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<H1>GNU Readline Library</H1></P><P>
This document describes the end user interface of the GNU Readline Library,
a utility which aids in the consistency of user interface across discrete
programs which provide a command line interface.
</P><P>
<BLOCKQUOTE><TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC1">1. Command Line Editing</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">GNU Readline User's Manual.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC23">A. Copying This Manual</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"></TD></TR>
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<A NAME="Command Line Editing"></A>
<H1> 1. Command Line Editing </H1>
<!--docid::SEC1::-->
<P>
This chapter describes the basic features of the GNU
command line editing interface.
</P><P>
<BLOCKQUOTE><TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC2">1.1 Introduction to Line Editing</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Notation used in this text.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC3">1.2 Readline Interaction</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">The minimum set of commands for editing a line.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC9">1.3 Readline Init File</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Customizing Readline from a user's view.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC13">1.4 Bindable Readline Commands</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">A description of most of the Readline commands
available for binding</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC22">1.5 Readline vi Mode</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">A short description of how to make Readline
behave like the vi editor.</TD></TR>
</TABLE></BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
<A NAME="Introduction and Notation"></A>
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<H2> 1.1 Introduction to Line Editing </H2>
<!--docid::SEC2::-->
<P>
The following paragraphs describe the notation used to represent
keystrokes.
</P><P>
The text <KBD>C-k</KBD> is read as `Control-K' and describes the character
produced when the <KBD>k</KBD> key is pressed while the Control key
is depressed.
</P><P>
The text <KBD>M-k</KBD> is read as `Meta-K' and describes the character
produced when the Meta key (if you have one) is depressed, and the <KBD>k</KBD>
key is pressed.
The Meta key is labeled <KBD>ALT</KBD> on many keyboards.
On keyboards with two keys labeled <KBD>ALT</KBD> (usually to either side of
the space bar), the <KBD>ALT</KBD> on the left side is generally set to
work as a Meta key.
The <KBD>ALT</KBD> key on the right may also be configured to work as a
Meta key or may be configured as some other modifier, such as a
Compose key for typing accented characters.
</P><P>
If you do not have a Meta or <KBD>ALT</KBD> key, or another key working as
a Meta key, the identical keystroke can be generated by typing <KBD>ESC</KBD>
<EM>first</EM>, and then typing <KBD>k</KBD>.
Either process is known as <EM>metafying</EM> the <KBD>k</KBD> key.
</P><P>
The text <KBD>M-C-k</KBD> is read as `Meta-Control-k' and describes the
character produced by <EM>metafying</EM> <KBD>C-k</KBD>.
</P><P>
In addition, several keys have their own names. Specifically,
<KBD>DEL</KBD>, <KBD>ESC</KBD>, <KBD>LFD</KBD>, <KBD>SPC</KBD>, <KBD>RET</KBD>, and <KBD>TAB</KBD> all
stand for themselves when seen in this text, or in an init file
(see section <A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC9">1.3 Readline Init File</A>).
If your keyboard lacks a <KBD>LFD</KBD> key, typing <KBD>C-j</KBD> will
produce the desired character.
The <KBD>RET</KBD> key may be labeled <KBD>Return</KBD> or <KBD>Enter</KBD> on
some keyboards.
</P><P>
<A NAME="Readline Interaction"></A>
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<H2> 1.2 Readline Interaction </H2>
<!--docid::SEC3::-->
<P>
Often during an interactive session you type in a long line of text,
only to notice that the first word on the line is misspelled. The
Readline library gives you a set of commands for manipulating the text
as you type it in, allowing you to just fix your typo, and not forcing
you to retype the majority of the line. Using these editing commands,
you move the cursor to the place that needs correction, and delete or
insert the text of the corrections. Then, when you are satisfied with
the line, you simply press <KBD>RET</KBD>. You do not have to be at the
end of the line to press <KBD>RET</KBD>; the entire line is accepted
regardless of the location of the cursor within the line.
</P><P>
<BLOCKQUOTE><TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC4">1.2.1 Readline Bare Essentials</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">The least you need to know about Readline.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC5">1.2.2 Readline Movement Commands</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Moving about the input line.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC6">1.2.3 Readline Killing Commands</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">How to delete text, and how to get it back!</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC7">1.2.4 Readline Arguments</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Giving numeric arguments to commands.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC8">1.2.5 Searching for Commands in the History</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Searching through previous lines.</TD></TR>
</TABLE></BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
<A NAME="Readline Bare Essentials"></A>
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<H3> 1.2.1 Readline Bare Essentials </H3>
<!--docid::SEC4::-->
<P>
In order to enter characters into the line, simply type them. The typed
character appears where the cursor was, and then the cursor moves one
space to the right. If you mistype a character, you can use your
erase character to back up and delete the mistyped character.
</P><P>
Sometimes you may mistype a character, and
not notice the error until you have typed several other characters. In
that case, you can type <KBD>C-b</KBD> to move the cursor to the left, and then
correct your mistake. Afterwards, you can move the cursor to the right
with <KBD>C-f</KBD>.
</P><P>
When you add text in the middle of a line, you will notice that characters
to the right of the cursor are `pushed over' to make room for the text
that you have inserted. Likewise, when you delete text behind the cursor,
characters to the right of the cursor are `pulled back' to fill in the
blank space created by the removal of the text. A list of the bare
essentials for editing the text of an input line follows.
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><KBD>C-b</KBD>
<DD>Move back one character.
<DT><KBD>C-f</KBD>
<DD>Move forward one character.
<DT><KBD>DEL</KBD> or <KBD>Backspace</KBD>
<DD>Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
<DT><KBD>C-d</KBD>
<DD>Delete the character underneath the cursor.
<DT>Printing characters
<DD>Insert the character into the line at the cursor.
<DT><KBD>C-_</KBD> or <KBD>C-x C-u</KBD>
<DD>Undo the last editing command. You can undo all the way back to an
empty line.
</DL>
<P>
(Depending on your configuration, the <KBD>Backspace</KBD> key be set to
delete the character to the left of the cursor and the <KBD>DEL</KBD> key set
to delete the character underneath the cursor, like <KBD>C-d</KBD>, rather
than the character to the left of the cursor.)
</P><P>
<A NAME="Readline Movement Commands"></A>
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<H3> 1.2.2 Readline Movement Commands </H3>
<!--docid::SEC5::-->
<P>
The above table describes the most basic keystrokes that you need
in order to do editing of the input line. For your convenience, many
other commands have been added in addition to <KBD>C-b</KBD>, <KBD>C-f</KBD>,
<KBD>C-d</KBD>, and <KBD>DEL</KBD>. Here are some commands for moving more rapidly
about the line.
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><KBD>C-a</KBD>
<DD>Move to the start of the line.
<DT><KBD>C-e</KBD>
<DD>Move to the end of the line.
<DT><KBD>M-f</KBD>
<DD>Move forward a word, where a word is composed of letters and digits.
