blob: 2d7feeea53dca62b1babaa424ea6278b3068f018 [file] [log] [blame]
-- --
-- --
-- S Y S T E M - S T A C K _ U S A G E --
-- --
-- S p e c --
-- --
-- Copyright (C) 2004-2021, Free Software Foundation, Inc. --
-- --
-- GNARL is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under --
-- terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Soft- --
-- ware Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later ver- --
-- sion. GNAT is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITH- --
-- OUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY --
-- --
-- As a special exception under Section 7 of GPL version 3, you are granted --
-- additional permissions described in the GCC Runtime Library Exception, --
-- version 3.1, as published by the Free Software Foundation. --
-- --
-- You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License and --
-- a copy of the GCC Runtime Library Exception along with this program; --
-- see the files COPYING3 and COPYING.RUNTIME respectively. If not, see --
-- <>. --
-- --
-- GNARL was developed by the GNARL team at Florida State University. --
-- Extensive contributions were provided by Ada Core Technologies, Inc. --
-- --
with System;
with System.Storage_Elements;
with System.Address_To_Access_Conversions;
with Interfaces;
package System.Stack_Usage is
pragma Preelaborate;
package SSE renames System.Storage_Elements;
subtype Stack_Address is SSE.Integer_Address;
-- Address on the stack
function To_Stack_Address
(Value : System.Address) return Stack_Address
renames System.Storage_Elements.To_Integer;
Task_Name_Length : constant := 32;
-- The maximum length of task name displayed.
-- ??? Consider merging this variable with Max_Task_Image_Length.
type Task_Result is record
Task_Name : String (1 .. Task_Name_Length);
Value : Natural;
-- Amount of stack used. The value is calculated on the basis of the
-- mechanism used by GNAT to allocate it, and it is NOT a precise value.
Stack_Size : Natural;
-- Size of the stack
end record;
type Result_Array_Type is array (Positive range <>) of Task_Result;
type Stack_Analyzer is private;
-- Type of the stack analyzer tool. It is used to fill a portion of the
-- stack with Pattern, and to compute the stack used after some execution.
-- Note that Fill_Stack writes data past the current top of the stack
-- (i.e. at addresses less than the stack pointer register, assuming the
-- stack grows downward). Therefore, this package is incompatible with
-- tools like Valgrind and DrMemory.
-- Usage:
-- A typical use of the package is something like:
-- A : Stack_Analyzer;
-- task T is
-- pragma Storage_Size (A_Storage_Size);
-- end T;
-- [...]
-- Bottom_Of_Stack : aliased Integer;
-- -- Bottom_Of_Stack'Address will be used as an approximation of
-- -- the bottom of stack. A good practise is to avoid allocating
-- -- other local variables on this stack, as it would degrade
-- -- the quality of this approximation.
-- begin
-- Initialize_Analyzer (A,
-- "Task t",
-- A_Storage_Size,
-- 0,
-- A_Storage_Size - A_Guard,
-- To_Stack_Address (Bottom_Of_Stack'Address));
-- Fill_Stack (A);
-- Some_User_Code;
-- Compute_Result (A);
-- Report_Result (A);
-- end T;
-- Errors:
-- We are instrumenting the code to measure the stack used by the user
-- code. This method has a number of systematic errors, but several methods
-- can be used to evaluate or reduce those errors. Here are those errors
-- and the strategy that we use to deal with them:
-- Bottom offset:
-- Description: The procedure used to fill the stack with a given
-- pattern will itself have a stack frame. The value of the stack
-- pointer in this procedure is, therefore, different from the value
-- before the call to the instrumentation procedure.
-- Strategy: The user of this package should measure the bottom of stack
-- before the call to Fill_Stack and pass it in parameter. The impact
-- is very minor unless the stack used is very small, but in this case
-- you aren't very interested by the figure.
-- Instrumentation threshold at writing:
-- Description: The procedure used to fill the stack with a given
-- pattern will itself have a stack frame. Therefore, it will
-- fill the stack after this stack frame. This part of the stack will
-- appear as used in the final measure.
