
* route bsd44
* routed bsd44
* rr xopt
* rs bsd44
* rsh bsd44
* rsh Inetutils
* rshd bsd44
* rshd Inetutils
* rsmtp smail
* runq smail
* runtest DejaGnu
* runtest.exp DejaGnu
* ruptime bsd44
* rwho bsd44
* rwhod bsd44
* s2p perl
* sail bsd44
* saoimage SAOimage
* savecore bsd44
* sc bsd44
* sccs bsd44
* sccs2rcs CVS
* scdisp xopt
* screen screen
* script bsd44
* scsiformat bsd44
* sctext xopt
* sdiff Diffutils
* sed sed
* send-pr GNATS
* sendfax HylaFAX
* sendmail bsd44
* sgi2fax HylaFAX
* sgn GN
* sh bsd44
* shar Sharutils
* shinbun xopt
* shogi Shogi
* showfont xopt
* showmount bsd44
* shutdown bsd44
* size Binutils
* sj3 xopt
* sjxa xopt
* slattach bsd44
* sleep Shellutils
* sliplogin bsd44
* smail smail
* smtpd smail
* snake bsd44
* snftobdf xopt
* soelim Groff
* sort Textutils
* sos2obst OBST
* spider xopt
* split Textutils
* startslip bsd44
* stereo geomview
* stf OBST
* strings Binutils
* strip Binutils
* stty Shellutils
* su Shellutils
* sum Textutils
* superopt Superopt
* swapon bsd44
* sweep geomview
* sync bsd44
* sysctl bsd44
* syslog Inetutils
* syslogd bsd44
* syslogd Inetutils
* systat bsd44
* tabs Termutils
* tac Textutils
* tackdown geomview
* tail Textutils
* taintperl perl
* talk bsd44
* talk Inetutils
* talkd bsd44
* talkd Inetutils
* tangle TeX
* tar tar
* tbl Groff
* tcal gcal
* tcl DejaGnu
* tclsh DejaGnu
* tcopy bsd44
* tcp Emacs
* tee Shellutils
* tek2plot Graphics
* telnet bsd44
* telnet Inetutils
* telnetd bsd44
* telnetd Inetutils
* test Shellutils
* test-g++ DejaGnu
* test-tool DejaGnu
* tetris bsd44
* tex TeX
* tex3patch Texinfo
* texi2dvi Texinfo
* texindex Texinfo
* texspell TeX
* textfmt HylaFAX
* tfmtodit Groff
* tftopl TeX
* tftp bsd44
* tftp Inetutils
* tftpd bsd44
* tftpd Inetutils
* tgrind TeX
* time time
* timed bsd44
* timer Emacs
* timex xopt
* tip bsd44
* tkpostage xopt
* tn3270 bsd44
* togeomview geomview
* touch Fileutils
* tput Termutils
* tr Textutils
* traceroute bsd44
* transcript HylaFAX
* transfig xopt
* transformer geomview
* trek bsd44
* trigrp geomview
* trn3 bsd44
* troff Groff
* trpt bsd44
* trsp bsd44
* true Shellutils
* tset bsd44
* tsort bsd44
* tty Shellutils
* ttygnans Gnans
* tunefs bsd44
* tupdate gettext
* tvtwm xopt
* twm xreq
* ul bsd44
* ulpc Spinner
* umount bsd44
* uname Shellutils
* uncompress gzip
* unexpand Textutils
* unifdef bsd44
* unify wdiff
* uniq Textutils
* unprotoize GCC
* unshar Sharutils
* unvis bsd44
* update bsd44
* updatedb Findutils
* users Shellutils
* uuchk UUCP
* uucico UUCP
* uuconv UUCP
* uucp UUCP
* uucpd bsd44
* uucpd Inetutils
* uudecode Sharutils
* uudir UUCP
* uuencode Sharutils
* uulog UUCP
* uuname UUCP
* uupath smail
* uupick UUCP
* uurate UUCP
* uusched UUCP
* uustat UUCP
* uuto UUCP
* uux UUCP
* uuxqt UUCP
* v Fileutils
* vacation bsd44
* vandal xopt
* vcdiff Emacs
* vdir Fileutils
* vftovp TeX
* vgrind bsd44
* vi nvi
* viewres xopt
* viewres xreq
* vine xopt
* vipw bsd44
* virmf TeX
* virtex TeX
* vis bsd44
* vmstat bsd44
* vptovf TeX
* w bsd44
* waisgn GN
* wakeup Emacs
* wall bsd44
* wargames bsd44
* wc Textutils
* wdiff wdiff
* weave TeX
* what bsd44
* whatis bsd44
* whereis bsd44
* who Shellutils
* whoami Shellutils
* whois bsd44
* window bsd44
* winterp xopt
* wish DejaGnu
* wn WN
* wndex WN
* worm bsd44
* worms bsd44
* write bsd44
* wump bsd44
* x11perf xreq
* x2p perl
* xalarm xopt
* xancur xopt
* xargs Findutils
* xauth xreq
* xbfe Fontutils
* xbiff xopt
* xbiff xreq
* xboard xboard
* xboing xopt
* xbuffy3 xopt
* xcalc xopt
* xcalc xreq
* xcalendar xopt
* xcdplayer xopt
* xcell xopt
* xclipboard xreq
* xclock xreq
* xcmdmenu xopt
* xcms xopt
* xcmsdb xreq
* xcmstest xreq
* xco xopt
* xcolorize xopt
* xcolors xopt
* xconsole xreq
* xcrtca xopt
* xdaliclock xopt
* xdiary xopt
* xditview Groff
* xditview xopt
* xditview xreq
* xdm xreq
* xdpyinfo xreq
* xdu xopt
* xdvi TeX
* xdvi xopt
* xdvorak xopt
* xearth xopt
* xed xopt
* xedit xopt
* xedit xreq
* xev xopt
* xev xreq