<DT><KBD>M-b</KBD>
<DD>Move backward a word.
<DT><KBD>C-l</KBD>
<DD>Clear the screen, reprinting the current line at the top.
</DL>
<P>
Notice how <KBD>C-f</KBD> moves forward a character, while <KBD>M-f</KBD> moves
forward a word. It is a loose convention that control keystrokes
operate on characters while meta keystrokes operate on words.
</P><P>
<A NAME="Readline Killing Commands"></A>
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<H3> 1.2.3 Readline Killing Commands </H3>
<!--docid::SEC6::-->
<P>
<A NAME="IDX1"></A>
<A NAME="IDX2"></A>
</P><P>
<EM>Killing</EM> text means to delete the text from the line, but to save
it away for later use, usually by <EM>yanking</EM> (re-inserting)
it back into the line.
(`Cut' and `paste' are more recent jargon for `kill' and `yank'.)
</P><P>
If the description for a command says that it `kills' text, then you can
be sure that you can get the text back in a different (or the same)
place later.
</P><P>
When you use a kill command, the text is saved in a <EM>kill-ring</EM>.
Any number of consecutive kills save all of the killed text together, so
that when you yank it back, you get it all. The kill
ring is not line specific; the text that you killed on a previously
typed line is available to be yanked back later, when you are typing
another line.
<A NAME="IDX3"></A>
</P><P>
Here is the list of commands for killing text.
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><KBD>C-k</KBD>
<DD>Kill the text from the current cursor position to the end of the line.
<P>
<DT><KBD>M-d</KBD>
<DD>Kill from the cursor to the end of the current word, or, if between
words, to the end of the next word.
Word boundaries are the same as those used by <KBD>M-f</KBD>.
<P>
<DT><KBD>M-<KBD>DEL</KBD></KBD>
<DD>Kill from the cursor the start of the current word, or, if between
words, to the start of the previous word.
Word boundaries are the same as those used by <KBD>M-b</KBD>.
<P>
<DT><KBD>C-w</KBD>
<DD>Kill from the cursor to the previous whitespace. This is different than
<KBD>M-<KBD>DEL</KBD></KBD> because the word boundaries differ.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
Here is how to <EM>yank</EM> the text back into the line. Yanking
means to copy the most-recently-killed text from the kill buffer.
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><KBD>C-y</KBD>
<DD>Yank the most recently killed text back into the buffer at the cursor.
<P>
<DT><KBD>M-y</KBD>
<DD>Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top. You can only do this if
the prior command is <KBD>C-y</KBD> or <KBD>M-y</KBD>.
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Readline Arguments"></A>
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<H3> 1.2.4 Readline Arguments </H3>
<!--docid::SEC7::-->
<P>
You can pass numeric arguments to Readline commands. Sometimes the
argument acts as a repeat count, other times it is the <I>sign</I> of the
argument that is significant. If you pass a negative argument to a
command which normally acts in a forward direction, that command will
act in a backward direction. For example, to kill text back to the
start of the line, you might type <SAMP>`M-- C-k'</SAMP>.
</P><P>
The general way to pass numeric arguments to a command is to type meta
digits before the command. If the first `digit' typed is a minus
sign (<SAMP>`-'</SAMP>), then the sign of the argument will be negative. Once
you have typed one meta digit to get the argument started, you can type
the remainder of the digits, and then the command. For example, to give
the <KBD>C-d</KBD> command an argument of 10, you could type <SAMP>`M-1 0 C-d'</SAMP>,
which will delete the next ten characters on the input line.
</P><P>
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<H3> 1.2.5 Searching for Commands in the History </H3>
<!--docid::SEC8::-->
<P>
Readline provides commands for searching through the command history
for lines containing a specified string.
There are two search modes: <EM>incremental</EM> and <EM>non-incremental</EM>.
</P><P>
Incremental searches begin before the user has finished typing the
search string.
As each character of the search string is typed, Readline displays
the next entry from the history matching the string typed so far.
An incremental search requires only as many characters as needed to
find the desired history entry.
To search backward in the history for a particular string, type
<KBD>C-r</KBD>. Typing <KBD>C-s</KBD> searches forward through the history.
The characters present in the value of the <CODE>isearch-terminators</CODE> variable
are used to terminate an incremental search.
If that variable has not been assigned a value, the <KBD>ESC</KBD> and
<KBD>C-J</KBD> characters will terminate an incremental search.
<KBD>C-g</KBD> will abort an incremental search and restore the original line.
When the search is terminated, the history entry containing the
search string becomes the current line.
</P><P>
To find other matching entries in the history list, type <KBD>C-r</KBD> or
<KBD>C-s</KBD> as appropriate.
This will search backward or forward in the history for the next
entry matching the search string typed so far.
Any other key sequence bound to a Readline command will terminate
the search and execute that command.
For instance, a <KBD>RET</KBD> will terminate the search and accept
the line, thereby executing the command from the history list.
A movement command will terminate the search, make the last line found
the current line, and begin editing.
</P><P>
Readline remembers the last incremental search string. If two
<KBD>C-r</KBD>s are typed without any intervening characters defining a new
search string, any remembered search string is used.
</P><P>
Non-incremental searches read the entire search string before starting
to search for matching history lines. The search string may be
typed by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.
</P><P>
<A NAME="Readline Init File"></A>
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<H2> 1.3 Readline Init File </H2>
<!--docid::SEC9::-->
<P>
Although the Readline library comes with a set of Emacs-like
keybindings installed by default, it is possible to use a different set
of keybindings.
Any user can customize programs that use Readline by putting
commands in an <EM>inputrc</EM> file, conventionally in his home directory.
The name of this
file is taken from the value of the environment variable <CODE>INPUTRC</CODE>. If
that variable is unset, the default is <TT>`~/.inputrc'</TT>.
</P><P>
When a program which uses the Readline library starts up, the
init file is read, and the key bindings are set.
</P><P>
In addition, the <CODE>C-x C-r</CODE> command re-reads this init file, thus
incorporating any changes that you might have made to it.
</P><P>
<BLOCKQUOTE><TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC10">1.3.1 Readline Init File Syntax</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Syntax for the commands in the inputrc file.</TD></TR>
</TABLE>
<br>
<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC11">1.3.2 Conditional Init Constructs</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Conditional key bindings in the inputrc file.</TD></TR>
</TABLE>
<br>
<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC12">1.3.3 Sample Init File</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">An example inputrc file.</TD></TR>
</TABLE></BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
<A NAME="Readline Init File Syntax"></A>
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<H3> 1.3.1 Readline Init File Syntax </H3>
<!--docid::SEC10::-->
<P>
There are only a few basic constructs allowed in the
Readline init file. Blank lines are ignored.
Lines beginning with a <SAMP>`#'</SAMP> are comments.
