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@c Copyright (C) 1991-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c This is part of the GAS manual.
@c For copying conditions, see the file as.texinfo.
@ifset GENERIC
@node Z8000-Dependent
@chapter Z8000 Dependent Features
@end ifset
@ifclear GENERIC
@node Machine Dependencies
@chapter Z8000 Dependent Features
@end ifclear
@cindex Z8000 support
The Z8000 @value{AS} supports both members of the Z8000 family: the
unsegmented Z8002, with 16 bit addresses, and the segmented Z8001 with
24 bit addresses.
When the assembler is in unsegmented mode (specified with the
@code{unsegm} directive), an address takes up one word (16 bit)
sized register. When the assembler is in segmented mode (specified with
the @code{segm} directive), a 24-bit address takes up a long (32 bit)
register. @xref{Z8000 Directives,,Assembler Directives for the Z8000},
for a list of other Z8000 specific assembler directives.
* Z8000 Options:: Command-line options for the Z8000
* Z8000 Syntax:: Assembler syntax for the Z8000
* Z8000 Directives:: Special directives for the Z8000
* Z8000 Opcodes:: Opcodes
@end menu
@node Z8000 Options
@section Options
@cindex Z8000 options
@cindex options, Z8000
@table @option
@cindex @code{-z8001} command-line option, Z8000
@item -z8001
Generate segmented code by default.
@cindex @code{-z8002} command-line option, Z8000
@item -z8002
Generate unsegmented code by default.
@end table
@node Z8000 Syntax
@section Syntax
* Z8000-Chars:: Special Characters
* Z8000-Regs:: Register Names
* Z8000-Addressing:: Addressing Modes
@end menu
@node Z8000-Chars
@subsection Special Characters
@cindex line comment character, Z8000
@cindex Z8000 line comment character
@samp{!} is the line comment character.
If a @samp{#} appears as the first character of a line then the whole
line is treated as a comment, but in this case the line could also be
a logical line number directive (@pxref{Comments}) or a preprocessor
control command (@pxref{Preprocessing}).
@cindex line separator, Z8000
@cindex statement separator, Z8000
@cindex Z8000 line separator
You can use @samp{;} instead of a newline to separate statements.
@node Z8000-Regs
@subsection Register Names
@cindex Z8000 registers
@cindex registers, Z8000
The Z8000 has sixteen 16 bit registers, numbered 0 to 15. You can refer
to different sized groups of registers by register number, with the
prefix @samp{r} for 16 bit registers, @samp{rr} for 32 bit registers and
@samp{rq} for 64 bit registers. You can also refer to the contents of
the first eight (of the sixteen 16 bit registers) by bytes. They are
named @samp{rl@var{n}} and @samp{rh@var{n}}.
@exdent @emph{byte registers}
rl0 rh0 rl1 rh1 rl2 rh2 rl3 rh3
rl4 rh4 rl5 rh5 rl6 rh6 rl7 rh7
@exdent @emph{word registers}
r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13 r14 r15
@exdent @emph{long word registers}
rr0 rr2 rr4 rr6 rr8 rr10 rr12 rr14
@exdent @emph{quad word registers}
rq0 rq4 rq8 rq12
@end smallexample
@node Z8000-Addressing
@subsection Addressing Modes
@cindex addressing modes, Z8000
@cindex Z800 addressing modes
@value{AS} understands the following addressing modes for the Z8000:
@table @code
@item rl@var{n}
@itemx rh@var{n}
@itemx r@var{n}
@itemx rr@var{n}
@itemx rq@var{n}
Register direct: 8bit, 16bit, 32bit, and 64bit registers.
@item @@r@var{n}
@itemx @@rr@var{n}
Indirect register: @@rr@var{n} in segmented mode, @@r@var{n} in unsegmented
@item @var{addr}
Direct: the 16 bit or 24 bit address (depending on whether the assembler
is in segmented or unsegmented mode) of the operand is in the instruction.
@item address(r@var{n})
Indexed: the 16 or 24 bit address is added to the 16 bit register to produce
the final address in memory of the operand.
@item r@var{n}(#@var{imm})
@itemx rr@var{n}(#@var{imm})
Base Address: the 16 or 24 bit register is added to the 16 bit sign
extended immediate displacement to produce the final address in memory
of the operand.
@item r@var{n}(r@var{m})
@itemx rr@var{n}(r@var{m})
Base Index: the 16 or 24 bit register r@var{n} or rr@var{n} is added to
the sign extended 16 bit index register r@var{m} to produce the final
address in memory of the operand.
