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\input texinfo @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename libgomp.info
@settitle GNU libgomp
@c %**end of header
@copying
Copyright @copyright{} 2006-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``Funding Free Software'', the Front-Cover
texts being (a) (see below), and with the Back-Cover Texts being (b)
(see below). A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
``GNU Free Documentation License''.
(a) The FSF's Front-Cover Text is:
A GNU Manual
(b) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is:
You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
software. Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
funds for GNU development.
@end copying
@ifinfo
@dircategory GNU Libraries
@direntry
* libgomp: (libgomp). GNU Offloading and Multi Processing Runtime Library.
@end direntry
This manual documents libgomp, the GNU Offloading and Multi Processing
Runtime library. This is the GNU implementation of the OpenMP and
OpenACC APIs for parallel and accelerator programming in C/C++ and
Fortran.
Published by the Free Software Foundation
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
@insertcopying
@end ifinfo
@setchapternewpage odd
@titlepage
@title GNU Offloading and Multi Processing Runtime Library
@subtitle The GNU OpenMP and OpenACC Implementation
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@comment For the @value{version-GCC} Version*
@sp 1
Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor@*
Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA@*
@sp 1
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
@summarycontents
@contents
@page
@node Top
@top Introduction
@cindex Introduction
This manual documents the usage of libgomp, the GNU Offloading and
Multi Processing Runtime Library. This includes the GNU
implementation of the @uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP} Application
Programming Interface (API) for multi-platform shared-memory parallel
programming in C/C++ and Fortran, and the GNU implementation of the
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC} Application Programming
Interface (API) for offloading of code to accelerator devices in C/C++
and Fortran.
Originally, libgomp implemented the GNU OpenMP Runtime Library. Based
on this, support for OpenACC and offloading (both OpenACC and OpenMP
4's target construct) has been added later on, and the library's name
changed to GNU Offloading and Multi Processing Runtime Library.
@comment
@comment When you add a new menu item, please keep the right hand
@comment aligned to the same column. Do not use tabs. This provides
@comment better formatting.
@comment
@menu
* Enabling OpenMP:: How to enable OpenMP for your applications.
* OpenMP Runtime Library Routines: Runtime Library Routines.
The OpenMP runtime application programming
interface.
* OpenMP Environment Variables: Environment Variables.
Influencing OpenMP runtime behavior with
environment variables.
* Enabling OpenACC:: How to enable OpenACC for your
applications.
* OpenACC Runtime Library Routines:: The OpenACC runtime application
programming interface.
* OpenACC Environment Variables:: Influencing OpenACC runtime behavior with
environment variables.
* CUDA Streams Usage:: Notes on the implementation of
asynchronous operations.
* OpenACC Library Interoperability:: OpenACC library interoperability with the
NVIDIA CUBLAS library.
* OpenACC Profiling Interface::
* The libgomp ABI:: Notes on the external ABI presented by libgomp.
* Reporting Bugs:: How to report bugs in the GNU Offloading and
Multi Processing Runtime Library.
* Copying:: GNU general public license says
how you can copy and share libgomp.
* GNU Free Documentation License::
How you can copy and share this manual.
* Funding:: How to help assure continued work for free
software.
* Library Index:: Index of this documentation.
@end menu
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c Enabling OpenMP
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Enabling OpenMP
@chapter Enabling OpenMP
To activate the OpenMP extensions for C/C++ and Fortran, the compile-time
flag @command{-fopenmp} must be specified. This enables the OpenMP directive
@code{#pragma omp} in C/C++ and @code{!$omp} directives in free form,
@code{c$omp}, @code{*$omp} and @code{!$omp} directives in fixed form,
@code{!$} conditional compilation sentinels in free form and @code{c$},
@code{*$} and @code{!$} sentinels in fixed form, for Fortran. The flag also
arranges for automatic linking of the OpenMP runtime library
(@ref{Runtime Library Routines}).
A complete description of all OpenMP directives accepted may be found in
the @uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP Application Program Interface} manual,
version 4.5.
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c OpenMP Runtime Library Routines
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Runtime Library Routines
@chapter OpenMP Runtime Library Routines
The runtime routines described here are defined by Section 3 of the OpenMP
specification in version 4.5. The routines are structured in following
three parts:
@menu
Control threads, processors and the parallel environment. They have C
linkage, and do not throw exceptions.
* omp_get_active_level:: Number of active parallel regions
* omp_get_ancestor_thread_num:: Ancestor thread ID
* omp_get_cancellation:: Whether cancellation support is enabled
* omp_get_default_device:: Get the default device for target regions
* omp_get_dynamic:: Dynamic teams setting
* omp_get_level:: Number of parallel regions
* omp_get_max_active_levels:: Maximum number of active regions
* omp_get_max_task_priority:: Maximum task priority value that can be set
* omp_get_max_threads:: Maximum number of threads of parallel region
* omp_get_nested:: Nested parallel regions
* omp_get_num_devices:: Number of target devices
* omp_get_num_procs:: Number of processors online
* omp_get_num_teams:: Number of teams
* omp_get_num_threads:: Size of the active team
* omp_get_proc_bind:: Whether theads may be moved between CPUs
* omp_get_schedule:: Obtain the runtime scheduling method
* omp_get_team_num:: Get team number
* omp_get_team_size:: Number of threads in a team
* omp_get_thread_limit:: Maximum number of threads
* omp_get_thread_num:: Current thread ID
* omp_in_parallel:: Whether a parallel region is active
* omp_in_final:: Whether in final or included task region
* omp_is_initial_device:: Whether executing on the host device
* omp_set_default_device:: Set the default device for target regions
* omp_set_dynamic:: Enable/disable dynamic teams
* omp_set_max_active_levels:: Limits the number of active parallel regions
* omp_set_nested:: Enable/disable nested parallel regions
* omp_set_num_threads:: Set upper team size limit
* omp_set_schedule:: Set the runtime scheduling method
Initialize, set, test, unset and destroy simple and nested locks.
* omp_init_lock:: Initialize simple lock
* omp_set_lock:: Wait for and set simple lock
* omp_test_lock:: Test and set simple lock if available
* omp_unset_lock:: Unset simple lock
* omp_destroy_lock:: Destroy simple lock
* omp_init_nest_lock:: Initialize nested lock
* omp_set_nest_lock:: Wait for and set simple lock
* omp_test_nest_lock:: Test and set nested lock if available
* omp_unset_nest_lock:: Unset nested lock
* omp_destroy_nest_lock:: Destroy nested lock
Portable, thread-based, wall clock timer.
* omp_get_wtick:: Get timer precision.
* omp_get_wtime:: Elapsed wall clock time.
@end menu
@node omp_get_active_level
@section @code{omp_get_active_level} -- Number of parallel regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns the nesting level for the active parallel blocks,
which enclose the calling call.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_active_level(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_active_level()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_level}, @ref{omp_get_max_active_levels}, @ref{omp_set_max_active_levels}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.20.
@end table
@node omp_get_ancestor_thread_num
@section @code{omp_get_ancestor_thread_num} -- Ancestor thread ID
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns the thread identification number for the given
nesting level of the current thread. For values of @var{level} outside
zero to @code{omp_get_level} -1 is returned; if @var{level} is
@code{omp_get_level} the result is identical to @code{omp_get_thread_num}.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_ancestor_thread_num(int level);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_ancestor_thread_num(level)}
@item @tab @code{integer level}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_level}, @ref{omp_get_thread_num}, @ref{omp_get_team_size}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.18.
@end table
@node omp_get_cancellation
@section @code{omp_get_cancellation} -- Whether cancellation support is enabled
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns @code{true} if cancellation is activated, @code{false}
otherwise. Here, @code{true} and @code{false} represent their language-specific
counterparts. Unless @env{OMP_CANCELLATION} is set true, cancellations are
deactivated.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_cancellation(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_get_cancellation()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_CANCELLATION}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.9.
@end table
@node omp_get_default_device
@section @code{omp_get_default_device} -- Get the default device for target regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Get the default device for target regions without device clause.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_default_device(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_default_device()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_DEFAULT_DEVICE}, @ref{omp_set_default_device}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.30.
@end table
@node omp_get_dynamic
@section @code{omp_get_dynamic} -- Dynamic teams setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns @code{true} if enabled, @code{false} otherwise.
Here, @code{true} and @code{false} represent their language-specific
counterparts.
The dynamic team setting may be initialized at startup by the
@env{OMP_DYNAMIC} environment variable or at runtime using
@code{omp_set_dynamic}. If undefined, dynamic adjustment is
disabled by default.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_dynamic(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_get_dynamic()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_dynamic}, @ref{OMP_DYNAMIC}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.8.
@end table
@node omp_get_level
@section @code{omp_get_level} -- Obtain the current nesting level
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns the nesting level for the parallel blocks,
which enclose the calling call.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_level(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_level()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_active_level}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.17.
@end table
@node omp_get_max_active_levels
@section @code{omp_get_max_active_levels} -- Maximum number of active regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function obtains the maximum allowed number of nested, active parallel regions.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_max_active_levels(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_max_active_levels()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_max_active_levels}, @ref{omp_get_active_level}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.16.
@end table
@node omp_get_max_task_priority
@section @code{omp_get_max_task_priority} -- Maximum priority value
that can be set for tasks.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function obtains the maximum allowed priority number for tasks.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_max_task_priority(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_max_task_priority()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.29.
@end table
@node omp_get_max_threads
@section @code{omp_get_max_threads} -- Maximum number of threads of parallel region
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Return the maximum number of threads used for the current parallel region
that does not use the clause @code{num_threads}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_max_threads(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_max_threads()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_num_threads}, @ref{omp_set_dynamic}, @ref{omp_get_thread_limit}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.3.
@end table
@node omp_get_nested
@section @code{omp_get_nested} -- Nested parallel regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns @code{true} if nested parallel regions are
enabled, @code{false} otherwise. Here, @code{true} and @code{false}
represent their language-specific counterparts.
Nested parallel regions may be initialized at startup by the
@env{OMP_NESTED} environment variable or at runtime using
@code{omp_set_nested}. If undefined, nested parallel regions are
disabled by default.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_nested(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_get_nested()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_nested}, @ref{OMP_NESTED}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.11.
@end table
@node omp_get_num_devices
@section @code{omp_get_num_devices} -- Number of target devices
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Returns the number of target devices.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_num_devices(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_num_devices()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.31.