* xexit xopt
* xeyes xopt
* xeyes xreq
* xfd xreq
* xfed xopt
* xfedor xopt
* xfeoak xopt
* xferstats HylaFAX
* xfig xopt
* xfontsel xopt
* xfontsel xreq
* xforecast xopt
* xgas xopt
* xgas xreq
* xgc xopt
* xgc xreq
* xgettext gettext
* xhearts xopt
* xhelp xopt
* xhost xreq
* xinit xreq
* xkeycaps xopt
* xkill xreq
* xlax xopt
* xlayout xopt
* xlbiff xopt
* xless xopt
* xload xopt
* xload xreq
* xlogin xopt
* xlogo xreq
* xlsatoms xreq
* xlsclients xreq
* xlsfonts xreq
* xmag xreq
* xmail xopt
* xmailbox xopt
* xmailwatcher xopt
* xman xopt
* xman xreq
* xmandel xopt
* xmessage xopt
* xmeter xopt
* xmh xreq
* xmh-icons xopt
* xmh.editor xopt
* xmodmap xreq
* xmon xopt
* xmove xopt
* xmphone xopt
* xpd xopt
* xphoon xopt
* xpipeman xopt
* xplot Graphics
* xpostit xopt
* xpr xopt
* xpr xreq
* xprompt xopt
* xproof xopt
* xprop xreq
* xpserv xopt
* xrdb xreq
* xrefresh xreq
* xrsh xopt
* xrubik xopt
* xrunclient xopt
* xscope xopt
* xscreensaver xopt
* xsession xopt
* xset xreq
* xsetroot xreq
* xshogi xshogi
* xstdcmap xreq
* xstr bsd44
* xtalk xopt
* xterm xreq
* xterm_color xopt
* xtetris xopt
* xTeXcad.13 xopt
* xtiff xopt
* xtokid ID Utils
* xtree xopt
* xtv xopt
* xwd xreq
* xwininfo xreq
* xwud xreq
* yacc bsd44
* yes Shellutils
* youbin xopt
* yow Emacs
* zcat gzip
* zcmp gzip
* zdiff gzip
* zforce gzip
* zgrep gzip
* zmore gzip
* znew gzip
* [ Shellutils
We offer these CD-ROMs:
* Several editions of our *Note Source Code CD-ROMs::.
* January 1997 *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.
* December 1995 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
Software Foundation Order Form::.
* December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
Software Foundation Order Form::.
* December 1993 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, see the *note Free
Software Foundation Order Form::.
Our CDs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on
most computers. If your driver supports it, you can mount each CD with "Rock
Ridge" extensions & it will look like a regular Unix file system, rather than
one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.
You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD.
You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build
Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the January 1997 Source CD
set costs $240. The set costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of
your own pocket. The January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220
for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.
What Do the Different Prices Mean?
The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it.
What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or
other organization buys the January 1997 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240.
When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just $60. This
distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either
case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and
there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is
entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CDs.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are
buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual.
But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really
for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it.
We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just
150 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a
Why Is There an Individual Price?
In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies. The CD
at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower
price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower
the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the
software development we can do.
However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could
afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower
price of $60.