-- Strategy: As the user passes the value of the bottom of stack to
-- the instrumentation to deal with the bottom offset error, and as
-- the instrumentation procedure knows where the pattern filling start
-- on the stack, the difference between the two values is the minimum
-- stack usage that the method can measure. If, when the results are
-- computed, the pattern zone has been left untouched, we conclude
-- that the stack usage is inferior to this minimum stack usage.
-- Instrumentation threshold at reading:
-- Description: The procedure used to read the stack at the end of the
-- execution clobbers the stack by allocating its stack frame. If this
-- stack frame is bigger than the total stack used by the user code at
-- this point, it will increase the measured stack size.
-- Strategy: We could augment this stack frame and see if it changes the
-- measure. However, this error should be negligible.
-- Pattern zone overflow:
-- Description: The stack grows outer than the topmost bound of the
-- pattern zone. In that case, the topmost region modified in the
-- pattern is not the maximum value of the stack pointer during the
-- execution.
-- Strategy: At the end of the execution, the difference between the
-- topmost memory region modified in the pattern zone and the
-- topmost bound of the pattern zone can be understood as the
-- biggest allocation that the method could have detect, provided
-- that there is no "Untouched allocated zone" error and no "Pattern
-- usage in user code" error. If no object in the user code is likely
-- to have this size, this is not likely to happen.
-- Pattern usage in user code:
-- Description: The pattern can be found in the object of the user code.
-- Therefore, the address space where this object has been allocated
-- will appear as untouched.
-- Strategy: Choose a pattern that is uncommon. 16#0000_0000# is the
-- worst choice; 16#DEAD_BEEF# can be a good one. A good choice is an
-- address which is not a multiple of 2, and which is not in the
-- target address space. You can also change the pattern to see if it
-- changes the measure. Note that this error *very* rarely influence
-- the measure of the total stack usage: to have some influence, the
-- pattern has to be used in the object that has been allocated on the
-- topmost address of the used stack.
-- Stack overflow:
-- Description: The pattern zone does not fit on the stack. This may
-- lead to an erroneous execution.
-- Strategy: Specify a storage size that is bigger than the size of the
-- pattern. 2 times bigger should be enough.
-- Augmentation of the user stack frames:
-- Description: The use of instrumentation object or procedure may
-- augment the stack frame of the caller.
-- Strategy: Do *not* inline the instrumentation procedures. Do *not*
-- allocate the Stack_Analyzer object on the stack.
-- Untouched allocated zone:
-- Description: The user code may allocate objects that it will never
-- touch. In that case, the pattern will not be changed.
-- Strategy: There are no way to detect this error. Fortunately, this
-- error is really rare, and it is most probably a bug in the user
-- code, e.g. some uninitialized variable. It is (most of the time)
-- harmless: it influences the measure only if the untouched allocated
-- zone happens to be located at the topmost value of the stack
-- pointer for the whole execution.
procedure Initialize (Buffer_Size : Natural);
pragma Export (C, Initialize, "__gnat_stack_usage_initialize");
-- Initializes the size of the buffer that stores the results. Only the
-- first Buffer_Size results are stored. Any results that do not fit in
-- this buffer will be displayed on the fly.
procedure Fill_Stack (Analyzer : in out Stack_Analyzer);
-- Fill an area of the stack with the pattern Analyzer.Pattern. The size
-- of this area is Analyzer.Size. After the call to this procedure,
-- the memory will look like that:
-- Stack growing
-- ---------------------------------------------------------------------->
-- |<--------------------->|<----------------------------------->|
-- | Stack frames to | Memory filled with Analyzer.Pattern |
-- | Fill_Stack | |
-- ^ | ^
-- Analyzer.Stack_Base | Analyzer.Pattern_Limit
-- ^
-- Analyzer.Pattern_Limit +/- Analyzer.Pattern_Size
procedure Initialize_Analyzer
(Analyzer : in out Stack_Analyzer;
Task_Name : String;
Stack_Size : Natural;
Stack_Base : Stack_Address;
Pattern_Size : Natural;
Pattern : Interfaces.Unsigned_32 := 16#DEAD_BEEF#);
-- Should be called before any use of a Stack_Analyzer, to initialize it.