@end table
@node omp_get_num_procs
@section @code{omp_get_num_procs} -- Number of processors online
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Returns the number of processors online on that device.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_num_procs(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_num_procs()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.5.
@end table
@node omp_get_num_teams
@section @code{omp_get_num_teams} -- Number of teams
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Returns the number of teams in the current team region.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_num_teams(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_num_teams()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.32.
@end table
@node omp_get_num_threads
@section @code{omp_get_num_threads} -- Size of the active team
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Returns the number of threads in the current team. In a sequential section of
the program @code{omp_get_num_threads} returns 1.
The default team size may be initialized at startup by the
@env{OMP_NUM_THREADS} environment variable. At runtime, the size
of the current team may be set either by the @code{NUM_THREADS}
clause or by @code{omp_set_num_threads}. If none of the above were
used to define a specific value and @env{OMP_DYNAMIC} is disabled,
one thread per CPU online is used.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_num_threads(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_num_threads()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_max_threads}, @ref{omp_set_num_threads}, @ref{OMP_NUM_THREADS}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.2.
@end table
@node omp_get_proc_bind
@section @code{omp_get_proc_bind} -- Whether theads may be moved between CPUs
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This functions returns the currently active thread affinity policy, which is
set via @env{OMP_PROC_BIND}. Possible values are @code{omp_proc_bind_false},
@code{omp_proc_bind_true}, @code{omp_proc_bind_master},
@code{omp_proc_bind_close} and @code{omp_proc_bind_spread}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{omp_proc_bind_t omp_get_proc_bind(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer(kind=omp_proc_bind_kind) function omp_get_proc_bind()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_PROC_BIND}, @ref{OMP_PLACES}, @ref{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY},
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.22.
@end table
@node omp_get_schedule
@section @code{omp_get_schedule} -- Obtain the runtime scheduling method
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Obtain the runtime scheduling method. The @var{kind} argument will be
set to the value @code{omp_sched_static}, @code{omp_sched_dynamic},
@code{omp_sched_guided} or @code{omp_sched_auto}. The second argument,
@var{chunk_size}, is set to the chunk size.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_get_schedule(omp_sched_t *kind, int *chunk_size);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_get_schedule(kind, chunk_size)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=omp_sched_kind) kind}
@item @tab @code{integer chunk_size}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_schedule}, @ref{OMP_SCHEDULE}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.13.
@end table
@node omp_get_team_num
@section @code{omp_get_team_num} -- Get team number
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Returns the team number of the calling thread.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_team_num(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_team_num()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.33.
@end table
@node omp_get_team_size
@section @code{omp_get_team_size} -- Number of threads in a team
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns the number of threads in a thread team to which
either the current thread or its ancestor belongs. For values of @var{level}
outside zero to @code{omp_get_level}, -1 is returned; if @var{level} is zero,
1 is returned, and for @code{omp_get_level}, the result is identical
to @code{omp_get_num_threads}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_team_size(int level);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_team_size(level)}
@item @tab @code{integer level}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_num_threads}, @ref{omp_get_level}, @ref{omp_get_ancestor_thread_num}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.19.
@end table
@node omp_get_thread_limit
@section @code{omp_get_thread_limit} -- Maximum number of threads
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Return the maximum number of threads of the program.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_thread_limit(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_thread_limit()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_max_threads}, @ref{OMP_THREAD_LIMIT}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.14.
@end table
@node omp_get_thread_num
@section @code{omp_get_thread_num} -- Current thread ID
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Returns a unique thread identification number within the current team.
In a sequential parts of the program, @code{omp_get_thread_num}
always returns 0. In parallel regions the return value varies
from 0 to @code{omp_get_num_threads}-1 inclusive. The return
value of the master thread of a team is always 0.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_get_thread_num(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function omp_get_thread_num()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_num_threads}, @ref{omp_get_ancestor_thread_num}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.4.
@end table
@node omp_in_parallel
@section @code{omp_in_parallel} -- Whether a parallel region is active
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns @code{true} if currently running in parallel,
@code{false} otherwise. Here, @code{true} and @code{false} represent
their language-specific counterparts.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_in_parallel(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_in_parallel()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.6.
@end table
@node omp_in_final
@section @code{omp_in_final} -- Whether in final or included task region
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns @code{true} if currently running in a final
or included task region, @code{false} otherwise. Here, @code{true}
and @code{false} represent their language-specific counterparts.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_in_final(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_in_final()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.21.
@end table
@node omp_is_initial_device
@section @code{omp_is_initial_device} -- Whether executing on the host device
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns @code{true} if currently running on the host device,
@code{false} otherwise. Here, @code{true} and @code{false} represent
their language-specific counterparts.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_is_initial_device(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_is_initial_device()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.34.
@end table
@node omp_set_default_device
@section @code{omp_set_default_device} -- Set the default device for target regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Set the default device for target regions without device clause. The argument
shall be a nonnegative device number.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_default_device(int device_num);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_default_device(device_num)}
@item @tab @code{integer device_num}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_DEFAULT_DEVICE}, @ref{omp_get_default_device}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.29.
@end table
@node omp_set_dynamic
@section @code{omp_set_dynamic} -- Enable/disable dynamic teams
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Enable or disable the dynamic adjustment of the number of threads
within a team. The function takes the language-specific equivalent
of @code{true} and @code{false}, where @code{true} enables dynamic
adjustment of team sizes and @code{false} disables it.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_dynamic(int dynamic_threads);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_dynamic(dynamic_threads)}
@item @tab @code{logical, intent(in) :: dynamic_threads}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_DYNAMIC}, @ref{omp_get_dynamic}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.7.
@end table
@node omp_set_max_active_levels
@section @code{omp_set_max_active_levels} -- Limits the number of active parallel regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function limits the maximum allowed number of nested, active
parallel regions.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_max_active_levels(int max_levels);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_max_active_levels(max_levels)}
@item @tab @code{integer max_levels}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_max_active_levels}, @ref{omp_get_active_level}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.15.
@end table
@node omp_set_nested
@section @code{omp_set_nested} -- Enable/disable nested parallel regions
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Enable or disable nested parallel regions, i.e., whether team members
are allowed to create new teams. The function takes the language-specific
equivalent of @code{true} and @code{false}, where @code{true} enables
dynamic adjustment of team sizes and @code{false} disables it.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_nested(int nested);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_nested(nested)}
@item @tab @code{logical, intent(in) :: nested}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_NESTED}, @ref{omp_get_nested}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.10.
@end table
@node omp_set_num_threads
@section @code{omp_set_num_threads} -- Set upper team size limit
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies the number of threads used by default in subsequent parallel
sections, if those do not specify a @code{num_threads} clause. The
argument of @code{omp_set_num_threads} shall be a positive integer.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_num_threads(int num_threads);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_num_threads(num_threads)}
@item @tab @code{integer, intent(in) :: num_threads}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_NUM_THREADS}, @ref{omp_get_num_threads}, @ref{omp_get_max_threads}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.1.
@end table
@node omp_set_schedule
@section @code{omp_set_schedule} -- Set the runtime scheduling method
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Sets the runtime scheduling method. The @var{kind} argument can have the
value @code{omp_sched_static}, @code{omp_sched_dynamic},
@code{omp_sched_guided} or @code{omp_sched_auto}. Except for
@code{omp_sched_auto}, the chunk size is set to the value of
@var{chunk_size} if positive, or to the default value if zero or negative.
For @code{omp_sched_auto} the @var{chunk_size} argument is ignored.
@item @emph{C/C++}
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_schedule(omp_sched_t kind, int chunk_size);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_schedule(kind, chunk_size)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=omp_sched_kind) kind}
@item @tab @code{integer chunk_size}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_schedule}
@ref{OMP_SCHEDULE}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.2.12.
@end table
@node omp_init_lock
@section @code{omp_init_lock} -- Initialize simple lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Initialize a simple lock. After initialization, the lock is in
an unlocked state.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_init_lock(omp_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_init_lock(svar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_lock_kind), intent(out) :: svar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_destroy_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.1.
@end table
@node omp_set_lock
@section @code{omp_set_lock} -- Wait for and set simple lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Before setting a simple lock, the lock variable must be initialized by
@code{omp_init_lock}. The calling thread is blocked until the lock
is available. If the lock is already held by the current thread,
a deadlock occurs.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_lock(omp_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_lock(svar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: svar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_init_lock}, @ref{omp_test_lock}, @ref{omp_unset_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.4.
@end table
@node omp_test_lock
@section @code{omp_test_lock} -- Test and set simple lock if available
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Before setting a simple lock, the lock variable must be initialized by
@code{omp_init_lock}. Contrary to @code{omp_set_lock}, @code{omp_test_lock}
does not block if the lock is not available. This function returns
@code{true} upon success, @code{false} otherwise. Here, @code{true} and
@code{false} represent their language-specific counterparts.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_test_lock(omp_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_test_lock(svar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: svar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_init_lock}, @ref{omp_set_lock}, @ref{omp_set_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.6.
@end table
@node omp_unset_lock
@section @code{omp_unset_lock} -- Unset simple lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
A simple lock about to be unset must have been locked by @code{omp_set_lock}
or @code{omp_test_lock} before. In addition, the lock must be held by the
thread calling @code{omp_unset_lock}. Then, the lock becomes unlocked. If one
or more threads attempted to set the lock before, one of them is chosen to,
again, set the lock to itself.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_unset_lock(omp_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_unset_lock(svar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: svar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_lock}, @ref{omp_test_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.5.
@end table
@node omp_destroy_lock
@section @code{omp_destroy_lock} -- Destroy simple lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Destroy a simple lock. In order to be destroyed, a simple lock must be
in the unlocked state.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_destroy_lock(omp_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_destroy_lock(svar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: svar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_init_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.3.
@end table
@node omp_init_nest_lock
@section @code{omp_init_nest_lock} -- Initialize nested lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Initialize a nested lock. After initialization, the lock is in
an unlocked state and the nesting count is set to zero.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_init_nest_lock(omp_nest_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_init_nest_lock(nvar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_nest_lock_kind), intent(out) :: nvar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_destroy_nest_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.1.
@end table
@node omp_set_nest_lock
@section @code{omp_set_nest_lock} -- Wait for and set nested lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Before setting a nested lock, the lock variable must be initialized by
@code{omp_init_nest_lock}. The calling thread is blocked until the lock
is available. If the lock is already held by the current thread, the
nesting count for the lock is incremented.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_set_nest_lock(omp_nest_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_set_nest_lock(nvar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_nest_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: nvar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_init_nest_lock}, @ref{omp_unset_nest_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.4.