Lines beginning with a <SAMP>`$'</SAMP> indicate conditional
constructs (see section <A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC11">1.3.2 Conditional Init Constructs</A>). Other lines
denote variable settings and key bindings.
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT>Variable Settings
<DD>You can modify the run-time behavior of Readline by
altering the values of variables in Readline
using the <CODE>set</CODE> command within the init file.
The syntax is simple:
<P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>set <VAR>variable</VAR> <VAR>value</VAR>
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
Here, for example, is how to
change from the default Emacs-like key binding to use
<CODE>vi</CODE> line editing commands:
</P><P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>set editing-mode vi
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
Variable names and values, where appropriate, are recognized without regard
to case. Unrecognized variable names are ignored.
</P><P>
Boolean variables (those that can be set to on or off) are set to on if
the value is null or empty, <VAR>on</VAR> (case-insensitive), or 1. Any other
value results in the variable being set to off.
</P><P>
A great deal of run-time behavior is changeable with the following
variables.
</P><P>
<A NAME="IDX4"></A>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE>bell-style</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX5"></A>
Controls what happens when Readline wants to ring the terminal bell.
If set to <SAMP>`none'</SAMP>, Readline never rings the bell. If set to
<SAMP>`visible'</SAMP>, Readline uses a visible bell if one is available.
If set to <SAMP>`audible'</SAMP> (the default), Readline attempts to ring
the terminal's bell.
<P>
<DT><CODE>bind-tty-special-chars</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX6"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline attempts to bind the control characters
treated specially by the kernel's terminal driver to their Readline
equivalents.
<P>
<DT><CODE>comment-begin</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX7"></A>
The string to insert at the beginning of the line when the
<CODE>insert-comment</CODE> command is executed. The default value
is <CODE>"#"</CODE>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>completion-ignore-case</CODE>
<DD>If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline performs filename matching and completion
in a case-insensitive fashion.
The default value is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>completion-query-items</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX8"></A>
The number of possible completions that determines when the user is
asked whether the list of possibilities should be displayed.
If the number of possible completions is greater than this value,
Readline will ask the user whether or not he wishes to view
them; otherwise, they are simply listed.
This variable must be set to an integer value greater than or equal to 0.
A negative value means Readline should never ask.
The default limit is <CODE>100</CODE>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>convert-meta</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX9"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline will convert characters with the
eighth bit set to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the eighth
bit and prefixing an <KBD>ESC</KBD> character, converting them to a
meta-prefixed key sequence. The default value is <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>disable-completion</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX10"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`On'</SAMP>, Readline will inhibit word completion.
Completion characters will be inserted into the line as if they had
been mapped to <CODE>self-insert</CODE>. The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>editing-mode</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX11"></A>
The <CODE>editing-mode</CODE> variable controls which default set of
key bindings is used. By default, Readline starts up in Emacs editing
mode, where the keystrokes are most similar to Emacs. This variable can be
set to either <SAMP>`emacs'</SAMP> or <SAMP>`vi'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>enable-keypad</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX12"></A>
When set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline will try to enable the application
keypad when it is called. Some systems need this to enable the
arrow keys. The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>expand-tilde</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX13"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, tilde expansion is performed when Readline
attempts word completion. The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>history-preserve-point</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX14"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, the history code attempts to place point at the
same location on each history line retrieved with <CODE>previous-history</CODE>
or <CODE>next-history</CODE>. The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>horizontal-scroll-mode</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX15"></A>
This variable can be set to either <SAMP>`on'</SAMP> or <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>. Setting it
to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP> means that the text of the lines being edited will scroll
horizontally on a single screen line when they are longer than the width
of the screen, instead of wrapping onto a new screen line. By default,
this variable is set to <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>input-meta</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX16"></A>
<A NAME="IDX17"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline will enable eight-bit input (it
will not clear the eighth bit in the characters it reads),
regardless of what the terminal claims it can support. The
default value is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>. The name <CODE>meta-flag</CODE> is a
synonym for this variable.
<P>
<DT><CODE>isearch-terminators</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX18"></A>
The string of characters that should terminate an incremental search without
subsequently executing the character as a command (see section <A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC8">1.2.5 Searching for Commands in the History</A>).
If this variable has not been given a value, the characters <KBD>ESC</KBD> and
<KBD>C-J</KBD> will terminate an incremental search.
<P>
<DT><CODE>keymap</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX19"></A>
Sets Readline's idea of the current keymap for key binding commands.
Acceptable <CODE>keymap</CODE> names are
<CODE>emacs</CODE>,
<CODE>emacs-standard</CODE>,
<CODE>emacs-meta</CODE>,
<CODE>emacs-ctlx</CODE>,
<CODE>vi</CODE>,
<CODE>vi-move</CODE>,
<CODE>vi-command</CODE>, and
<CODE>vi-insert</CODE>.
<CODE>vi</CODE> is equivalent to <CODE>vi-command</CODE>; <CODE>emacs</CODE> is
equivalent to <CODE>emacs-standard</CODE>. The default value is <CODE>emacs</CODE>.
The value of the <CODE>editing-mode</CODE> variable also affects the
default keymap.
<P>
<DT><CODE>mark-directories</CODE>
<DD>If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, completed directory names have a slash
appended. The default is <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>mark-modified-lines</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX20"></A>
This variable, when set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, causes Readline to display an
asterisk (<SAMP>`*'</SAMP>) at the start of history lines which have been modified.
This variable is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP> by default.
<P>
<DT><CODE>mark-symlinked-directories</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX21"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, completed names which are symbolic links
to directories have a slash appended (subject to the value of
<CODE>mark-directories</CODE>).
The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>match-hidden-files</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX22"></A>
This variable, when set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, causes Readline to match files whose
names begin with a <SAMP>`.'</SAMP> (hidden files) when performing filename
completion, unless the leading <SAMP>`.'</SAMP> is
supplied by the user in the filename to be completed.
This variable is <SAMP>`on'</SAMP> by default.
<P>
<DT><CODE>output-meta</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX23"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline will display characters with the
eighth bit set directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape
sequence. The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>page-completions</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX24"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline uses an internal <CODE>more</CODE>-like pager
to display a screenful of possible completions at a time.
This variable is <SAMP>`on'</SAMP> by default.
<P>
<DT><CODE>print-completions-horizontally</CODE>
<DD>If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, Readline will display completions with matches
sorted horizontally in alphabetical order, rather than down the screen.
The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>show-all-if-ambiguous</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX25"></A>
This alters the default behavior of the completion functions. If
set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>,
words which have more than one possible completion cause the
matches to be listed immediately instead of ringing the bell.
The default value is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>show-all-if-unmodified</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX26"></A>
This alters the default behavior of the completion functions in
a fashion similar to <VAR>show-all-if-ambiguous</VAR>.
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>,
words which have more than one possible completion without any
possible partial completion (the possible completions don't share
a common prefix) cause the matches to be listed immediately instead
of ringing the bell.