-- Max_Pattern_Size is the size of the pattern zone, might be smaller than
-- the full stack size Stack_Size in order to take into account e.g. the
-- secondary stack and a guard against overflow. The actual size taken
-- will be readjusted with data already used at the time the stack is
-- actually filled.
Is_Enabled : Boolean := False;
-- When this flag is true, then stack analysis is enabled
procedure Compute_Result (Analyzer : in out Stack_Analyzer);
-- Read the pattern zone and deduce the stack usage. It should be called
-- from the same frame as Fill_Stack. If Analyzer.Probe is not null, an
-- array of Unsigned_32 with Analyzer.Probe elements is allocated on
-- Compute_Result's stack frame. Probe can be used to detect the error:
-- "instrumentation threshold at reading". See above. After the call
-- to this procedure, the memory will look like:
-- Stack growing
-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------->
-- |<---------------------->|<-------------->|<--------->|<--------->|
-- | Stack frames | Array of | used | Memory |
-- | to Compute_Result | Analyzer.Probe | during | filled |
-- | | elements | the | with |
-- | | | execution | pattern |
-- | | |
-- |<----------------------------------------------------> |
-- Stack used ^
-- Pattern_Limit
procedure Report_Result (Analyzer : Stack_Analyzer);
-- Store the results of the computation in memory, at the address
-- corresponding to the symbol __gnat_stack_usage_results. This is not
-- done inside Compute_Result in order to use as less stack as possible
-- within a task.
procedure Output_Results;
-- Print the results computed so far on the standard output. Should be
-- called when all tasks are dead.
pragma Export (C, Output_Results, "__gnat_stack_usage_output_results");
package Unsigned_32_Addr is
new System.Address_To_Access_Conversions (Interfaces.Unsigned_32);
subtype Pattern_Type is Interfaces.Unsigned_32;
Bytes_Per_Pattern : constant := Pattern_Type'Object_Size / Storage_Unit;
type Stack_Analyzer is record
Task_Name : String (1 .. Task_Name_Length);
-- Name of the task
Stack_Base : Stack_Address;
-- Address of the base of the stack, as given by the caller of
-- Initialize_Analyzer.
Stack_Size : Natural;
-- Entire size of the analyzed stack
Pattern_Size : Natural;
-- Size of the pattern zone
Pattern : Pattern_Type;
-- Pattern used to recognize untouched memory
Pattern_Limit : Stack_Address;
-- Bound of the pattern area farthest to the base
Topmost_Touched_Mark : Stack_Address;
-- Topmost address of the pattern area whose value it is pointing
-- at has been modified during execution. If the systematic error are
-- compensated, it is the topmost value of the stack pointer during
-- the execution.
Pattern_Overlay_Address : System.Address;
-- Address of the stack abstraction object we overlay over a
-- task's real stack, typically a pattern-initialized array.
Result_Id : Positive;
-- Id of the result. If less than value given to gnatbind -u corresponds
-- to the location in the result array of result for the current task.
end record;
Environment_Task_Analyzer : Stack_Analyzer;
Compute_Environment_Task : Boolean;
type Result_Array_Ptr is access all Result_Array_Type;
Result_Array : Result_Array_Ptr;
pragma Export (C, Result_Array, "__gnat_stack_usage_results");
-- Exported in order to have an easy accessible symbol in when debugging
Next_Id : Positive := 1;
-- Id of the next stack analyzer
function Stack_Size
(SP_Low : Stack_Address;
SP_High : Stack_Address) return Natural;
pragma Inline (Stack_Size);
-- Return the size of a portion of stack delimited by SP_High and SP_Low
-- (), i.e. the difference between SP_High and SP_Low. The storage element
-- pointed by SP_Low is not included in the size. Inlined to reduce the
-- size of the stack used by the instrumentation code.
end System.Stack_Usage;