@end table
@node omp_test_nest_lock
@section @code{omp_test_nest_lock} -- Test and set nested lock if available
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Before setting a nested lock, the lock variable must be initialized by
@code{omp_init_nest_lock}. Contrary to @code{omp_set_nest_lock},
@code{omp_test_nest_lock} does not block if the lock is not available.
If the lock is already held by the current thread, the new nesting count
is returned. Otherwise, the return value equals zero.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int omp_test_nest_lock(omp_nest_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{logical function omp_test_nest_lock(nvar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_nest_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: nvar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_init_lock}, @ref{omp_set_lock}, @ref{omp_set_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.6.
@end table
@node omp_unset_nest_lock
@section @code{omp_unset_nest_lock} -- Unset nested lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
A nested lock about to be unset must have been locked by @code{omp_set_nested_lock}
or @code{omp_test_nested_lock} before. In addition, the lock must be held by the
thread calling @code{omp_unset_nested_lock}. If the nesting count drops to zero, the
lock becomes unlocked. If one ore more threads attempted to set the lock before,
one of them is chosen to, again, set the lock to itself.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_unset_nest_lock(omp_nest_lock_t *lock);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_unset_nest_lock(nvar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_nest_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: nvar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_nest_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.5.
@end table
@node omp_destroy_nest_lock
@section @code{omp_destroy_nest_lock} -- Destroy nested lock
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Destroy a nested lock. In order to be destroyed, a nested lock must be
in the unlocked state and its nesting count must equal zero.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void omp_destroy_nest_lock(omp_nest_lock_t *);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine omp_destroy_nest_lock(nvar)}
@item @tab @code{integer(omp_nest_lock_kind), intent(inout) :: nvar}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_init_lock}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.3.3.
@end table
@node omp_get_wtick
@section @code{omp_get_wtick} -- Get timer precision
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Gets the timer precision, i.e., the number of seconds between two
successive clock ticks.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{double omp_get_wtick(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{double precision function omp_get_wtick()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_wtime}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.4.2.
@end table
@node omp_get_wtime
@section @code{omp_get_wtime} -- Elapsed wall clock time
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Elapsed wall clock time in seconds. The time is measured per thread, no
guarantee can be made that two distinct threads measure the same time.
Time is measured from some "time in the past", which is an arbitrary time
guaranteed not to change during the execution of the program.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{double omp_get_wtime(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{double precision function omp_get_wtime()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_wtick}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 3.4.1.
@end table
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c OpenMP Environment Variables
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Environment Variables
@chapter OpenMP Environment Variables
The environment variables which beginning with @env{OMP_} are defined by
section 4 of the OpenMP specification in version 4.5, while those
beginning with @env{GOMP_} are GNU extensions.
@menu
* OMP_CANCELLATION:: Set whether cancellation is activated
* OMP_DISPLAY_ENV:: Show OpenMP version and environment variables
* OMP_DEFAULT_DEVICE:: Set the device used in target regions
* OMP_DYNAMIC:: Dynamic adjustment of threads
* OMP_MAX_ACTIVE_LEVELS:: Set the maximum number of nested parallel regions
* OMP_MAX_TASK_PRIORITY:: Set the maximum task priority value
* OMP_NESTED:: Nested parallel regions
* OMP_NUM_THREADS:: Specifies the number of threads to use
* OMP_PROC_BIND:: Whether theads may be moved between CPUs
* OMP_PLACES:: Specifies on which CPUs the theads should be placed
* OMP_STACKSIZE:: Set default thread stack size
* OMP_SCHEDULE:: How threads are scheduled
* OMP_THREAD_LIMIT:: Set the maximum number of threads
* OMP_WAIT_POLICY:: How waiting threads are handled
* GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY:: Bind threads to specific CPUs
* GOMP_DEBUG:: Enable debugging output
* GOMP_STACKSIZE:: Set default thread stack size
* GOMP_SPINCOUNT:: Set the busy-wait spin count
* GOMP_RTEMS_THREAD_POOLS:: Set the RTEMS specific thread pools
@end menu
@node OMP_CANCELLATION
@section @env{OMP_CANCELLATION} -- Set whether cancellation is activated
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
If set to @code{TRUE}, the cancellation is activated. If set to @code{FALSE} or
if unset, cancellation is disabled and the @code{cancel} construct is ignored.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_cancellation}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.11
@end table
@node OMP_DISPLAY_ENV
@section @env{OMP_DISPLAY_ENV} -- Show OpenMP version and environment variables
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
If set to @code{TRUE}, the OpenMP version number and the values
associated with the OpenMP environment variables are printed to @code{stderr}.
If set to @code{VERBOSE}, it additionally shows the value of the environment
variables which are GNU extensions. If undefined or set to @code{FALSE},
this information will not be shown.
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.12
@end table
@node OMP_DEFAULT_DEVICE
@section @env{OMP_DEFAULT_DEVICE} -- Set the device used in target regions
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Set to choose the device which is used in a @code{target} region, unless the
value is overridden by @code{omp_set_default_device} or by a @code{device}
clause. The value shall be the nonnegative device number. If no device with
the given device number exists, the code is executed on the host. If unset,
device number 0 will be used.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_default_device}, @ref{omp_set_default_device},
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.13
@end table
@node OMP_DYNAMIC
@section @env{OMP_DYNAMIC} -- Dynamic adjustment of threads
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Enable or disable the dynamic adjustment of the number of threads
within a team. The value of this environment variable shall be
@code{TRUE} or @code{FALSE}. If undefined, dynamic adjustment is
disabled by default.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_dynamic}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.3
@end table
@node OMP_MAX_ACTIVE_LEVELS
@section @env{OMP_MAX_ACTIVE_LEVELS} -- Set the maximum number of nested parallel regions
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies the initial value for the maximum number of nested parallel
regions. The value of this variable shall be a positive integer.
If undefined, the number of active levels is unlimited.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_max_active_levels}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.9
@end table
@node OMP_MAX_TASK_PRIORITY
@section @env{OMP_MAX_TASK_PRIORITY} -- Set the maximum priority
number that can be set for a task.
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies the initial value for the maximum priority value that can be
set for a task. The value of this variable shall be a non-negative
integer, and zero is allowed. If undefined, the default priority is
0.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_get_max_task_priority}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.14
@end table
@node OMP_NESTED
@section @env{OMP_NESTED} -- Nested parallel regions
@cindex Environment Variable
@cindex Implementation specific setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Enable or disable nested parallel regions, i.e., whether team members
are allowed to create new teams. The value of this environment variable
shall be @code{TRUE} or @code{FALSE}. If undefined, nested parallel
regions are disabled by default.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_nested}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.6
@end table
@node OMP_NUM_THREADS
@section @env{OMP_NUM_THREADS} -- Specifies the number of threads to use
@cindex Environment Variable
@cindex Implementation specific setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies the default number of threads to use in parallel regions. The
value of this variable shall be a comma-separated list of positive integers;
the value specified the number of threads to use for the corresponding nested
level. If undefined one thread per CPU is used.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_num_threads}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.2
@end table
@node OMP_PROC_BIND
@section @env{OMP_PROC_BIND} -- Whether theads may be moved between CPUs
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies whether threads may be moved between processors. If set to
@code{TRUE}, OpenMP theads should not be moved; if set to @code{FALSE}
they may be moved. Alternatively, a comma separated list with the
values @code{MASTER}, @code{CLOSE} and @code{SPREAD} can be used to specify
the thread affinity policy for the corresponding nesting level. With
@code{MASTER} the worker threads are in the same place partition as the
master thread. With @code{CLOSE} those are kept close to the master thread
in contiguous place partitions. And with @code{SPREAD} a sparse distribution
across the place partitions is used.
When undefined, @env{OMP_PROC_BIND} defaults to @code{TRUE} when
@env{OMP_PLACES} or @env{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY} is set and @code{FALSE} otherwise.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_PLACES}, @ref{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY}, @ref{omp_get_proc_bind}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.4
@end table
@node OMP_PLACES
@section @env{OMP_PLACES} -- Specifies on which CPUs the theads should be placed
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
The thread placement can be either specified using an abstract name or by an
explicit list of the places. The abstract names @code{threads}, @code{cores}
and @code{sockets} can be optionally followed by a positive number in
parentheses, which denotes the how many places shall be created. With
@code{threads} each place corresponds to a single hardware thread; @code{cores}
to a single core with the corresponding number of hardware threads; and with
@code{sockets} the place corresponds to a single socket. The resulting
placement can be shown by setting the @env{OMP_DISPLAY_ENV} environment
variable.
Alternatively, the placement can be specified explicitly as comma-separated
list of places. A place is specified by set of nonnegative numbers in curly
braces, denoting the denoting the hardware threads. The hardware threads
belonging to a place can either be specified as comma-separated list of
nonnegative thread numbers or using an interval. Multiple places can also be
either specified by a comma-separated list of places or by an interval. To
specify an interval, a colon followed by the count is placed after after
the hardware thread number or the place. Optionally, the length can be
followed by a colon and the stride number -- otherwise a unit stride is
assumed. For instance, the following specifies the same places list:
@code{"@{0,1,2@}, @{3,4,6@}, @{7,8,9@}, @{10,11,12@}"};
@code{"@{0:3@}, @{3:3@}, @{7:3@}, @{10:3@}"}; and @code{"@{0:2@}:4:3"}.
If @env{OMP_PLACES} and @env{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY} are unset and
@env{OMP_PROC_BIND} is either unset or @code{false}, threads may be moved
between CPUs following no placement policy.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_PROC_BIND}, @ref{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY}, @ref{omp_get_proc_bind},
@ref{OMP_DISPLAY_ENV}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.5
@end table
@node OMP_STACKSIZE
@section @env{OMP_STACKSIZE} -- Set default thread stack size
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Set the default thread stack size in kilobytes, unless the number
is suffixed by @code{B}, @code{K}, @code{M} or @code{G}, in which
case the size is, respectively, in bytes, kilobytes, megabytes
or gigabytes. This is different from @code{pthread_attr_setstacksize}
which gets the number of bytes as an argument. If the stack size cannot
be set due to system constraints, an error is reported and the initial
stack size is left unchanged. If undefined, the stack size is system
dependent.