@item #@var{xx}
Immediate data @var{xx}.
@end table
@node Z8000 Directives
@section Assembler Directives for the Z8000
@cindex Z8000 directives
@cindex directives, Z8000
The Z8000 port of @value{AS} includes additional assembler directives,
for compatibility with other Z8000 assemblers. These do not begin with
@samp{.} (unlike the ordinary @value{AS} directives).
@table @code
@kindex segm
@item segm
@kindex .z8001
@itemx .z8001
Generate code for the segmented Z8001.
@kindex unsegm
@item unsegm
@kindex .z8002
@itemx .z8002
Generate code for the unsegmented Z8002.
@kindex name
@item name
Synonym for @code{.file}
@kindex global
@item global
Synonym for @code{.global}
@kindex wval
@item wval
Synonym for @code{.word}
@kindex lval
@item lval
Synonym for @code{.long}
@kindex bval
@item bval
Synonym for @code{.byte}
@kindex sval
@item sval
Assemble a string. @code{sval} expects one string literal, delimited by
single quotes. It assembles each byte of the string into consecutive
addresses. You can use the escape sequence @samp{%@var{xx}} (where
@var{xx} represents a two-digit hexadecimal number) to represent the
character whose @sc{ascii} value is @var{xx}. Use this feature to
describe single quote and other characters that may not appear in string
literals as themselves. For example, the C statement @w{@samp{char *a =
"he said \"it's 50% off\"";}} is represented in Z8000 assembly language
(shown with the assembler output in hex at the left) as
@end iftex
68652073 sval 'he said %22it%27s 50%25 off%22%00'
@end smallexample
@end iftex
@kindex rsect
@item rsect
synonym for @code{.section}
@kindex block
@item block
synonym for @code{.space}
@kindex even
@item even
special case of @code{.align}; aligns output to even byte boundary.
@end table
@node Z8000 Opcodes
@section Opcodes
@cindex Z8000 opcode summary
@cindex opcode summary, Z8000
@cindex mnemonics, Z8000
@cindex instruction summary, Z8000
For detailed information on the Z8000 machine instruction set, see
@cite{Z8000 Technical Manual}.
@ifset SMALL
@c this table, due to the multi-col faking and hardcoded order, looks silly
@c except in smallbook. See comments below "@set SMALL" near top of this file.
The following table summarizes the opcodes and their arguments:
@end iftex
rs @r{16 bit source register}
rd @r{16 bit destination register}
rbs @r{8 bit source register}
rbd @r{8 bit destination register}
rrs @r{32 bit source register}
rrd @r{32 bit destination register}
rqs @r{64 bit source register}
rqd @r{64 bit destination register}
addr @r{16/24 bit address}
imm @r{immediate data}
adc rd,rs clrb addr cpsir @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc
adcb rbd,rbs clrb addr(rd) cpsirb @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc
add rd,@@rs clrb rbd dab rbd
add rd,addr com @@rd dbjnz rbd,disp7
add rd,addr(rs) com addr dec @@rd,imm4m1
add rd,imm16 com addr(rd) dec addr(rd),imm4m1
