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@c Copyright (C) 1999-2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c This is part of the CPP and GCC manuals.
@c For copying conditions, see the file gcc.texi.
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c Options affecting include directory search in the preprocessor
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c If this file is included with the flag ``cppmanual'' set, it is
@c formatted for inclusion in the CPP manual; otherwise the main GCC manual.
@item -I @var{dir}
@itemx -iquote @var{dir}
@itemx -isystem @var{dir}
@itemx -idirafter @var{dir}
@opindex I
@opindex iquote
@opindex isystem
@opindex idirafter
Add the directory @var{dir} to the list of directories to be searched
for header files during preprocessing.
@ifset cppmanual
@xref{Search Path}.
@end ifset
If @var{dir} begins with @samp{=} or @code{$SYSROOT}, then the @samp{=}
or @code{$SYSROOT} is replaced by the sysroot prefix; see
@option{--sysroot} and @option{-isysroot}.
Directories specified with @option{-iquote} apply only to the quote
form of the directive, @code{@w{#include "@var{file}"}}.
Directories specified with @option{-I}, @option{-isystem},
or @option{-idirafter} apply to lookup for both the
@code{@w{#include "@var{file}"}} and
@code{@w{#include <@var{file}>}} directives.
You can specify any number or combination of these options on the
command line to search for header files in several directories.
The lookup order is as follows:
For the quote form of the include directive, the directory of the current
file is searched first.
For the quote form of the include directive, the directories specified
by @option{-iquote} options are searched in left-to-right order,
as they appear on the command line.
Directories specified with @option{-I} options are scanned in
left-to-right order.
Directories specified with @option{-isystem} options are scanned in
left-to-right order.
Standard system directories are scanned.
Directories specified with @option{-idirafter} options are scanned in
left-to-right order.
@end enumerate
You can use @option{-I} to override a system header
file, substituting your own version, since these directories are
searched before the standard system header file directories.
However, you should
not use this option to add directories that contain vendor-supplied
system header files; use @option{-isystem} for that.
The @option{-isystem} and @option{-idirafter} options also mark the directory
as a system directory, so that it gets the same special treatment that
is applied to the standard system directories.
@ifset cppmanual
@xref{System Headers}.
@end ifset
If a standard system include directory, or a directory specified with
@option{-isystem}, is also specified with @option{-I}, the @option{-I}
option is ignored. The directory is still searched but as a
system directory at its normal position in the system include chain.
This is to ensure that GCC's procedure to fix buggy system headers and
the ordering for the @code{#include_next} directive are not inadvertently
If you really need to change the search order for system directories,
use the @option{-nostdinc} and/or @option{-isystem} options.
@ifset cppmanual
@xref{System Headers}.
@end ifset
@item -I-
@opindex I-
Split the include path.
This option has been deprecated. Please use @option{-iquote} instead for
@option{-I} directories before the @option{-I-} and remove the @option{-I-}
Any directories specified with @option{-I}
options before @option{-I-} are searched only for headers requested with
@code{@w{#include "@var{file}"}}; they are not searched for
@code{@w{#include <@var{file}>}}. If additional directories are
specified with @option{-I} options after the @option{-I-}, those
directories are searched for all @samp{#include} directives.
In addition, @option{-I-} inhibits the use of the directory of the current
file directory as the first search directory for @code{@w{#include
"@var{file}"}}. There is no way to override this effect of @option{-I-}.
@ifset cppmanual
@xref{Search Path}.
@end ifset
@item -iprefix @var{prefix}
@opindex iprefix
Specify @var{prefix} as the prefix for subsequent @option{-iwithprefix}
options. If the prefix represents a directory, you should include the
final @samp{/}.
@item -iwithprefix @var{dir}
@itemx -iwithprefixbefore @var{dir}
@opindex iwithprefix
@opindex iwithprefixbefore
Append @var{dir} to the prefix specified previously with
@option{-iprefix}, and add the resulting directory to the include search
path. @option{-iwithprefixbefore} puts it in the same place @option{-I}
would; @option{-iwithprefix} puts it where @option{-idirafter} would.
@item -isysroot @var{dir}
@opindex isysroot
This option is like the @option{--sysroot} option, but applies only to
header files (except for Darwin targets, where it applies to both header
files and libraries). See the @option{--sysroot} option for more
@item -imultilib @var{dir}
@opindex imultilib
Use @var{dir} as a subdirectory of the directory containing
target-specific C++ headers.
@item -nostdinc
@opindex nostdinc
Do not search the standard system directories for header files.
Only the directories explicitly specified with @option{-I},
@option{-iquote}, @option{-isystem}, and/or @option{-idirafter}
options (and the directory of the current file, if appropriate)
are searched.
@item -nostdinc++
@opindex nostdinc++
Do not search for header files in the C++-specific standard directories,
but do still search the other standard directories. (This option is
used when building the C++ library.)