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.7
@end table
@node OMP_SCHEDULE
@section @env{OMP_SCHEDULE} -- How threads are scheduled
@cindex Environment Variable
@cindex Implementation specific setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Allows to specify @code{schedule type} and @code{chunk size}.
The value of the variable shall have the form: @code{type[,chunk]} where
@code{type} is one of @code{static}, @code{dynamic}, @code{guided} or @code{auto}
The optional @code{chunk} size shall be a positive integer. If undefined,
dynamic scheduling and a chunk size of 1 is used.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{omp_set_schedule}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Sections 2.7.1.1 and 4.1
@end table
@node OMP_THREAD_LIMIT
@section @env{OMP_THREAD_LIMIT} -- Set the maximum number of threads
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies the number of threads to use for the whole program. The
value of this variable shall be a positive integer. If undefined,
the number of threads is not limited.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_NUM_THREADS}, @ref{omp_get_thread_limit}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.10
@end table
@node OMP_WAIT_POLICY
@section @env{OMP_WAIT_POLICY} -- How waiting threads are handled
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Specifies whether waiting threads should be active or passive. If
the value is @code{PASSIVE}, waiting threads should not consume CPU
power while waiting; while the value is @code{ACTIVE} specifies that
they should. If undefined, threads wait actively for a short time
before waiting passively.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{GOMP_SPINCOUNT}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openmp.org, OpenMP specification v4.5}, Section 4.8
@end table
@node GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY
@section @env{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY} -- Bind threads to specific CPUs
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Binds threads to specific CPUs. The variable should contain a space-separated
or comma-separated list of CPUs. This list may contain different kinds of
entries: either single CPU numbers in any order, a range of CPUs (M-N)
or a range with some stride (M-N:S). CPU numbers are zero based. For example,
@code{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY="0 3 1-2 4-15:2"} will bind the initial thread
to CPU 0, the second to CPU 3, the third to CPU 1, the fourth to
CPU 2, the fifth to CPU 4, the sixth through tenth to CPUs 6, 8, 10, 12,
and 14 respectively and then start assigning back from the beginning of
the list. @code{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY=0} binds all threads to CPU 0.
There is no libgomp library routine to determine whether a CPU affinity
specification is in effect. As a workaround, language-specific library
functions, e.g., @code{getenv} in C or @code{GET_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE} in
Fortran, may be used to query the setting of the @code{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY}
environment variable. A defined CPU affinity on startup cannot be changed
or disabled during the runtime of the application.
If both @env{GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY} and @env{OMP_PROC_BIND} are set,
@env{OMP_PROC_BIND} has a higher precedence. If neither has been set and
@env{OMP_PROC_BIND} is unset, or when @env{OMP_PROC_BIND} is set to
@code{FALSE}, the host system will handle the assignment of threads to CPUs.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_PLACES}, @ref{OMP_PROC_BIND}
@end table
@node GOMP_DEBUG
@section @env{GOMP_DEBUG} -- Enable debugging output
@cindex Environment Variable
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Enable debugging output. The variable should be set to @code{0}
(disabled, also the default if not set), or @code{1} (enabled).
If enabled, some debugging output will be printed during execution.
This is currently not specified in more detail, and subject to change.
@end table
@node GOMP_STACKSIZE
@section @env{GOMP_STACKSIZE} -- Set default thread stack size
@cindex Environment Variable
@cindex Implementation specific setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Set the default thread stack size in kilobytes. This is different from
@code{pthread_attr_setstacksize} which gets the number of bytes as an
argument. If the stack size cannot be set due to system constraints, an
error is reported and the initial stack size is left unchanged. If undefined,
the stack size is system dependent.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_STACKSIZE}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc-patches/2006-06/msg00493.html,
GCC Patches Mailinglist},
@uref{http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc-patches/2006-06/msg00496.html,
GCC Patches Mailinglist}
@end table
@node GOMP_SPINCOUNT
@section @env{GOMP_SPINCOUNT} -- Set the busy-wait spin count
@cindex Environment Variable
@cindex Implementation specific setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Determines how long a threads waits actively with consuming CPU power
before waiting passively without consuming CPU power. The value may be
either @code{INFINITE}, @code{INFINITY} to always wait actively or an
integer which gives the number of spins of the busy-wait loop. The
integer may optionally be followed by the following suffixes acting
as multiplication factors: @code{k} (kilo, thousand), @code{M} (mega,
million), @code{G} (giga, billion), or @code{T} (tera, trillion).
If undefined, 0 is used when @env{OMP_WAIT_POLICY} is @code{PASSIVE},
300,000 is used when @env{OMP_WAIT_POLICY} is undefined and
30 billion is used when @env{OMP_WAIT_POLICY} is @code{ACTIVE}.
If there are more OpenMP threads than available CPUs, 1000 and 100
spins are used for @env{OMP_WAIT_POLICY} being @code{ACTIVE} or
undefined, respectively; unless the @env{GOMP_SPINCOUNT} is lower
or @env{OMP_WAIT_POLICY} is @code{PASSIVE}.
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OMP_WAIT_POLICY}
@end table
@node GOMP_RTEMS_THREAD_POOLS
@section @env{GOMP_RTEMS_THREAD_POOLS} -- Set the RTEMS specific thread pools
@cindex Environment Variable
@cindex Implementation specific setting
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This environment variable is only used on the RTEMS real-time operating system.
It determines the scheduler instance specific thread pools. The format for
@env{GOMP_RTEMS_THREAD_POOLS} is a list of optional
@code{<thread-pool-count>[$<priority>]@@<scheduler-name>} configurations
separated by @code{:} where:
@itemize @bullet
@item @code{<thread-pool-count>} is the thread pool count for this scheduler
instance.
@item @code{$<priority>} is an optional priority for the worker threads of a
thread pool according to @code{pthread_setschedparam}. In case a priority
value is omitted, then a worker thread will inherit the priority of the OpenMP
master thread that created it. The priority of the worker thread is not
changed after creation, even if a new OpenMP master thread using the worker has
a different priority.
@item @code{@@<scheduler-name>} is the scheduler instance name according to the
RTEMS application configuration.
@end itemize
In case no thread pool configuration is specified for a scheduler instance,
then each OpenMP master thread of this scheduler instance will use its own
dynamically allocated thread pool. To limit the worker thread count of the
thread pools, each OpenMP master thread must call @code{omp_set_num_threads}.
@item @emph{Example}:
Lets suppose we have three scheduler instances @code{IO}, @code{WRK0}, and
@code{WRK1} with @env{GOMP_RTEMS_THREAD_POOLS} set to
@code{"1@@WRK0:3$4@@WRK1"}. Then there are no thread pool restrictions for
scheduler instance @code{IO}. In the scheduler instance @code{WRK0} there is
one thread pool available. Since no priority is specified for this scheduler
instance, the worker thread inherits the priority of the OpenMP master thread
that created it. In the scheduler instance @code{WRK1} there are three thread
pools available and their worker threads run at priority four.
@end table
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c Enabling OpenACC
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Enabling OpenACC
@chapter Enabling OpenACC
To activate the OpenACC extensions for C/C++ and Fortran, the compile-time
flag @option{-fopenacc} must be specified. This enables the OpenACC directive
@code{#pragma acc} in C/C++ and @code{!$accp} directives in free form,
@code{c$acc}, @code{*$acc} and @code{!$acc} directives in fixed form,
@code{!$} conditional compilation sentinels in free form and @code{c$},
@code{*$} and @code{!$} sentinels in fixed form, for Fortran. The flag also
arranges for automatic linking of the OpenACC runtime library
(@ref{OpenACC Runtime Library Routines}).
A complete description of all OpenACC directives accepted may be found in
the @uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC} Application Programming
Interface manual, version 2.6.
Note that this is an experimental feature and subject to
change in future versions of GCC. See
@uref{https://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/OpenACC} for more information.
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c OpenACC Runtime Library Routines
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node OpenACC Runtime Library Routines
@chapter OpenACC Runtime Library Routines
The runtime routines described here are defined by section 3 of the OpenACC
specifications in version 2.6.
They have C linkage, and do not throw exceptions.
Generally, they are available only for the host, with the exception of
@code{acc_on_device}, which is available for both the host and the
acceleration device.
This list has not yet been updated for the OpenACC specification in
version 2.6.
@menu
* acc_get_num_devices:: Get number of devices for the given device
type.
* acc_set_device_type:: Set type of device accelerator to use.
* acc_get_device_type:: Get type of device accelerator to be used.
* acc_set_device_num:: Set device number to use.
* acc_get_device_num:: Get device number to be used.
* acc_get_property:: Get device property.
* acc_async_test:: Tests for completion of a specific asynchronous
operation.
* acc_async_test_all:: Tests for completion of all asychronous
operations.
* acc_wait:: Wait for completion of a specific asynchronous
operation.
* acc_wait_all:: Waits for completion of all asyncrhonous
operations.
* acc_wait_all_async:: Wait for completion of all asynchronous
operations.
* acc_wait_async:: Wait for completion of asynchronous operations.
* acc_init:: Initialize runtime for a specific device type.
* acc_shutdown:: Shuts down the runtime for a specific device
type.
* acc_on_device:: Whether executing on a particular device
* acc_malloc:: Allocate device memory.
* acc_free:: Free device memory.
* acc_copyin:: Allocate device memory and copy host memory to
it.
* acc_present_or_copyin:: If the data is not present on the device,
allocate device memory and copy from host
memory.
* acc_create:: Allocate device memory and map it to host
memory.
* acc_present_or_create:: If the data is not present on the device,
allocate device memory and map it to host
memory.
* acc_copyout:: Copy device memory to host memory.
* acc_delete:: Free device memory.
* acc_update_device:: Update device memory from mapped host memory.
* acc_update_self:: Update host memory from mapped device memory.
* acc_map_data:: Map previously allocated device memory to host
memory.
* acc_unmap_data:: Unmap device memory from host memory.
* acc_deviceptr:: Get device pointer associated with specific
host address.
* acc_hostptr:: Get host pointer associated with specific
device address.
* acc_is_present:: Indiciate whether host variable / array is
present on device.
* acc_memcpy_to_device:: Copy host memory to device memory.
* acc_memcpy_from_device:: Copy device memory to host memory.
API routines for target platforms.
* acc_get_current_cuda_device:: Get CUDA device handle.
* acc_get_current_cuda_context::Get CUDA context handle.