add rd,rs com rd dec addr,imm4m1
addb rbd,@@rs comb @@rd dec rd,imm4m1
addb rbd,addr comb addr decb @@rd,imm4m1
addb rbd,addr(rs) comb addr(rd) decb addr(rd),imm4m1
addb rbd,imm8 comb rbd decb addr,imm4m1
addb rbd,rbs comflg flags decb rbd,imm4m1
addl rrd,@@rs cp @@rd,imm16 di i2
addl rrd,addr cp addr(rd),imm16 div rrd,@@rs
addl rrd,addr(rs) cp addr,imm16 div rrd,addr
addl rrd,imm32 cp rd,@@rs div rrd,addr(rs)
addl rrd,rrs cp rd,addr div rrd,imm16
and rd,@@rs cp rd,addr(rs) div rrd,rs
and rd,addr cp rd,imm16 divl rqd,@@rs
and rd,addr(rs) cp rd,rs divl rqd,addr
and rd,imm16 cpb @@rd,imm8 divl rqd,addr(rs)
and rd,rs cpb addr(rd),imm8 divl rqd,imm32
andb rbd,@@rs cpb addr,imm8 divl rqd,rrs
andb rbd,addr cpb rbd,@@rs djnz rd,disp7
andb rbd,addr(rs) cpb rbd,addr ei i2
andb rbd,imm8 cpb rbd,addr(rs) ex rd,@@rs
andb rbd,rbs cpb rbd,imm8 ex rd,addr
bit @@rd,imm4 cpb rbd,rbs ex rd,addr(rs)
bit addr(rd),imm4 cpd rd,@@rs,rr,cc ex rd,rs
bit addr,imm4 cpdb rbd,@@rs,rr,cc exb rbd,@@rs
bit rd,imm4 cpdr rd,@@rs,rr,cc exb rbd,addr
bit rd,rs cpdrb rbd,@@rs,rr,cc exb rbd,addr(rs)
bitb @@rd,imm4 cpi rd,@@rs,rr,cc exb rbd,rbs
bitb addr(rd),imm4 cpib rbd,@@rs,rr,cc ext0e imm8
bitb addr,imm4 cpir rd,@@rs,rr,cc ext0f imm8
bitb rbd,imm4 cpirb rbd,@@rs,rr,cc ext8e imm8
bitb rbd,rs cpl rrd,@@rs ext8f imm8
bpt cpl rrd,addr exts rrd
call @@rd cpl rrd,addr(rs) extsb rd
call addr cpl rrd,imm32 extsl rqd
call addr(rd) cpl rrd,rrs halt
calr disp12 cpsd @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc in rd,@@rs
clr @@rd cpsdb @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc in rd,imm16
clr addr cpsdr @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc inb rbd,@@rs
clr addr(rd) cpsdrb @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc inb rbd,imm16
clr rd cpsi @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc inc @@rd,imm4m1
clrb @@rd cpsib @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc inc addr(rd),imm4m1
inc addr,imm4m1 ldb rbd,rs(rx) mult rrd,addr(rs)
inc rd,imm4m1 ldb rd(imm16),rbs mult rrd,imm16
incb @@rd,imm4m1 ldb rd(rx),rbs mult rrd,rs
incb addr(rd),imm4m1 ldctl ctrl,rs multl rqd,@@rs
incb addr,imm4m1 ldctl rd,ctrl multl rqd,addr
incb rbd,imm4m1 ldd @@rs,@@rd,rr multl rqd,addr(rs)
ind @@rd,@@rs,ra lddb @@rs,@@rd,rr multl rqd,imm32
indb @@rd,@@rs,rba lddr @@rs,@@rd,rr multl rqd,rrs
inib @@rd,@@rs,ra lddrb @@rs,@@rd,rr neg @@rd
inibr @@rd,@@rs,ra ldi @@rd,@@rs,rr neg addr
iret ldib @@rd,@@rs,rr neg addr(rd)
jp cc,@@rd ldir @@rd,@@rs,rr neg rd
jp cc,addr ldirb @@rd,@@rs,rr negb @@rd
jp cc,addr(rd) ldk rd,imm4 negb addr
jr cc,disp8 ldl @@rd,rrs negb addr(rd)
ld @@rd,imm16 ldl addr(rd),rrs negb rbd
ld @@rd,rs ldl addr,rrs nop
ld addr(rd),imm16 ldl rd(imm16),rrs or rd,@@rs
ld addr(rd),rs ldl rd(rx),rrs or rd,addr
ld addr,imm16 ldl rrd,@@rs or rd,addr(rs)
ld addr,rs ldl rrd,addr or rd,imm16
ld rd(imm16),rs ldl rrd,addr(rs) or rd,rs
ld rd(rx),rs ldl rrd,imm32 orb rbd,@@rs