The default value is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
<DT><CODE>visible-stats</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX27"></A>
If set to <SAMP>`on'</SAMP>, a character denoting a file's type
is appended to the filename when listing possible
completions. The default is <SAMP>`off'</SAMP>.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
<DT>Key Bindings
<DD>The syntax for controlling key bindings in the init file is
simple. First you need to find the name of the command that you
want to change. The following sections contain tables of the command
name, the default keybinding, if any, and a short description of what
the command does.
<P>
Once you know the name of the command, simply place on a line
in the init file the name of the key
you wish to bind the command to, a colon, and then the name of the
command. The name of the key
can be expressed in different ways, depending on what you find most
comfortable.
</P><P>
In addition to command names, readline allows keys to be bound
to a string that is inserted when the key is pressed (a <VAR>macro</VAR>).
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><VAR>keyname</VAR>: <VAR>function-name</VAR> or <VAR>macro</VAR>
<DD><VAR>keyname</VAR> is the name of a key spelled out in English. For example:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>Control-u: universal-argument
Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
Control-o: "&#62; output"
</pre></td></tr></table><P>
In the above example, <KBD>C-u</KBD> is bound to the function
<CODE>universal-argument</CODE>,
<KBD>M-DEL</KBD> is bound to the function <CODE>backward-kill-word</CODE>, and
<KBD>C-o</KBD> is bound to run the macro
expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert the text
<SAMP>`&#62; output'</SAMP> into the line).
</P><P>
A number of symbolic character names are recognized while
processing this key binding syntax:
<VAR>DEL</VAR>,
<VAR>ESC</VAR>,
<VAR>ESCAPE</VAR>,
<VAR>LFD</VAR>,
<VAR>NEWLINE</VAR>,
<VAR>RET</VAR>,
<VAR>RETURN</VAR>,
<VAR>RUBOUT</VAR>,
<VAR>SPACE</VAR>,
<VAR>SPC</VAR>,
and
<VAR>TAB</VAR>.
</P><P>
<DT>"<VAR>keyseq</VAR>": <VAR>function-name</VAR> or <VAR>macro</VAR>
<DD><VAR>keyseq</VAR> differs from <VAR>keyname</VAR> above in that strings
denoting an entire key sequence can be specified, by placing
the key sequence in double quotes. Some GNU Emacs style key
escapes can be used, as in the following example, but the
special character names are not recognized.
<P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>"\C-u": universal-argument
"\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
"\e[11~": "Function Key 1"
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
In the above example, <KBD>C-u</KBD> is again bound to the function
<CODE>universal-argument</CODE> (just as it was in the first example),
<SAMP>`<KBD>C-x</KBD> <KBD>C-r</KBD>'</SAMP> is bound to the function <CODE>re-read-init-file</CODE>,
and <SAMP>`<KBD>ESC</KBD> <KBD>[</KBD> <KBD>1</KBD> <KBD>1</KBD> <KBD>~</KBD>'</SAMP> is bound to insert
the text <SAMP>`Function Key 1'</SAMP>.
</P><P>
</DL>
<P>
The following GNU Emacs style escape sequences are available when
specifying key sequences:
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE><KBD>\C-</KBD></CODE>
<DD>control prefix
<DT><CODE><KBD>\M-</KBD></CODE>
<DD>meta prefix
<DT><CODE><KBD>\e</KBD></CODE>
<DD>an escape character
<DT><CODE><KBD>\\</KBD></CODE>
<DD>backslash
<DT><CODE><KBD>\"</KBD></CODE>
<DD><KBD>"</KBD>, a double quotation mark
<DT><CODE><KBD>\'</KBD></CODE>
<DD><KBD>'</KBD>, a single quote or apostrophe
</DL>
<P>
In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a second
set of backslash escapes is available:
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE>\a</CODE>
<DD>alert (bell)
<DT><CODE>\b</CODE>
<DD>backspace
<DT><CODE>\d</CODE>
<DD>delete
<DT><CODE>\f</CODE>
<DD>form feed
<DT><CODE>\n</CODE>
<DD>newline
<DT><CODE>\r</CODE>
<DD>carriage return
<DT><CODE>\t</CODE>
<DD>horizontal tab
<DT><CODE>\v</CODE>
<DD>vertical tab
<DT><CODE>\<VAR>nnn</VAR></CODE>
<DD>the eight-bit character whose value is the octal value <VAR>nnn</VAR>
(one to three digits)
<DT><CODE>\x<VAR>HH</VAR></CODE>
<DD>the eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal value <VAR>HH</VAR>
(one or two hex digits)
</DL>
<P>
When entering the text of a macro, single or double quotes must
be used to indicate a macro definition.
Unquoted text is assumed to be a function name.
In the macro body, the backslash escapes described above are expanded.
Backslash will quote any other character in the macro text,
including <SAMP>`"'</SAMP> and <SAMP>`''</SAMP>.
For example, the following binding will make <SAMP>`<KBD>C-x</KBD> \'</SAMP>
insert a single <SAMP>`\'</SAMP> into the line:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>"\C-x\\": "\\"
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Conditional Init Constructs"></A>
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<H3> 1.3.2 Conditional Init Constructs </H3>
<!--docid::SEC11::-->
<P>
Readline implements a facility similar in spirit to the conditional
compilation features of the C preprocessor which allows key
bindings and variable settings to be performed as the result
of tests. There are four parser directives used.
</P><P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE>$if</CODE>
<DD>The <CODE>$if</CODE> construct allows bindings to be made based on the
editing mode, the terminal being used, or the application using
Readline. The text of the test extends to the end of the line;
no characters are required to isolate it.
<P>
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE>mode</CODE>
<DD>The <CODE>mode=</CODE> form of the <CODE>$if</CODE> directive is used to test
whether Readline is in <CODE>emacs</CODE> or <CODE>vi</CODE> mode.
This may be used in conjunction
with the <SAMP>`set keymap'</SAMP> command, for instance, to set bindings in
the <CODE>emacs-standard</CODE> and <CODE>emacs-ctlx</CODE> keymaps only if
Readline is starting out in <CODE>emacs</CODE> mode.
<P>
<DT><CODE>term</CODE>
<DD>The <CODE>term=</CODE> form may be used to include terminal-specific
key bindings, perhaps to bind the key sequences output by the
terminal's function keys. The word on the right side of the
<SAMP>`='</SAMP> is tested against both the full name of the terminal and
the portion of the terminal name before the first <SAMP>`-'</SAMP>. This
allows <CODE>sun</CODE> to match both <CODE>sun</CODE> and <CODE>sun-cmd</CODE>,
for instance.
<P>
<DT><CODE>application</CODE>
<DD>The <VAR>application</VAR> construct is used to include
application-specific settings. Each program using the Readline
library sets the <VAR>application name</VAR>, and you can test for
a particular value.