* acc_get_cuda_stream:: Get CUDA stream handle.
* acc_set_cuda_stream:: Set CUDA stream handle.
API routines for the OpenACC Profiling Interface.
* acc_prof_register:: Register callbacks.
* acc_prof_unregister:: Unregister callbacks.
* acc_prof_lookup:: Obtain inquiry functions.
* acc_register_library:: Library registration.
@end menu
@node acc_get_num_devices
@section @code{acc_get_num_devices} -- Get number of devices for given device type
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns a value indicating the number of devices available
for the device type specified in @var{devicetype}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int acc_get_num_devices(acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{integer function acc_get_num_devices(devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.1.
@end table
@node acc_set_device_type
@section @code{acc_set_device_type} -- Set type of device accelerator to use.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function indicates to the runtime library which device typr, specified
in @var{devicetype}, to use when executing a parallel or kernels region.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_set_device_type(acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_set_device_type(devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.2.
@end table
@node acc_get_device_type
@section @code{acc_get_device_type} -- Get type of device accelerator to be used.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns what device type will be used when executing a
parallel or kernels region.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_device_t acc_get_device_type(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_get_device_type(void)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_kind) acc_get_device_type}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.3.
@end table
@node acc_set_device_num
@section @code{acc_set_device_num} -- Set device number to use.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function will indicate to the runtime which device number,
specified by @var{num}, associated with the specifed device
type @var{devicetype}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_set_device_num(int num, acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_set_device_num(devicenum, devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer devicenum}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.4.
@end table
@node acc_get_device_num
@section @code{acc_get_device_num} -- Get device number to be used.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns which device number associated with the specified device
type @var{devicetype}, will be used when executing a parallel or kernels
region.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int acc_get_device_num(acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_get_device_num(devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@item @tab @code{integer acc_get_device_num}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.5.
@end table
@node acc_get_property
@section @code{acc_get_property} -- Get device property.
@cindex acc_get_property
@cindex acc_get_property_string
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
These routines return the value of the specified @var{property} for the
device being queried according to @var{devicenum} and @var{devicetype}.
Integer-valued and string-valued properties are returned by
@code{acc_get_property} and @code{acc_get_property_string} respectively.
The Fortran @code{acc_get_property_string} subroutine returns the string
retrieved in its fourth argument while the remaining entry points are
functions, which pass the return value as their result.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{size_t acc_get_property(int devicenum, acc_device_t devicetype, acc_device_property_t property);}
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{const char *acc_get_property_string(int devicenum, acc_device_t devicetype, acc_device_property_t property);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_get_property(devicenum, devicetype, property)}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_get_property_string(devicenum, devicetype, property, string)}
@item @tab @code{integer devicenum}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_property) property}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_device_property) acc_get_property}
@item @tab @code{character(*) string}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.6.
@end table
@node acc_async_test
@section @code{acc_async_test} -- Test for completion of a specific asynchronous operation.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function tests for completion of the asynchrounous operation specified
in @var{arg}. In C/C++, a non-zero value will be returned to indicate
the specified asynchronous operation has completed. While Fortran will return
a @code{true}. If the asynchrounous operation has not completed, C/C++ returns
a zero and Fortran returns a @code{false}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int acc_async_test(int arg);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_async_test(arg)}
@item @tab @code{integer(kind=acc_handle_kind) arg}
@item @tab @code{logical acc_async_test}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.9.
@end table
@node acc_async_test_all
@section @code{acc_async_test_all} -- Tests for completion of all asynchronous operations.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function tests for completion of all asynchrounous operations.
In C/C++, a non-zero value will be returned to indicate all asynchronous
operations have completed. While Fortran will return a @code{true}. If
any asynchronous operation has not completed, C/C++ returns a zero and
Fortran returns a @code{false}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int acc_async_test_all(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_async_test()}
@item @tab @code{logical acc_get_device_num}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.10.
@end table
@node acc_wait
@section @code{acc_wait} -- Wait for completion of a specific asynchronous operation.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function waits for completion of the asynchronous operation
specified in @var{arg}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_wait(arg);}
@item @emph{Prototype (OpenACC 1.0 compatibility)}: @tab @code{acc_async_wait(arg);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_wait(arg)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_handle_kind) arg}
@item @emph{Interface (OpenACC 1.0 compatibility)}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_async_wait(arg)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_handle_kind) arg}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.11.
@end table
@node acc_wait_all
@section @code{acc_wait_all} -- Waits for completion of all asynchronous operations.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function waits for the completion of all asynchronous operations.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_wait_all(void);}
@item @emph{Prototype (OpenACC 1.0 compatibility)}: @tab @code{acc_async_wait_all(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_wait_all()}
@item @emph{Interface (OpenACC 1.0 compatibility)}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_async_wait_all()}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.13.
@end table
@node acc_wait_all_async
@section @code{acc_wait_all_async} -- Wait for completion of all asynchronous operations.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function enqueues a wait operation on the queue @var{async} for any
and all asynchronous operations that have been previously enqueued on
any queue.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_wait_all_async(int async);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_wait_all_async(async)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_handle_kind) async}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.14.
@end table
@node acc_wait_async
@section @code{acc_wait_async} -- Wait for completion of asynchronous operations.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function enqueues a wait operation on queue @var{async} for any and all
asynchronous operations enqueued on queue @var{arg}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_wait_async(int arg, int async);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_wait_async(arg, async)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_handle_kind) arg, async}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.12.
@end table
@node acc_init
@section @code{acc_init} -- Initialize runtime for a specific device type.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function initializes the runtime for the device type specified in
@var{devicetype}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_init(acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_init(devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.7.
@end table
@node acc_shutdown
@section @code{acc_shutdown} -- Shuts down the runtime for a specific device type.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function shuts down the runtime for the device type specified in
@var{devicetype}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_shutdown(acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_shutdown(devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.8.
@end table
@node acc_on_device
@section @code{acc_on_device} -- Whether executing on a particular device
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function returns whether the program is executing on a particular
device specified in @var{devicetype}. In C/C++ a non-zero value is
returned to indicate the device is execiting on the specified device type.
In Fortran, @code{true} will be returned. If the program is not executing
on the specified device type C/C++ will return a zero, while Fortran will
return @code{false}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_on_device(acc_device_t devicetype);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_on_device(devicetype)}
@item @tab @code{integer(acc_device_kind) devicetype}
@item @tab @code{logical acc_on_device}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.17.
@end table
@node acc_malloc
@section @code{acc_malloc} -- Allocate device memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function allocates @var{len} bytes of device memory. It returns
the device address of the allocated memory.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{d_void* acc_malloc(size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.18.
@end table
@node acc_free
@section @code{acc_free} -- Free device memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
Free previously allocated device memory at the device address @code{a}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_free(d_void *a);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.19.
@end table
@node acc_copyin
@section @code{acc_copyin} -- Allocate device memory and copy host memory to it.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
In C/C++, this function allocates @var{len} bytes of device memory
and maps it to the specified host address in @var{a}. The device
address of the newly allocated device memory is returned.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a
variable or array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_copyin(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_copyin(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_copyin(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.20.
@end table
@node acc_present_or_copyin
@section @code{acc_present_or_copyin} -- If the data is not present on the device, allocate device memory and copy from host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function tests if the host data specifed by @var{a} and of length
@var{len} is present or not. If it is not present, then device memory
will be allocated and the host memory copied. The device address of
the newly allocated device memory is returned.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_present_or_copyin(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_pcopyin(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_present_or_copyin(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_present_or_copyin(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_pcopyin(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_pcopyin(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.20.
@end table
@node acc_create
@section @code{acc_create} -- Allocate device memory and map it to host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function allocates device memory and maps it to host memory specified
by the host address @var{a} with a length of @var{len} bytes. In C/C++,
the function returns the device address of the allocated device memory.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_create(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_create(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_create(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.21.
@end table
@node acc_present_or_create
@section @code{acc_present_or_create} -- If the data is not present on the device, allocate device memory and map it to host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function tests if the host data specifed by @var{a} and of length
@var{len} is present or not. If it is not present, then device memory
will be allocated and mapped to host memory. In C/C++, the device address
of the newly allocated device memory is returned.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_present_or_create(h_void *a, size_t len)}
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_pcreate(h_void *a, size_t len)}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_present_or_create(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_present_or_create(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_pcreate(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_pcreate(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.21.
@end table
@node acc_copyout
@section @code{acc_copyout} -- Copy device memory to host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function copies mapped device memory to host memory which is specified
by host address @var{a} for a length @var{len} bytes in C/C++.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_copyout(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_copyout(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_copyout(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.22.
@end table
@node acc_delete
@section @code{acc_delete} -- Free device memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function frees previously allocated device memory specified by
the device address @var{a} and the length of @var{len} bytes.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_delete(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_delete(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_delete(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.23.
@end table
@node acc_update_device
@section @code{acc_update_device} -- Update device memory from mapped host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function updates the device copy from the previously mapped host memory.
The host memory is specified with the host address @var{a} and a length of
@var{len} bytes.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_update_device(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_update_device(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_update_device(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.24.
@end table
@node acc_update_self
@section @code{acc_update_self} -- Update host memory from mapped device memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function updates the host copy from the previously mapped device memory.
The host memory is specified with the host address @var{a} and a length of
@var{len} bytes.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_update_self(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_update_self(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{subroutine acc_update_self(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.25.
@end table
@node acc_map_data
@section @code{acc_map_data} -- Map previously allocated device memory to host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function maps previously allocated device and host memory. The device
memory is specified with the device address @var{d}. The host memory is
specified with the host address @var{h} and a length of @var{len}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_map_data(h_void *h, d_void *d, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.26.
@end table
@node acc_unmap_data
@section @code{acc_unmap_data} -- Unmap device memory from host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function unmaps previously mapped device and host memory. The latter
specified by @var{h}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_unmap_data(h_void *h);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.27.
@end table
@node acc_deviceptr
@section @code{acc_deviceptr} -- Get device pointer associated with specific host address.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns the device address that has been mapped to the
host address specified by @var{h}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_deviceptr(h_void *h);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.28.
@end table
@node acc_hostptr
@section @code{acc_hostptr} -- Get host pointer associated with specific device address.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns the host address that has been mapped to the
device address specified by @var{d}.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_hostptr(d_void *d);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.29.