ld rd,@@rs ldl rrd,rrs orb rbd,addr
ld rd,addr ldl rrd,rs(imm16) orb rbd,addr(rs)
ld rd,addr(rs) ldl rrd,rs(rx) orb rbd,imm8
ld rd,imm16 ldm @@rd,rs,n orb rbd,rbs
ld rd,rs ldm addr(rd),rs,n out @@rd,rs
ld rd,rs(imm16) ldm addr,rs,n out imm16,rs
ld rd,rs(rx) ldm rd,@@rs,n outb @@rd,rbs
lda rd,addr ldm rd,addr(rs),n outb imm16,rbs
lda rd,addr(rs) ldm rd,addr,n outd @@rd,@@rs,ra
lda rd,rs(imm16) ldps @@rs outdb @@rd,@@rs,rba
lda rd,rs(rx) ldps addr outib @@rd,@@rs,ra
ldar rd,disp16 ldps addr(rs) outibr @@rd,@@rs,ra
ldb @@rd,imm8 ldr disp16,rs pop @@rd,@@rs
ldb @@rd,rbs ldr rd,disp16 pop addr(rd),@@rs
ldb addr(rd),imm8 ldrb disp16,rbs pop addr,@@rs
ldb addr(rd),rbs ldrb rbd,disp16 pop rd,@@rs
ldb addr,imm8 ldrl disp16,rrs popl @@rd,@@rs
ldb addr,rbs ldrl rrd,disp16 popl addr(rd),@@rs
ldb rbd,@@rs mbit popl addr,@@rs
ldb rbd,addr mreq rd popl rrd,@@rs
ldb rbd,addr(rs) mres push @@rd,@@rs
ldb rbd,imm8 mset push @@rd,addr
ldb rbd,rbs mult rrd,@@rs push @@rd,addr(rs)
ldb rbd,rs(imm16) mult rrd,addr push @@rd,imm16
push @@rd,rs set addr,imm4 subl rrd,imm32
pushl @@rd,@@rs set rd,imm4 subl rrd,rrs
pushl @@rd,addr set rd,rs tcc cc,rd
pushl @@rd,addr(rs) setb @@rd,imm4 tccb cc,rbd
pushl @@rd,rrs setb addr(rd),imm4 test @@rd
res @@rd,imm4 setb addr,imm4 test addr
res addr(rd),imm4 setb rbd,imm4 test addr(rd)
res addr,imm4 setb rbd,rs test rd
res rd,imm4 setflg imm4 testb @@rd
res rd,rs sinb rbd,imm16 testb addr
resb @@rd,imm4 sinb rd,imm16 testb addr(rd)
resb addr(rd),imm4 sind @@rd,@@rs,ra testb rbd
resb addr,imm4 sindb @@rd,@@rs,rba testl @@rd
resb rbd,imm4 sinib @@rd,@@rs,ra testl addr
resb rbd,rs sinibr @@rd,@@rs,ra testl addr(rd)
resflg imm4 sla rd,imm8 testl rrd
ret cc slab rbd,imm8 trdb @@rd,@@rs,rba
rl rd,imm1or2 slal rrd,imm8 trdrb @@rd,@@rs,rba
rlb rbd,imm1or2 sll rd,imm8 trib @@rd,@@rs,rbr
rlc rd,imm1or2 sllb rbd,imm8 trirb @@rd,@@rs,rbr
rlcb rbd,imm1or2 slll rrd,imm8 trtdrb @@ra,@@rb,rbr
rldb rbb,rba sout imm16,rs trtib @@ra,@@rb,rr
rr rd,imm1or2 soutb imm16,rbs trtirb @@ra,@@rb,rbr
rrb rbd,imm1or2 soutd @@rd,@@rs,ra trtrb @@ra,@@rb,rbr
rrc rd,imm1or2 soutdb @@rd,@@rs,rba tset @@rd
rrcb rbd,imm1or2 soutib @@rd,@@rs,ra tset addr
rrdb rbb,rba soutibr @@rd,@@rs,ra tset addr(rd)
rsvd36 sra rd,imm8 tset rd
rsvd38 srab rbd,imm8 tsetb @@rd
rsvd78 sral rrd,imm8 tsetb addr
rsvd7e srl rd,imm8 tsetb addr(rd)
rsvd9d srlb rbd,imm8 tsetb rbd
rsvd9f srll rrd,imm8 xor rd,@@rs
rsvdb9 sub rd,@@rs xor rd,addr
rsvdbf sub rd,addr xor rd,addr(rs)
sbc rd,rs sub rd,addr(rs) xor rd,imm16
sbcb rbd,rbs sub rd,imm16 xor rd,rs
sc imm8 sub rd,rs xorb rbd,@@rs
sda rd,rs subb rbd,@@rs xorb rbd,addr
sdab rbd,rs subb rbd,addr xorb rbd,addr(rs)
sdal rrd,rs subb rbd,addr(rs) xorb rbd,imm8
sdl rd,rs subb rbd,imm8 xorb rbd,rbs
sdlb rbd,rs subb rbd,rbs xorb rbd,rbs
sdll rrd,rs subl rrd,@@rs
set @@rd,imm4 subl rrd,addr
set addr(rd),imm4 subl rrd,addr(rs)
@end smallexample
@end iftex
@end ifset