This could be used to bind key sequences to functions useful for
a specific program. For instance, the following command adds a
key sequence that quotes the current or previous word in Bash:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>$if Bash
# Quote the current or previous word
"\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
$endif
</pre></td></tr></table></DL>
<P>
<DT><CODE>$endif</CODE>
<DD>This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an
<CODE>$if</CODE> command.
<P>
<DT><CODE>$else</CODE>
<DD>Commands in this branch of the <CODE>$if</CODE> directive are executed if
the test fails.
<P>
<DT><CODE>$include</CODE>
<DD>This directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads commands
and bindings from that file.
For example, the following directive reads from <TT>`/etc/inputrc'</TT>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>$include /etc/inputrc
</pre></td></tr></table></DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Sample Init File"></A>
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<H3> 1.3.3 Sample Init File </H3>
<!--docid::SEC12::-->
<P>
Here is an example of an <VAR>inputrc</VAR> file. This illustrates key
binding, variable assignment, and conditional syntax.
</P><P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre># This file controls the behaviour of line input editing for
# programs that use the GNU Readline library. Existing
# programs include FTP, Bash, and GDB.
#
# You can re-read the inputrc file with C-x C-r.
# Lines beginning with '#' are comments.
#
# First, include any systemwide bindings and variable
# assignments from /etc/Inputrc
$include /etc/Inputrc
#
# Set various bindings for emacs mode.
set editing-mode emacs
$if mode=emacs
Meta-Control-h: backward-kill-word Text after the function name is ignored
#
# Arrow keys in keypad mode
#
#"\M-OD": backward-char
#"\M-OC": forward-char
#"\M-OA": previous-history
#"\M-OB": next-history
#
# Arrow keys in ANSI mode
#
"\M-[D": backward-char
"\M-[C": forward-char
"\M-[A": previous-history
"\M-[B": next-history
#
# Arrow keys in 8 bit keypad mode
#
#"\M-\C-OD": backward-char
#"\M-\C-OC": forward-char
#"\M-\C-OA": previous-history
#"\M-\C-OB": next-history
#
# Arrow keys in 8 bit ANSI mode
#
#"\M-\C-[D": backward-char
#"\M-\C-[C": forward-char
#"\M-\C-[A": previous-history
#"\M-\C-[B": next-history
C-q: quoted-insert
$endif
# An old-style binding. This happens to be the default.
TAB: complete
# Macros that are convenient for shell interaction
$if Bash
# edit the path
"\C-xp": "PATH=${PATH}\e\C-e\C-a\ef\C-f"
# prepare to type a quoted word --
# insert open and close double quotes
# and move to just after the open quote
"\C-x\"": "\"\"\C-b"
# insert a backslash (testing backslash escapes
# in sequences and macros)
"\C-x\\": "\\"
# Quote the current or previous word
"\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
# Add a binding to refresh the line, which is unbound
"\C-xr": redraw-current-line
# Edit variable on current line.
"\M-\C-v": "\C-a\C-k$\C-y\M-\C-e\C-a\C-y="
$endif
# use a visible bell if one is available
set bell-style visible
# don't strip characters to 7 bits when reading
set input-meta on
# allow iso-latin1 characters to be inserted rather
# than converted to prefix-meta sequences
set convert-meta off
# display characters with the eighth bit set directly
# rather than as meta-prefixed characters
set output-meta on
# if there are more than 150 possible completions for
# a word, ask the user if he wants to see all of them
set completion-query-items 150
# For FTP
$if Ftp
"\C-xg": "get \M-?"
"\C-xt": "put \M-?"
"\M-.": yank-last-arg
$endif
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
<A NAME="Bindable Readline Commands"></A>
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<H2> 1.4 Bindable Readline Commands </H2>
<!--docid::SEC13::-->
<P>
<BLOCKQUOTE><TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC14">1.4.1 Commands For Moving</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Moving about the line.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC15">1.4.2 Commands For Manipulating The History</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Getting at previous lines.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC16">1.4.3 Commands For Changing Text</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Commands for changing text.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC17">1.4.4 Killing And Yanking</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Commands for killing and yanking.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC18">1.4.5 Specifying Numeric Arguments</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Specifying numeric arguments, repeat counts.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC19">1.4.6 Letting Readline Type For You</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Getting Readline to do the typing for you.</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC20">1.4.7 Keyboard Macros</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Saving and re-executing typed characters</TD></TR>
<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC21">1.4.8 Some Miscellaneous Commands</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">Other miscellaneous commands.</TD></TR>
</TABLE></BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
This section describes Readline commands that may be bound to key
sequences.
Command names without an accompanying key sequence are unbound by default.
</P><P>
In the following descriptions, <EM>point</EM> refers to the current cursor
position, and <EM>mark</EM> refers to a cursor position saved by the
<CODE>set-mark</CODE> command.
The text between the point and mark is referred to as the <EM>region</EM>.
</P><P>
<A NAME="Commands For Moving"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.1 Commands For Moving </H3>
<!--docid::SEC14::-->
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX28"></A>
<DT><CODE>beginning-of-line (C-a)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX29"></A>
Move to the start of the current line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX30"></A>
<DT><CODE>end-of-line (C-e)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX31"></A>
Move to the end of the line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX32"></A>
<DT><CODE>forward-char (C-f)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX33"></A>
Move forward a character.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX34"></A>
<DT><CODE>backward-char (C-b)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX35"></A>
Move back a character.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX36"></A>
<DT><CODE>forward-word (M-f)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX37"></A>
Move forward to the end of the next word. Words are composed of
letters and digits.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX38"></A>
<DT><CODE>backward-word (M-b)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX39"></A>
Move back to the start of the current or previous word. Words are
composed of letters and digits.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX40"></A>
<DT><CODE>clear-screen (C-l)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX41"></A>
Clear the screen and redraw the current line,
leaving the current line at the top of the screen.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX42"></A>
<DT><CODE>redraw-current-line ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX43"></A>
Refresh the current line. By default, this is unbound.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Commands For History"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.2 Commands For Manipulating The History </H3>
<!--docid::SEC15::-->
<P>
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX44"></A>
<DT><CODE>accept-line (Newline or Return)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX45"></A>
Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.
If this line is
non-empty, it may be added to the history list for future recall with
<CODE>add_history()</CODE>.