@end table
@node acc_is_present
@section @code{acc_is_present} -- Indicate whether host variable / array is present on device.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function indicates whether the specified host address in @var{a} and a
length of @var{len} bytes is present on the device. In C/C++, a non-zero
value is returned to indicate the presence of the mapped memory on the
device. A zero is returned to indicate the memory is not mapped on the
device.
In Fortran, two (2) forms are supported. In the first form, @var{a} specifies
a contiguous array section. The second form @var{a} specifies a variable or
array element and @var{len} specifies the length in bytes. If the host
memory is mapped to device memory, then a @code{true} is returned. Otherwise,
a @code{false} is return to indicate the mapped memory is not present.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int acc_is_present(h_void *a, size_t len);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Fortran}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_is_present(a)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{logical acc_is_present}
@item @emph{Interface}: @tab @code{function acc_is_present(a, len)}
@item @tab @code{type, dimension(:[,:]...) :: a}
@item @tab @code{integer len}
@item @tab @code{logical acc_is_present}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.30.
@end table
@node acc_memcpy_to_device
@section @code{acc_memcpy_to_device} -- Copy host memory to device memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function copies host memory specified by host address of @var{src} to
device memory specified by the device address @var{dest} for a length of
@var{bytes} bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_memcpy_to_device(d_void *dest, h_void *src, size_t bytes);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.31.
@end table
@node acc_memcpy_from_device
@section @code{acc_memcpy_from_device} -- Copy device memory to host memory.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function copies host memory specified by host address of @var{src} from
device memory specified by the device address @var{dest} for a length of
@var{bytes} bytes.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_memcpy_from_device(d_void *dest, h_void *src, size_t bytes);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
3.2.32.
@end table
@node acc_get_current_cuda_device
@section @code{acc_get_current_cuda_device} -- Get CUDA device handle.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns the CUDA device handle. This handle is the same
as used by the CUDA Runtime or Driver API's.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_get_current_cuda_device(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
A.2.1.1.
@end table
@node acc_get_current_cuda_context
@section @code{acc_get_current_cuda_context} -- Get CUDA context handle.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns the CUDA context handle. This handle is the same
as used by the CUDA Runtime or Driver API's.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_get_current_cuda_context(void);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
A.2.1.2.
@end table
@node acc_get_cuda_stream
@section @code{acc_get_cuda_stream} -- Get CUDA stream handle.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function returns the CUDA stream handle for the queue @var{async}.
This handle is the same as used by the CUDA Runtime or Driver API's.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void *acc_get_cuda_stream(int async);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
A.2.1.3.
@end table
@node acc_set_cuda_stream
@section @code{acc_set_cuda_stream} -- Set CUDA stream handle.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}
This function associates the stream handle specified by @var{stream} with
the queue @var{async}.
This cannot be used to change the stream handle associated with
@code{acc_async_sync}.
The return value is not specified.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{int acc_set_cuda_stream(int async, void *stream);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
A.2.1.4.
@end table
@node acc_prof_register
@section @code{acc_prof_register} -- Register callbacks.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function registers callbacks.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void acc_prof_register (acc_event_t, acc_prof_callback, acc_register_t);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OpenACC Profiling Interface}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
5.3.
@end table
@node acc_prof_unregister
@section @code{acc_prof_unregister} -- Unregister callbacks.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
This function unregisters callbacks.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void acc_prof_unregister (acc_event_t, acc_prof_callback, acc_register_t);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OpenACC Profiling Interface}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
5.3.
@end table
@node acc_prof_lookup
@section @code{acc_prof_lookup} -- Obtain inquiry functions.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Function to obtain inquiry functions.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{acc_query_fn acc_prof_lookup (const char *);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OpenACC Profiling Interface}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
5.3.
@end table
@node acc_register_library
@section @code{acc_register_library} -- Library registration.
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Function for library registration.
@item @emph{C/C++}:
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@item @emph{Prototype}: @tab @code{void acc_register_library (acc_prof_reg, acc_prof_reg, acc_prof_lookup_func);}
@end multitable
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{OpenACC Profiling Interface}, @ref{ACC_PROFLIB}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
5.3.
@end table
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c OpenACC Environment Variables
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node OpenACC Environment Variables
@chapter OpenACC Environment Variables
The variables @env{ACC_DEVICE_TYPE} and @env{ACC_DEVICE_NUM}
are defined by section 4 of the OpenACC specification in version 2.6.
The variable @env{ACC_PROFLIB}
is defined by section 4 of the OpenACC specification in version 2.6.
The variable @env{GCC_ACC_NOTIFY} is used for diagnostic purposes.
@menu
* ACC_DEVICE_TYPE::
* ACC_DEVICE_NUM::
* ACC_PROFLIB::
* GCC_ACC_NOTIFY::
@end menu
@node ACC_DEVICE_TYPE
@section @code{ACC_DEVICE_TYPE}
@table @asis
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
4.1.
@end table
@node ACC_DEVICE_NUM
@section @code{ACC_DEVICE_NUM}
@table @asis
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
4.2.
@end table
@node ACC_PROFLIB
@section @code{ACC_PROFLIB}
@table @asis
@item @emph{See also}:
@ref{acc_register_library}, @ref{OpenACC Profiling Interface}
@item @emph{Reference}:
@uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC specification v2.6}, section
4.3.
@end table
@node GCC_ACC_NOTIFY
@section @code{GCC_ACC_NOTIFY}
@table @asis
@item @emph{Description}:
Print debug information pertaining to the accelerator.
@end table
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c CUDA Streams Usage
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node CUDA Streams Usage
@chapter CUDA Streams Usage
This applies to the @code{nvptx} plugin only.
The library provides elements that perform asynchronous movement of
data and asynchronous operation of computing constructs. This
asynchronous functionality is implemented by making use of CUDA
streams@footnote{See "Stream Management" in "CUDA Driver API",
TRM-06703-001, Version 5.5, for additional information}.
The primary means by that the asychronous functionality is accessed
is through the use of those OpenACC directives which make use of the
@code{async} and @code{wait} clauses. When the @code{async} clause is
first used with a directive, it creates a CUDA stream. If an
@code{async-argument} is used with the @code{async} clause, then the
stream is associated with the specified @code{async-argument}.
Following the creation of an association between a CUDA stream and the
@code{async-argument} of an @code{async} clause, both the @code{wait}
clause and the @code{wait} directive can be used. When either the
clause or directive is used after stream creation, it creates a
rendezvous point whereby execution waits until all operations
associated with the @code{async-argument}, that is, stream, have
completed.
Normally, the management of the streams that are created as a result of
using the @code{async} clause, is done without any intervention by the
caller. This implies the association between the @code{async-argument}
and the CUDA stream will be maintained for the lifetime of the program.
However, this association can be changed through the use of the library
function @code{acc_set_cuda_stream}. When the function
@code{acc_set_cuda_stream} is called, the CUDA stream that was
originally associated with the @code{async} clause will be destroyed.
Caution should be taken when changing the association as subsequent
references to the @code{async-argument} refer to a different
CUDA stream.
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c OpenACC Library Interoperability
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node OpenACC Library Interoperability
@chapter OpenACC Library Interoperability
@section Introduction
The OpenACC library uses the CUDA Driver API, and may interact with
programs that use the Runtime library directly, or another library
based on the Runtime library, e.g., CUBLAS@footnote{See section 2.26,
"Interactions with the CUDA Driver API" in
"CUDA Runtime API", Version 5.5, and section 2.27, "VDPAU
Interoperability", in "CUDA Driver API", TRM-06703-001, Version 5.5,
for additional information on library interoperability.}.
This chapter describes the use cases and what changes are
required in order to use both the OpenACC library and the CUBLAS and Runtime
libraries within a program.
@section First invocation: NVIDIA CUBLAS library API
In this first use case (see below), a function in the CUBLAS library is called
prior to any of the functions in the OpenACC library. More specifically, the
function @code{cublasCreate()}.
When invoked, the function initializes the library and allocates the
hardware resources on the host and the device on behalf of the caller. Once
the initialization and allocation has completed, a handle is returned to the
caller. The OpenACC library also requires initialization and allocation of
hardware resources. Since the CUBLAS library has already allocated the
hardware resources for the device, all that is left to do is to initialize
the OpenACC library and acquire the hardware resources on the host.
Prior to calling the OpenACC function that initializes the library and
allocate the host hardware resources, you need to acquire the device number
that was allocated during the call to @code{cublasCreate()}. The invoking of the
runtime library function @code{cudaGetDevice()} accomplishes this. Once
acquired, the device number is passed along with the device type as
parameters to the OpenACC library function @code{acc_set_device_num()}.
Once the call to @code{acc_set_device_num()} has completed, the OpenACC
library uses the context that was created during the call to
@code{cublasCreate()}. In other words, both libraries will be sharing the
same context.
@smallexample
/* Create the handle */
s = cublasCreate(&h);
if (s != CUBLAS_STATUS_SUCCESS)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "cublasCreate failed %d\n", s);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
/* Get the device number */
e = cudaGetDevice(&dev);
if (e != cudaSuccess)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "cudaGetDevice failed %d\n", e);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
/* Initialize OpenACC library and use device 'dev' */
acc_set_device_num(dev, acc_device_nvidia);
@end smallexample
@center Use Case 1
@section First invocation: OpenACC library API
In this second use case (see below), a function in the OpenACC library is
called prior to any of the functions in the CUBLAS library. More specificially,
the function @code{acc_set_device_num()}.
In the use case presented here, the function @code{acc_set_device_num()}
is used to both initialize the OpenACC library and allocate the hardware
resources on the host and the device. In the call to the function, the
call parameters specify which device to use and what device
type to use, i.e., @code{acc_device_nvidia}. It should be noted that this
is but one method to initialize the OpenACC library and allocate the
appropriate hardware resources. Other methods are available through the
use of environment variables and these will be discussed in the next section.
Once the call to @code{acc_set_device_num()} has completed, other OpenACC
functions can be called as seen with multiple calls being made to
@code{acc_copyin()}. In addition, calls can be made to functions in the
CUBLAS library. In the use case a call to @code{cublasCreate()} is made
subsequent to the calls to @code{acc_copyin()}.
As seen in the previous use case, a call to @code{cublasCreate()}
initializes the CUBLAS library and allocates the hardware resources on the
host and the device. However, since the device has already been allocated,
@code{cublasCreate()} will only initialize the CUBLAS library and allocate
the appropriate hardware resources on the host. The context that was created
as part of the OpenACC initialization is shared with the CUBLAS library,
similarly to the first use case.