Is There a Maximum Price?
Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you
wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as
high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in
the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.
January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
The fourth edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and complete sources for
GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler, will be available
at the end of January 1997. This enables the people who use these systems to
compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary
compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own
C/C++/Objective-C programs. Older editions of this CD are available while
supplies last at a reduced price; see the *note Free Software Foundation
Order Form::.
We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help
build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C
compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the
top menu.
These packages:
* GCC/G++/Objective-C
* GNU C Library
* Binutils
* Bison
* Emacs (MS-DOS only)
* Flex
* Make
* libg++
On these platforms:
* `i386-msdos'
* `hppa1.1-hp-hpux9'
* `hppa1.1-hp-hpux10'
* `powerpc-ibm-aix4.2'
* `sparc-sun-solaris2.4'
* `sparc-sun-solaris2.5'
* `sparc-sun-sunos4.1'
Source Code CD-ROMs
We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:
* *Note January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs::, the newest release, has
programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the other CDs.
* *Note July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs::.
* December 1995 Source Code CD-ROMs, see the *note Free Software
Foundation Order Form::.
* June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
Order Form::.
* May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
Order Form::.
* November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
Order Form::.
* May 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
Order Form::.
* October 1992 Source Code CD-ROM, see the *note Free Software Foundation
Order Form::.
The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price
(please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock).
All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in *Note
MIT Scheme & much of X11 is *not* on the older Source CDs.
There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C
compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally
provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler
binaries for some systems on the *Note Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM::.
January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs
The 9th edition of our Source Code CD will be available at the end of January
1997 with two CD-ROM disks. It has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not
on the older Source CDs. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not
part of packages. The version number of each package listed might be higher
on the 9th edition CD due to new releases being made between now and then.
* acm 4.7
* apache 1.2b2
* Autoconf 2.12
* Automake 1.0
* BASH 1.14.7
* bc 1.03
* Binutils 2.7
* Bison 1.25
* C Library 2.0
* Calc 2.02f
* cfengine 1.3.17a
* Chess 4.0.pl77
* CLISP 1996.05.30
* Common Lisp 2.2
* cperf 2.1a
* cpio 2.4.2
* CVS 1.9
* DejaGnu 1.3
* Diffutils 2.7
* dld 3.3
* doschk 1.1
* ed 0.2
* Elib 1.0
* elisp archive
* Emacs 18.59
* Emacs 19.34
* enscript 1.4.0
* es 0.84
* Exim 1.59
* f2c 1996.09.25
* ffcall 1.1
* Fileutils 3.14
* Findutils 4.1
* Finger 1.37
* flex 2.5.4
* Fontutils 0.6
* g77 0.5.19
* GAWK 3.0.1
* gcal 2.10
* GCC/G++/Objective-C
* GDB 4.16
* gdbm 1.7.3
* Generic NQS 3.50.2
* geomview 1.6.1
* gettext 0.10
* gforth 0.2.0
* Ghostscript 3.33
* Ghostview 1.5
* Ghostview for Windows 1.0
* GIT 4.3.14
* gmp 2.0.2
* GN 2.24
* Gnans 1.5.1
* gnat 3.05
* GNATS 3.2
* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03
* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.2
* GnuGo 1.2
* gnuplot 3.5
* gnuserv 2.1alpha
* gnussl 0.2.1
* Graphics 0.17
* grep 2.0
* Groff 1.10
* gzip 1.2.4
* hello 1.3
* hp2xx 3.1.4
* HylaFAX 4.0b018
* Hyperbole 4.01
* ID Utils 3.2
* indent 1.9.1
* Inetutils 1.2
* Ispell 3.1.20
* karma 1.6
* less 321
* libg++ 2.7.2
* libobjects 0.1.19
* lynx 2.6
* m4 1.4
* make 3.75
* MandelSpawn 0.07
* maxima 5.2
* mc 3.2.1
* <Meta-HTML> 5.01
* miscfiles 1.0
* mkisofs 1.05GNU
* mm 1.07
* mtools 3.0
* MULE 2.3
* ncurses 1.9.9e
* NetHack 3.2.1
* NIHCL 3.1.4
* nvi 1.76
* Oaklisp 930720
* OBST 3.4.3
* Octave 2.0
* Oleo 1.6
* p2c 1.20
* patch 2.1
* perl 4.036
* perl 5.003
* phttpd
* pine 3.91
* Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04
* ptx 0.4
* rc 1.4
* RCS 5.7
* readline 2.0
* recode 3.4
* regex 0.12
* rx 1.4
* SAOimage 1.19
* screen 3.7.2
* sed 2.05
* Sharutils 4.2
* Shellutils 1.14
* Shogi 1.2p03
* SIPP 3.1
* smail 3.2
* Smalltalk 1.1.5
* Roxen 1.0
* stow 1.3.2
* Superopt 2.5
* tar 1.11.8
* Termcap 1.3
* Termutils 2.0
* TeX 3.145
* Texinfo 3.9
* Textutils 1.20
* tiff 3.4b035
* Tile Forth 2.1
* time 1.7
* ucblogo 3.4
* UUCP 1.06.1
* W3 2.2.26
* wdiff 0.5
* wget 1.4.2
* windows32api 0.1.2
* WN 1.17.1
* X11R6.3
* xboard 3.4.pl1
* xgrabsc 2.41
* xinfo 1.01.01
* xshogi 1.2p03
* Ygl 3.1
July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs
We still have copies of the 8th edition of our Source CD with two CD-ROM
disks. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:
* acm 4.7
* apache 1.1
* Autoconf 2.10
* Automake 1.0
* BASH 1.14.6
* bc 1.03
* Binutils 2.7
* Bison 1.25
* C Library 1.93
* Calc 2.02d
* cfengine 1.3.7
* Chess 4.0.pl77
* CLISP 1996.05.30
* Common Lisp 2.2
* cperf 2.1a
* cpio 2.4.2
* CVS 1.8.1
* DejaGnu 1.3
* Diffutils 2.7
* dld 3.3
* doschk 1.1
* ed 0.2
* Elib 1.0
* elisp archive
* Emacs 18.59
* Emacs 19.31
* Emacs 19.32
* enscript 1.4.0
* es 0.84
* Exim 0.53
* f2c 1996.07.23
* ffcall 1.0
* Fileutils 3.13
* Findutils 4.1
* Finger 1.37
* flex 2.5.3
* Fontutils 0.6
* g77 0.5.18
* GAWK 3.0.0
* gcal 1.01
* GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.2
* GDB 4.16
* gdbm 1.7.3
* Generic NQS 3.50.0
* geomview 1.5.0
* gettext 0.10
* Ghostscript 3.33
* Ghostview 1.5
* Ghostview for Windows 1.0
* GIT 4.3.11
* gmp 2.0.2
* GN 2.24
* Gnans 1.5.1
* gnat 3.05
* GNATS 3.2
* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03
* GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4
* GnuGo 1.2
* gnuplot 3.5
* gnuserv 2.1alpha
* gnussl 0.2
* Graphics 0.17
* grep 2.0
* Groff 1.10
* gzip 1.2.4
* hello 1.3
* hp2xx 3.1.4
* HylaFAX 4.0b018
* ID Utils 3.1
* indent 1.9.1
* Inetutils 1.0
* Ispell 3.1.20
* karma 1.4
* less 321
* libg++ 2.7.2
* libobjects 0.1.19
* lynx 2.5
* m4 1.4
* make 3.75
* MandelSpawn 0.07
* maxima 5.2
* mc 3.2.1
* miscfiles 1.0
* mkisofs 1.05GNU
* mm 1.07
* mtools 3.0
* MULE 2.3
* ncurses 1.9.9e
* NetHack 3.2.1
* NIHCL 3.1.4
* nvi 1.71
* Oaklisp 930720
* OBST 3.4.3
* Octave 1.1.1
* Oleo 1.6
* p2c 1.20
* patch 2.1
* perl 4.036
* perl 5.003
* phttpd
* pine 3.91
* Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04
* ptx 0.4
* rc 1.4
* RCS 5.7
* readline 2.0
* regex 0.12
* rx 1.0
* SAOimage 1.18
* screen 3.7.1
* sed 2.05
* Sharutils 4.2
* Shellutils 1.12
* Shogi 1.2p03
* SIPP 3.1
* smail 3.2
* Smalltalk 1.1.1
* Spinner 1.0b14
* Superopt 2.5
* tar 1.11.8
* Termcap 1.3
* Termutils 2.0
* TeX 3.145
* Texinfo 3.7
* Textutils 1.19
* tiff 3.4b035
* Tile Forth 2.1
* time 1.7
* ucblogo 3.3
* UUCP 1.06.1
* W3 2.2.26
* wdiff 0.5
* WN 1.15.3
* X11R6.3
* xboard 3.4.pl1
* xgrabsc 2.41
* xshogi 1.2p03
* Ygl 3.1
CD-ROM Subscription Service
Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU
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All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
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