If this line is a modified history line, the history line is restored
to its original state.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX46"></A>
<DT><CODE>previous-history (C-p)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX47"></A>
Move `back' through the history list, fetching the previous command.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX48"></A>
<DT><CODE>next-history (C-n)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX49"></A>
Move `forward' through the history list, fetching the next command.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX50"></A>
<DT><CODE>beginning-of-history (M-&#60;)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX51"></A>
Move to the first line in the history.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX52"></A>
<DT><CODE>end-of-history (M-&#62;)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX53"></A>
Move to the end of the input history, i.e., the line currently
being entered.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX54"></A>
<DT><CODE>reverse-search-history (C-r)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX55"></A>
Search backward starting at the current line and moving `up' through
the history as necessary. This is an incremental search.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX56"></A>
<DT><CODE>forward-search-history (C-s)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX57"></A>
Search forward starting at the current line and moving `down' through
the the history as necessary. This is an incremental search.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX58"></A>
<DT><CODE>non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX59"></A>
Search backward starting at the current line and moving `up'
through the history as necessary using a non-incremental search
for a string supplied by the user.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX60"></A>
<DT><CODE>non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX61"></A>
Search forward starting at the current line and moving `down'
through the the history as necessary using a non-incremental search
for a string supplied by the user.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX62"></A>
<DT><CODE>history-search-forward ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX63"></A>
Search forward through the history for the string of characters
between the start of the current line and the point.
This is a non-incremental search.
By default, this command is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX64"></A>
<DT><CODE>history-search-backward ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX65"></A>
Search backward through the history for the string of characters
between the start of the current line and the point. This
is a non-incremental search. By default, this command is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX66"></A>
<DT><CODE>yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX67"></A>
Insert the first argument to the previous command (usually
the second word on the previous line) at point.
With an argument <VAR>n</VAR>,
insert the <VAR>n</VAR>th word from the previous command (the words
in the previous command begin with word 0). A negative argument
inserts the <VAR>n</VAR>th word from the end of the previous command.
Once the argument <VAR>n</VAR> is computed, the argument is extracted
as if the <SAMP>`!<VAR>n</VAR>'</SAMP> history expansion had been specified.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX68"></A>
<DT><CODE>yank-last-arg (M-. or M-_)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX69"></A>
Insert last argument to the previous command (the last word of the
previous history entry). With an
argument, behave exactly like <CODE>yank-nth-arg</CODE>.
Successive calls to <CODE>yank-last-arg</CODE> move back through the history
list, inserting the last argument of each line in turn.
The history expansion facilities are used to extract the last argument,
as if the <SAMP>`!$'</SAMP> history expansion had been specified.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Commands For Text"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.3 Commands For Changing Text </H3>
<!--docid::SEC16::-->
<P>
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX70"></A>
<DT><CODE>delete-char (C-d)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX71"></A>
Delete the character at point. If point is at the
beginning of the line, there are no characters in the line, and
the last character typed was not bound to <CODE>delete-char</CODE>, then
return EOF.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX72"></A>
<DT><CODE>backward-delete-char (Rubout)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX73"></A>
Delete the character behind the cursor. A numeric argument means
to kill the characters instead of deleting them.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX74"></A>
<DT><CODE>forward-backward-delete-char ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX75"></A>
Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor is at the
end of the line, in which case the character behind the cursor is
deleted. By default, this is not bound to a key.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX76"></A>
<DT><CODE>quoted-insert (C-q or C-v)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX77"></A>
Add the next character typed to the line verbatim. This is
how to insert key sequences like <KBD>C-q</KBD>, for example.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX78"></A>
<DT><CODE>tab-insert (M-<KBD>TAB</KBD>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX79"></A>
Insert a tab character.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX80"></A>
<DT><CODE>self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, <small>...</small>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX81"></A>
Insert yourself.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX82"></A>
<DT><CODE>transpose-chars (C-t)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX83"></A>
Drag the character before the cursor forward over
the character at the cursor, moving the
cursor forward as well. If the insertion point
is at the end of the line, then this
transposes the last two characters of the line.
Negative arguments have no effect.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX84"></A>
<DT><CODE>transpose-words (M-t)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX85"></A>
Drag the word before point past the word after point,
moving point past that word as well.
If the insertion point is at the end of the line, this transposes
the last two words on the line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX86"></A>
<DT><CODE>upcase-word (M-u)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX87"></A>
Uppercase the current (or following) word. With a negative argument,
uppercase the previous word, but do not move the cursor.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX88"></A>
<DT><CODE>downcase-word (M-l)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX89"></A>
Lowercase the current (or following) word. With a negative argument,
lowercase the previous word, but do not move the cursor.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX90"></A>
<DT><CODE>capitalize-word (M-c)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX91"></A>
Capitalize the current (or following) word. With a negative argument,
capitalize the previous word, but do not move the cursor.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX92"></A>
<DT><CODE>overwrite-mode ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX93"></A>
Toggle overwrite mode. With an explicit positive numeric argument,
switches to overwrite mode. With an explicit non-positive numeric
argument, switches to insert mode. This command affects only
<CODE>emacs</CODE> mode; <CODE>vi</CODE> mode does overwrite differently.
Each call to <CODE>readline()</CODE> starts in insert mode.
<P>
In overwrite mode, characters bound to <CODE>self-insert</CODE> replace
the text at point rather than pushing the text to the right.
Characters bound to <CODE>backward-delete-char</CODE> replace the character
before point with a space.
</P><P>
By default, this command is unbound.
</P><P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Commands For Killing"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.4 Killing And Yanking </H3>
<!--docid::SEC17::-->
<P>
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX94"></A>
<DT><CODE>kill-line (C-k)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX95"></A>
Kill the text from point to the end of the line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX96"></A>
<DT><CODE>backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX97"></A>
Kill backward to the beginning of the line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX98"></A>
<DT><CODE>unix-line-discard (C-u)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX99"></A>
Kill backward from the cursor to the beginning of the current line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX100"></A>
<DT><CODE>kill-whole-line ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX101"></A>
Kill all characters on the current line, no matter where point is.
By default, this is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX102"></A>
<DT><CODE>kill-word (M-d)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX103"></A>
Kill from point to the end of the current word, or if between
words, to the end of the next word.
Word boundaries are the same as <CODE>forward-word</CODE>.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX104"></A>
<DT><CODE>backward-kill-word (M-<KBD>DEL</KBD>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX105"></A>
Kill the word behind point.
Word boundaries are the same as <CODE>backward-word</CODE>.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX106"></A>
<DT><CODE>unix-word-rubout (C-w)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX107"></A>
Kill the word behind point, using white space as a word boundary.
The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX108"></A>
<DT><CODE>unix-filename-rubout ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX109"></A>
Kill the word behind point, using white space and the slash character
as the word boundaries.
The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX110"></A>
<DT><CODE>delete-horizontal-space ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX111"></A>
Delete all spaces and tabs around point. By default, this is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX112"></A>
<DT><CODE>kill-region ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX113"></A>
Kill the text in the current region.
By default, this command is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX114"></A>
<DT><CODE>copy-region-as-kill ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX115"></A>
Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer, so it can be yanked
right away. By default, this command is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX116"></A>
<DT><CODE>copy-backward-word ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX117"></A>
Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.
The word boundaries are the same as <CODE>backward-word</CODE>.
By default, this command is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX118"></A>
<DT><CODE>copy-forward-word ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX119"></A>
Copy the word following point to the kill buffer.
The word boundaries are the same as <CODE>forward-word</CODE>.