@smallexample
dev = 0;
acc_set_device_num(dev, acc_device_nvidia);
/* Copy the first set to the device */
d_X = acc_copyin(&h_X[0], N * sizeof (float));
if (d_X == NULL)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "copyin error h_X\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
/* Copy the second set to the device */
d_Y = acc_copyin(&h_Y1[0], N * sizeof (float));
if (d_Y == NULL)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "copyin error h_Y1\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
/* Create the handle */
s = cublasCreate(&h);
if (s != CUBLAS_STATUS_SUCCESS)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "cublasCreate failed %d\n", s);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
/* Perform saxpy using CUBLAS library function */
s = cublasSaxpy(h, N, &alpha, d_X, 1, d_Y, 1);
if (s != CUBLAS_STATUS_SUCCESS)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "cublasSaxpy failed %d\n", s);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
/* Copy the results from the device */
acc_memcpy_from_device(&h_Y1[0], d_Y, N * sizeof (float));
@end smallexample
@center Use Case 2
@section OpenACC library and environment variables
There are two environment variables associated with the OpenACC library
that may be used to control the device type and device number:
@env{ACC_DEVICE_TYPE} and @env{ACC_DEVICE_NUM}, respecively. These two
environement variables can be used as an alternative to calling
@code{acc_set_device_num()}. As seen in the second use case, the device
type and device number were specified using @code{acc_set_device_num()}.
If however, the aforementioned environment variables were set, then the
call to @code{acc_set_device_num()} would not be required.
The use of the environment variables is only relevant when an OpenACC function
is called prior to a call to @code{cudaCreate()}. If @code{cudaCreate()}
is called prior to a call to an OpenACC function, then you must call
@code{acc_set_device_num()}@footnote{More complete information
about @env{ACC_DEVICE_TYPE} and @env{ACC_DEVICE_NUM} can be found in
sections 4.1 and 4.2 of the @uref{https://www.openacc.org, OpenACC}
Application Programming Interfaceā€¯, Version 2.6.}
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c OpenACC Profiling Interface
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node OpenACC Profiling Interface
@chapter OpenACC Profiling Interface
@section Implementation Status and Implementation-Defined Behavior
We're implementing the OpenACC Profiling Interface as defined by the
OpenACC 2.6 specification. We're clarifying some aspects here as
@emph{implementation-defined behavior}, while they're still under
discussion within the OpenACC Technical Committee.
This implementation is tuned to keep the performance impact as low as
possible for the (very common) case that the Profiling Interface is
not enabled. This is relevant, as the Profiling Interface affects all
the @emph{hot} code paths (in the target code, not in the offloaded
code). Users of the OpenACC Profiling Interface can be expected to
understand that performance will be impacted to some degree once the
Profiling Interface has gotten enabled: for example, because of the
@emph{runtime} (libgomp) calling into a third-party @emph{library} for
every event that has been registered.
We're not yet accounting for the fact that @cite{OpenACC events may
occur during event processing}.
As currently there are no inquiry functions defined, calls to
@code{acc_prof_lookup} will always return @code{NULL}.
There aren't separate @emph{start}, @emph{stop} events defined for the
event types @code{acc_ev_create}, @code{acc_ev_delete},
@code{acc_ev_alloc}, @code{acc_ev_free}. It's not clear if these
should be triggered before or after the actual device-specific call is
made. We trigger them after.
Remarks about data provided to callbacks:
@table @asis
@item @code{acc_prof_info.event_type}
It's not clear if for @emph{nested} event callbacks (for example,
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_launch_start} as part of a parent compute
construct), this should be set for the nested event
(@code{acc_ev_enqueue_launch_start}), or if the value of the parent
construct should remain (@code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start}). In
this implementation, the value will generally correspond to the
innermost nested event type.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.device_type}
@itemize
@item
For @code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start}, and in presence of an
@code{if} clause with @emph{false} argument, this will still refer to
the offloading device type.
It's not clear if that's the expected behavior.
@item
Complementary to the item before, for
@code{acc_ev_compute_construct_end}, this is set to
@code{acc_device_host} in presence of an @code{if} clause with
@emph{false} argument.
It's not clear if that's the expected behavior.
@end itemize
@item @code{acc_prof_info.thread_id}
Always @code{-1}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.async}
@itemize
@item
Not yet implemented correctly for
@code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start}.
@item
In a compute construct, for host-fallback
execution/@code{acc_device_host} it will always be
@code{acc_async_sync}.
It's not clear if that's the expected behavior.
@item
For @code{acc_ev_device_init_start} and @code{acc_ev_device_init_end},
it will always be @code{acc_async_sync}.
It's not clear if that's the expected behavior.
@end itemize
@item @code{acc_prof_info.async_queue}
There is no @cite{limited number of asynchronous queues} in libgomp.
This will always have the same value as @code{acc_prof_info.async}.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.src_file}
Always @code{NULL}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.func_name}
Always @code{NULL}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.line_no}
Always @code{-1}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.end_line_no}
Always @code{-1}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.func_line_no}
Always @code{-1}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_prof_info.func_end_line_no}
Always @code{-1}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_event_info.event_type}, @code{acc_event_info.*.event_type}
Relating to @code{acc_prof_info.event_type} discussed above, in this
implementation, this will always be the same value as
@code{acc_prof_info.event_type}.
@item @code{acc_event_info.*.parent_construct}
@itemize
@item
Will be @code{acc_construct_parallel} for all OpenACC compute
constructs as well as many OpenACC Runtime API calls; should be the
one matching the actual construct, or
@code{acc_construct_runtime_api}, respectively.
@item
Will be @code{acc_construct_enter_data} or
@code{acc_construct_exit_data} when processing variable mappings
specified in OpenACC @emph{declare} directives; should be
@code{acc_construct_declare}.
@item
For implicit @code{acc_ev_device_init_start},
@code{acc_ev_device_init_end}, and explicit as well as implicit
@code{acc_ev_alloc}, @code{acc_ev_free},
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_upload_start}, @code{acc_ev_enqueue_upload_end},
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_download_start}, and
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_download_end}, will be
@code{acc_construct_parallel}; should reflect the real parent
construct.
@end itemize
@item @code{acc_event_info.*.implicit}
For @code{acc_ev_alloc}, @code{acc_ev_free},
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_upload_start}, @code{acc_ev_enqueue_upload_end},
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_download_start}, and
@code{acc_ev_enqueue_download_end}, this currently will be @code{1}
also for explicit usage.
@item @code{acc_event_info.data_event.var_name}
Always @code{NULL}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_event_info.data_event.host_ptr}
For @code{acc_ev_alloc}, and @code{acc_ev_free}, this is always
@code{NULL}.
@item @code{typedef union acc_api_info}
@dots{} as printed in @cite{5.2.3. Third Argument: API-Specific
Information}. This should obviously be @code{typedef @emph{struct}
acc_api_info}.
@item @code{acc_api_info.device_api}
Possibly not yet implemented correctly for
@code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start},
@code{acc_ev_device_init_start}, @code{acc_ev_device_init_end}:
will always be @code{acc_device_api_none} for these event types.
For @code{acc_ev_enter_data_start}, it will be
@code{acc_device_api_none} in some cases.
@item @code{acc_api_info.device_type}
Always the same as @code{acc_prof_info.device_type}.
@item @code{acc_api_info.vendor}
Always @code{-1}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_api_info.device_handle}
Always @code{NULL}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_api_info.context_handle}
Always @code{NULL}; not yet implemented.
@item @code{acc_api_info.async_handle}
Always @code{NULL}; not yet implemented.
@end table
Remarks about certain event types:
@table @asis
@item @code{acc_ev_device_init_start}, @code{acc_ev_device_init_end}
@itemize
@item
@c See 'DEVICE_INIT_INSIDE_COMPUTE_CONSTRUCT' in
@c 'libgomp.oacc-c-c++-common/acc_prof-kernels-1.c',
@c 'libgomp.oacc-c-c++-common/acc_prof-parallel-1.c'.
Whan a compute construct triggers implicit
@code{acc_ev_device_init_start} and @code{acc_ev_device_init_end}
events, they currently aren't @emph{nested within} the corresponding
@code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start} and
@code{acc_ev_compute_construct_end}, but they're currently observed
@emph{before} @code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start}.
It's not clear what to do: the standard asks us provide a lot of
details to the @code{acc_ev_compute_construct_start} callback, without
(implicitly) initializing a device before?
@item
Callbacks for these event types will not be invoked for calls to the
@code{acc_set_device_type} and @code{acc_set_device_num} functions.
It's not clear if they should be.
@end itemize
@item @code{acc_ev_enter_data_start}, @code{acc_ev_enter_data_end}, @code{acc_ev_exit_data_start}, @code{acc_ev_exit_data_end}
@itemize
@item
Callbacks for these event types will also be invoked for OpenACC
@emph{host_data} constructs.
It's not clear if they should be.
@item
Callbacks for these event types will also be invoked when processing
variable mappings specified in OpenACC @emph{declare} directives.
It's not clear if they should be.
@end itemize
@end table
Callbacks for the following event types will be invoked, but dispatch
and information provided therein has not yet been thoroughly reviewed:
@itemize
@item @code{acc_ev_alloc}
@item @code{acc_ev_free}
@item @code{acc_ev_update_start}, @code{acc_ev_update_end}
@item @code{acc_ev_enqueue_upload_start}, @code{acc_ev_enqueue_upload_end}
@item @code{acc_ev_enqueue_download_start}, @code{acc_ev_enqueue_download_end}
@end itemize
During device initialization, and finalization, respectively,
callbacks for the following event types will not yet be invoked:
@itemize
@item @code{acc_ev_alloc}
@item @code{acc_ev_free}
@end itemize
Callbacks for the following event types have not yet been implemented,
so currently won't be invoked:
@itemize
@item @code{acc_ev_device_shutdown_start}, @code{acc_ev_device_shutdown_end}
@item @code{acc_ev_runtime_shutdown}
@item @code{acc_ev_create}, @code{acc_ev_delete}
@item @code{acc_ev_wait_start}, @code{acc_ev_wait_end}
@end itemize
For the following runtime library functions, not all expected
callbacks will be invoked (mostly concerning implicit device
initialization):
@itemize
@item @code{acc_get_num_devices}
@item @code{acc_set_device_type}
@item @code{acc_get_device_type}
@item @code{acc_set_device_num}
@item @code{acc_get_device_num}
@item @code{acc_init}
@item @code{acc_shutdown}
@end itemize
Aside from implicit device initialization, for the following runtime
library functions, no callbacks will be invoked for shared-memory
offloading devices (it's not clear if they should be):
@itemize
@item @code{acc_malloc}
@item @code{acc_free}
@item @code{acc_copyin}, @code{acc_present_or_copyin}, @code{acc_copyin_async}
@item @code{acc_create}, @code{acc_present_or_create}, @code{acc_create_async}
@item @code{acc_copyout}, @code{acc_copyout_async}, @code{acc_copyout_finalize}, @code{acc_copyout_finalize_async}
@item @code{acc_delete}, @code{acc_delete_async}, @code{acc_delete_finalize}, @code{acc_delete_finalize_async}
@item @code{acc_update_device}, @code{acc_update_device_async}
@item @code{acc_update_self}, @code{acc_update_self_async}
@item @code{acc_map_data}, @code{acc_unmap_data}
@item @code{acc_memcpy_to_device}, @code{acc_memcpy_to_device_async}
@item @code{acc_memcpy_from_device}, @code{acc_memcpy_from_device_async}
@end itemize
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c The libgomp ABI
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node The libgomp ABI
@chapter The libgomp ABI
The following sections present notes on the external ABI as
presented by libgomp. Only maintainers should need them.
