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SIM port for the OpenRISC architecture
Authors: Stafford Horne <>
Peter Gavin
# Guide to Code #
We have tried to comment on the functions in the simulator implementation as
best as we can. Here we provide some general architecture comments for
reference. Please let me know if there is a better place for these kind of
The or1k sim uses the CGEN system to generate most of the simulator code. There
is some documentation for CGEN on here:
In the binutils-gdb project there are several files which get combined to make
up the CGEN simulator. The process for how those are built can be seen in
`or1k/`. But the main files are:
sim/common/nrun.c - the main() calls sim_open(), sim_resume() and others
sim/or1k/sim-if.c - implements sim_open() and others used by nrun
when envoking sim in gdb, gdb uses sim_open() directly
CGEN input and generated files
cpu/or1k*.cpu - these define the hardware, model and semantics
sim/or1k/arch.c - generated defines sim_machs array
sim/or1k/cpu.c - *generated defines register setters and getters
sim/or1k/decode.c - generated defines instruction decoder
sim/or1k/model.c - generated defines instruction cycles
sim/or1k/sem.c - *generated defines instruction operation semantics
sim/or1k/sem-switch.c - *generated ditto but as a switch
ENGINE runs decode execute loop
sim/common/cgen-* - cgen implementation helpers
sim/common/cgen-run.c - implements sim_resume() which runs the engine
sim/common/ - helper script to generate mloop.c engine the
decode, execute loop
sim/or1k/ - openRISC implementation of mloop parts
EXTRAS callbacks from sem* to c code
sim/or1k/or1k.c - implements some instructions in c (not cgen schema)
sim/or1k/traps.c - exception handler
For each sim architecture we have choices for how the mloop is implemented. The
OpenRISC engine uses scache pbb (pseudo-basic-block) instruction extraction with
both fast (sem-switch.c based) and full (sem.c based) implementations. The fast
and full modes are switch via the command line options to the `run` command,
i.e. --trace-insn will run in full mode.
# Building #
Below are some details on how we build and test the openrisc sim.
This may not be needed as binutils contains most/all of the utilities required.
But if needed, get this toolchain (this is the newlib binary, others also
If you want to build that from scratch look to:
## GDB ##
In a directory along side binutils-gdb source
mkdir build-or1k-elf-gdb
cd build-or1k-elf-gdb
../binutils-gdb/configure --target=or1k-elf \
--prefix=/opt/shorne/software/or1k \
--disable-itcl \
--disable-tk \
--disable-tcl \
--disable-winsup \
--disable-gdbtk \
--disable-libgui \
--disable-rda \
--disable-sid \
--with-sysroot \
--disable-newlib \
--disable-libgloss \
--disable-gas \
--disable-ld \
--disable-binutils \
--disable-gprof \
# make gdb, sim
# test sim
cd sim
make check
The sim creates a binary simulator too, you can run binaries such as hello
world with:
or1k-elf-gcc hello.c
./or1k/run --trace-insn ./a.out