By default, this command is unbound.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX120"></A>
<DT><CODE>yank (C-y)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX121"></A>
Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX122"></A>
<DT><CODE>yank-pop (M-y)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX123"></A>
Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top. You can only do this if
the prior command is <CODE>yank</CODE> or <CODE>yank-pop</CODE>.
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Numeric Arguments"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.5 Specifying Numeric Arguments </H3>
<!--docid::SEC18::-->
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX124"></A>
<DT><CODE>digit-argument (<KBD>M-0</KBD>, <KBD>M-1</KBD>, <small>...</small> <KBD>M--</KBD>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX125"></A>
Add this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a new
argument. <KBD>M--</KBD> starts a negative argument.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX126"></A>
<DT><CODE>universal-argument ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX127"></A>
This is another way to specify an argument.
If this command is followed by one or more digits, optionally with a
leading minus sign, those digits define the argument.
If the command is followed by digits, executing <CODE>universal-argument</CODE>
again ends the numeric argument, but is otherwise ignored.
As a special case, if this command is immediately followed by a
character that is neither a digit or minus sign, the argument count
for the next command is multiplied by four.
The argument count is initially one, so executing this function the
first time makes the argument count four, a second time makes the
argument count sixteen, and so on.
By default, this is not bound to a key.
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Commands For Completion"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.6 Letting Readline Type For You </H3>
<!--docid::SEC19::-->
<P>
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX128"></A>
<DT><CODE>complete (<KBD>TAB</KBD>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX129"></A>
Attempt to perform completion on the text before point.
The actual completion performed is application-specific.
The default is filename completion.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX130"></A>
<DT><CODE>possible-completions (M-?)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX131"></A>
List the possible completions of the text before point.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX132"></A>
<DT><CODE>insert-completions (M-*)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX133"></A>
Insert all completions of the text before point that would have
been generated by <CODE>possible-completions</CODE>.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX134"></A>
<DT><CODE>menu-complete ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX135"></A>
Similar to <CODE>complete</CODE>, but replaces the word to be completed
with a single match from the list of possible completions.
Repeated execution of <CODE>menu-complete</CODE> steps through the list
of possible completions, inserting each match in turn.
At the end of the list of completions, the bell is rung
(subject to the setting of <CODE>bell-style</CODE>)
and the original text is restored.
An argument of <VAR>n</VAR> moves <VAR>n</VAR> positions forward in the list
of matches; a negative argument may be used to move backward
through the list.
This command is intended to be bound to <KBD>TAB</KBD>, but is unbound
by default.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX136"></A>
<DT><CODE>delete-char-or-list ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX137"></A>
Deletes the character under the cursor if not at the beginning or
end of the line (like <CODE>delete-char</CODE>).
If at the end of the line, behaves identically to
<CODE>possible-completions</CODE>.
This command is unbound by default.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Keyboard Macros"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.7 Keyboard Macros </H3>
<!--docid::SEC20::-->
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX138"></A>
<DT><CODE>start-kbd-macro (C-x ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX139"></A>
Begin saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX140"></A>
<DT><CODE>end-kbd-macro (C-x ))</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX141"></A>
Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
and save the definition.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX142"></A>
<DT><CODE>call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX143"></A>
Re-execute the last keyboard macro defined, by making the characters
in the macro appear as if typed at the keyboard.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Miscellaneous Commands"></A>
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<H3> 1.4.8 Some Miscellaneous Commands </H3>
<!--docid::SEC21::-->
<DL COMPACT>
<A NAME="IDX144"></A>
<DT><CODE>re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX145"></A>
Read in the contents of the <VAR>inputrc</VAR> file, and incorporate
any bindings or variable assignments found there.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX146"></A>
<DT><CODE>abort (C-g)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX147"></A>
Abort the current editing command and
ring the terminal's bell (subject to the setting of
<CODE>bell-style</CODE>).
<P>
<A NAME="IDX148"></A>
<DT><CODE>do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-<VAR>x</VAR>, <small>...</small>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX149"></A>
If the metafied character <VAR>x</VAR> is lowercase, run the command
that is bound to the corresponding uppercase character.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX150"></A>
<DT><CODE>prefix-meta (<KBD>ESC</KBD>)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX151"></A>
Metafy the next character typed. This is for keyboards
without a meta key. Typing <SAMP>`<KBD>ESC</KBD> f'</SAMP> is equivalent to typing
<KBD>M-f</KBD>.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX152"></A>
<DT><CODE>undo (C-_ or C-x C-u)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX153"></A>
Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX154"></A>
<DT><CODE>revert-line (M-r)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX155"></A>
Undo all changes made to this line. This is like executing the <CODE>undo</CODE>
command enough times to get back to the beginning.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX156"></A>
<DT><CODE>tilde-expand (M-~)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX157"></A>
Perform tilde expansion on the current word.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX158"></A>
<DT><CODE>set-mark (C-@)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX159"></A>
Set the mark to the point. If a
numeric argument is supplied, the mark is set to that position.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX160"></A>
<DT><CODE>exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX161"></A>
Swap the point with the mark. The current cursor position is set to
the saved position, and the old cursor position is saved as the mark.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX162"></A>
<DT><CODE>character-search (C-])</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX163"></A>
A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of that
character. A negative count searches for previous occurrences.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX164"></A>
<DT><CODE>character-search-backward (M-C-])</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX165"></A>
A character is read and point is moved to the previous occurrence
of that character. A negative count searches for subsequent
occurrences.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX166"></A>
<DT><CODE>insert-comment (M-#)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX167"></A>
Without a numeric argument, the value of the <CODE>comment-begin</CODE>
variable is inserted at the beginning of the current line.
If a numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a toggle: if
the characters at the beginning of the line do not match the value
of <CODE>comment-begin</CODE>, the value is inserted, otherwise
the characters in <CODE>comment-begin</CODE> are deleted from the beginning of
the line.
In either case, the line is accepted as if a newline had been typed.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX168"></A>
<DT><CODE>dump-functions ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX169"></A>
Print all of the functions and their key bindings to the
Readline output stream. If a numeric argument is supplied,
the output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part
of an <VAR>inputrc</VAR> file. This command is unbound by default.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX170"></A>
<DT><CODE>dump-variables ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX171"></A>
Print all of the settable variables and their values to the
Readline output stream. If a numeric argument is supplied,
the output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part
of an <VAR>inputrc</VAR> file. This command is unbound by default.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX172"></A>
<DT><CODE>dump-macros ()</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX173"></A>
Print all of the Readline key sequences bound to macros and the
strings they output. If a numeric argument is supplied,
the output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part
of an <VAR>inputrc</VAR> file. This command is unbound by default.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX174"></A>
<DT><CODE>emacs-editing-mode (C-e)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX175"></A>
When in <CODE>vi</CODE> command mode, this causes a switch to <CODE>emacs</CODE>
editing mode.