@menu
* Implementing MASTER construct::
* Implementing CRITICAL construct::
* Implementing ATOMIC construct::
* Implementing FLUSH construct::
* Implementing BARRIER construct::
* Implementing THREADPRIVATE construct::
* Implementing PRIVATE clause::
* Implementing FIRSTPRIVATE LASTPRIVATE COPYIN and COPYPRIVATE clauses::
* Implementing REDUCTION clause::
* Implementing PARALLEL construct::
* Implementing FOR construct::
* Implementing ORDERED construct::
* Implementing SECTIONS construct::
* Implementing SINGLE construct::
* Implementing OpenACC's PARALLEL construct::
@end menu
@node Implementing MASTER construct
@section Implementing MASTER construct
@smallexample
if (omp_get_thread_num () == 0)
block
@end smallexample
Alternately, we generate two copies of the parallel subfunction
and only include this in the version run by the master thread.
Surely this is not worthwhile though...
@node Implementing CRITICAL construct
@section Implementing CRITICAL construct
Without a specified name,
@smallexample
void GOMP_critical_start (void);
void GOMP_critical_end (void);
@end smallexample
so that we don't get COPY relocations from libgomp to the main
application.
With a specified name, use omp_set_lock and omp_unset_lock with
name being transformed into a variable declared like
@smallexample
omp_lock_t gomp_critical_user_<name> __attribute__((common))
@end smallexample
Ideally the ABI would specify that all zero is a valid unlocked
state, and so we wouldn't need to initialize this at
startup.
@node Implementing ATOMIC construct
@section Implementing ATOMIC construct
The target should implement the @code{__sync} builtins.
Failing that we could add
@smallexample
void GOMP_atomic_enter (void)
void GOMP_atomic_exit (void)
@end smallexample
which reuses the regular lock code, but with yet another lock
object private to the library.
@node Implementing FLUSH construct
@section Implementing FLUSH construct
Expands to the @code{__sync_synchronize} builtin.
@node Implementing BARRIER construct
@section Implementing BARRIER construct
@smallexample
void GOMP_barrier (void)
@end smallexample
@node Implementing THREADPRIVATE construct
@section Implementing THREADPRIVATE construct
In _most_ cases we can map this directly to @code{__thread}. Except
that OMP allows constructors for C++ objects. We can either
refuse to support this (how often is it used?) or we can
implement something akin to .ctors.
Even more ideally, this ctor feature is handled by extensions
to the main pthreads library. Failing that, we can have a set
of entry points to register ctor functions to be called.
@node Implementing PRIVATE clause
@section Implementing PRIVATE clause
In association with a PARALLEL, or within the lexical extent
of a PARALLEL block, the variable becomes a local variable in
the parallel subfunction.
In association with FOR or SECTIONS blocks, create a new
automatic variable within the current function. This preserves
the semantic of new variable creation.
@node Implementing FIRSTPRIVATE LASTPRIVATE COPYIN and COPYPRIVATE clauses
@section Implementing FIRSTPRIVATE LASTPRIVATE COPYIN and COPYPRIVATE clauses
This seems simple enough for PARALLEL blocks. Create a private
struct for communicating between the parent and subfunction.
In the parent, copy in values for scalar and "small" structs;
copy in addresses for others TREE_ADDRESSABLE types. In the
subfunction, copy the value into the local variable.
It is not clear what to do with bare FOR or SECTION blocks.
The only thing I can figure is that we do something like:
@smallexample
#pragma omp for firstprivate(x) lastprivate(y)
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
body;
@end smallexample
which becomes
@smallexample
@{
int x = x, y;
// for stuff
if (i == n)
y = y;
@}
@end smallexample
where the "x=x" and "y=y" assignments actually have different
uids for the two variables, i.e. not something you could write
directly in C. Presumably this only makes sense if the "outer"
x and y are global variables.
COPYPRIVATE would work the same way, except the structure
broadcast would have to happen via SINGLE machinery instead.
@node Implementing REDUCTION clause
@section Implementing REDUCTION clause
The private struct mentioned in the previous section should have
a pointer to an array of the type of the variable, indexed by the
thread's @var{team_id}. The thread stores its final value into the
array, and after the barrier, the master thread iterates over the
array to collect the values.
@node Implementing PARALLEL construct
@section Implementing PARALLEL construct
@smallexample
#pragma omp parallel
@{
body;
@}
@end smallexample
becomes
@smallexample
void subfunction (void *data)
@{
use data;
body;
@}
setup data;
GOMP_parallel_start (subfunction, &data, num_threads);
subfunction (&data);
GOMP_parallel_end ();
@end smallexample
@smallexample
void GOMP_parallel_start (void (*fn)(void *), void *data, unsigned num_threads)
@end smallexample
The @var{FN} argument is the subfunction to be run in parallel.
The @var{DATA} argument is a pointer to a structure used to
communicate data in and out of the subfunction, as discussed
above with respect to FIRSTPRIVATE et al.
The @var{NUM_THREADS} argument is 1 if an IF clause is present
and false, or the value of the NUM_THREADS clause, if
present, or 0.
The function needs to create the appropriate number of
threads and/or launch them from the dock. It needs to
create the team structure and assign team ids.
@smallexample
void GOMP_parallel_end (void)
@end smallexample
Tears down the team and returns us to the previous @code{omp_in_parallel()} state.
@node Implementing FOR construct
@section Implementing FOR construct
@smallexample
#pragma omp parallel for
for (i = lb; i <= ub; i++)
body;
@end smallexample
becomes
@smallexample
void subfunction (void *data)
@{
long _s0, _e0;
while (GOMP_loop_static_next (&_s0, &_e0))
@{
long _e1 = _e0, i;
for (i = _s0; i < _e1; i++)
body;
@}
GOMP_loop_end_nowait ();
@}
GOMP_parallel_loop_static (subfunction, NULL, 0, lb, ub+1, 1, 0);
subfunction (NULL);
GOMP_parallel_end ();
@end smallexample
@smallexample
#pragma omp for schedule(runtime)
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
body;
@end smallexample
becomes
@smallexample
@{
long i, _s0, _e0;
if (GOMP_loop_runtime_start (0, n, 1, &_s0, &_e0))
do @{
long _e1 = _e0;
for (i = _s0, i < _e0; i++)
body;
@} while (GOMP_loop_runtime_next (&_s0, _&e0));
GOMP_loop_end ();
@}
@end smallexample
Note that while it looks like there is trickiness to propagating
a non-constant STEP, there isn't really. We're explicitly allowed
to evaluate it as many times as we want, and any variables involved
should automatically be handled as PRIVATE or SHARED like any other
variables. So the expression should remain evaluable in the
subfunction. We can also pull it into a local variable if we like,
but since its supposed to remain unchanged, we can also not if we like.
If we have SCHEDULE(STATIC), and no ORDERED, then we ought to be
able to get away with no work-sharing context at all, since we can
simply perform the arithmetic directly in each thread to divide up
the iterations. Which would mean that we wouldn't need to call any
of these routines.
There are separate routines for handling loops with an ORDERED
clause. Bookkeeping for that is non-trivial...
@node Implementing ORDERED construct
@section Implementing ORDERED construct
@smallexample
void GOMP_ordered_start (void)
void GOMP_ordered_end (void)
@end smallexample
@node Implementing SECTIONS construct
@section Implementing SECTIONS construct
A block as
@smallexample
#pragma omp sections
@{
#pragma omp section
stmt1;
#pragma omp section
stmt2;
#pragma omp section
stmt3;
@}
@end smallexample
becomes
@smallexample
for (i = GOMP_sections_start (3); i != 0; i = GOMP_sections_next ())
switch (i)
@{
case 1:
stmt1;
break;
case 2:
stmt2;
break;
case 3:
stmt3;
break;
@}
GOMP_barrier ();
@end smallexample
@node Implementing SINGLE construct
@section Implementing SINGLE construct
A block like
@smallexample
#pragma omp single
@{
body;
@}
@end smallexample
becomes
@smallexample
if (GOMP_single_start ())
body;
GOMP_barrier ();
@end smallexample
while
@smallexample
#pragma omp single copyprivate(x)
body;
@end smallexample
becomes
@smallexample
datap = GOMP_single_copy_start ();
if (datap == NULL)
@{
body;
data.x = x;
GOMP_single_copy_end (&data);
@}
else
x = datap->x;
GOMP_barrier ();
@end smallexample
@node Implementing OpenACC's PARALLEL construct
@section Implementing OpenACC's PARALLEL construct
@smallexample
void GOACC_parallel ()
@end smallexample
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c Reporting Bugs
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Reporting Bugs
@chapter Reporting Bugs
Bugs in the GNU Offloading and Multi Processing Runtime Library should
be reported via @uref{http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/, Bugzilla}. Please add
"openacc", or "openmp", or both to the keywords field in the bug
report, as appropriate.
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c GNU General Public License
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@include gpl_v3.texi
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c GNU Free Documentation License
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@include fdl.texi
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c Funding Free Software
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@include funding.texi
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c Index
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Library Index
@unnumbered Library Index
@printindex cp
@bye