<P>
<A NAME="IDX176"></A>
<DT><CODE>vi-editing-mode (M-C-j)</CODE>
<DD><A NAME="IDX177"></A>
When in <CODE>emacs</CODE> editing mode, this causes a switch to <CODE>vi</CODE>
editing mode.
<P>
</DL>
<P>
<A NAME="Readline vi Mode"></A>
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<H2> 1.5 Readline vi Mode </H2>
<!--docid::SEC22::-->
<P>
While the Readline library does not have a full set of <CODE>vi</CODE>
editing functions, it does contain enough to allow simple editing
of the line. The Readline <CODE>vi</CODE> mode behaves as specified in
the POSIX 1003.2 standard.
</P><P>
In order to switch interactively between <CODE>emacs</CODE> and <CODE>vi</CODE>
editing modes, use the command <KBD>M-C-j</KBD> (bound to emacs-editing-mode
when in <CODE>vi</CODE> mode and to vi-editing-mode in <CODE>emacs</CODE> mode).
The Readline default is <CODE>emacs</CODE> mode.
</P><P>
When you enter a line in <CODE>vi</CODE> mode, you are already placed in
`insertion' mode, as if you had typed an <SAMP>`i'</SAMP>. Pressing <KBD>ESC</KBD>
switches you into `command' mode, where you can edit the text of the
line with the standard <CODE>vi</CODE> movement keys, move to previous
history lines with <SAMP>`k'</SAMP> and subsequent lines with <SAMP>`j'</SAMP>, and
so forth.
</P><P>
<A NAME="Copying This Manual"></A>
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<H1> A. Copying This Manual </H1>
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<P>
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<TR><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP"><A HREF="rluserman.html#SEC24">A.1 GNU Free Documentation License</A></TD><TD>&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD><TD ALIGN="left" VALIGN="TOP">License for copying this manual.</TD></TR>
</TABLE></BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
<A NAME="GNU Free Documentation License"></A>
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<H2> A.1 GNU Free Documentation License </H2>
<!--docid::SEC24::-->
<P>
<A NAME="IDX178"></A>
<center>
Version 1.2, November 2002
</center>
</P><P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
<OL>
<LI>
PREAMBLE
<P>
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document <EM>free</EM> in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.
</P><P>
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.
</P><P>
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
</P><P>
<LI>
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
<P>
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
under copyright law.
</P><P>
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
modifications and/or translated into another language.
</P><P>
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
them.
</P><P>
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
Sections then there are none.
</P><P>
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
</P><P>
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the
general public, that is suitable for revising the document
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
</P><P>
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input
format, <FONT SIZE="-1">SGML</FONT> or <FONT SIZE="-1">XML</FONT> using a publicly available
<FONT SIZE="-1">DTD</FONT>, and standard-conforming simple <FONT SIZE="-1">HTML</FONT>,
PostScript or <FONT SIZE="-1">PDF</FONT> designed for human modification. Examples
of transparent image formats include <FONT SIZE="-1">PNG</FONT>, <FONT SIZE="-1">XCF</FONT> and
<FONT SIZE="-1">JPG</FONT>. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be
read and edited only by proprietary word processors, <FONT SIZE="-1">SGML</FONT> or
<FONT SIZE="-1">XML</FONT> for which the <FONT SIZE="-1">DTD</FONT> and/or processing tools are
not generally available, and the machine-generated <FONT SIZE="-1">HTML</FONT>,
PostScript or <FONT SIZE="-1">PDF</FONT> produced by some word processors for
output purposes only.
</P><P>
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
</P><P>
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
</P><P>
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
no effect on the meaning of this License.
</P><P>
<LI>
VERBATIM COPYING
<P>
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
</P><P>
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
you may publicly display copies.
</P><P>
<LI>
COPYING IN QUANTITY
<P>
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
as verbatim copying in other respects.
</P><P>
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
pages.
</P><P>
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a computer-network location from which the general network-using
public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.
</P><P>
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
</P><P>
<LI>
MODIFICATIONS
<P>
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
</P><P>
<OL>
<LI>
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
<P>
<LI>
List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
unless they release you from this requirement.
<P>
<LI>
State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
Modified Version, as the publisher.
<P>
<LI>
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
<P>
<LI>
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
<P>
<LI>
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
<P>
<LI>
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
<P>
<LI>
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
<P>
<LI>
Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
<P>
<LI>
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
<P>
<LI>
For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the
substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
dedications given therein.
<P>
<LI>
Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
<P>
<LI>
Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.
<P>
<LI>
Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or
to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
<P>
<LI>
Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
</OL>
<P>
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
</P><P>
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
standard.
</P><P>
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
</P><P>
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
</P><P>
<LI>
COMBINING DOCUMENTS
<P>
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
</P><P>
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
</P><P>
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all
sections Entitled "Endorsements."
</P><P>
<LI>
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
<P>
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
</P><P>
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
</P><P>
<LI>
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
<P>
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.
</P><P>
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
aggregate.
</P><P>
<LI>
TRANSLATION
<P>
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions
of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
</P><P>
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
title.
</P><P>
<LI>
TERMINATION
<P>
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
</P><P>
<LI>
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
<P>
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
<A HREF="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/">http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/</A>.
</P><P>
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
</OL>
<P>
<HR SIZE="6">
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<H3> A.1.1 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents </H3>
<!--docid::SEC25::-->
<P>
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:
</P><P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=smallexample><FONT SIZE=-1><pre> Copyright (C) <VAR>year</VAR> <VAR>your name</VAR>.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
Free Documentation License''.
</FONT></pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
</P><P>
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=smallexample><FONT SIZE=-1><pre> with the Invariant Sections being <VAR>list their titles</VAR>, with
the Front-Cover Texts being <VAR>list</VAR>, and with the Back-Cover Texts
being <VAR>list</VAR>.
</FONT></pre></td></tr></table></P><P>
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.
</P><P>
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
to permit their use in free software.
</P><P>
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</TR></TABLE>
<H1>Table of Contents</H1>
<UL>
<A NAME="TOC1" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC1">1. Command Line Editing</A>
<BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="TOC2" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC2">1.1 Introduction to Line Editing</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC3" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC3">1.2 Readline Interaction</A>
<BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="TOC4" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC4">1.2.1 Readline Bare Essentials</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC5" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC5">1.2.2 Readline Movement Commands</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC6" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC6">1.2.3 Readline Killing Commands</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC7" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC7">1.2.4 Readline Arguments</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC8" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC8">1.2.5 Searching for Commands in the History</A>
<BR>
</UL>
<A NAME="TOC9" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC9">1.3 Readline Init File</A>
<BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="TOC10" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC10">1.3.1 Readline Init File Syntax</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC11" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC11">1.3.2 Conditional Init Constructs</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC12" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC12">1.3.3 Sample Init File</A>
<BR>
</UL>
<A NAME="TOC13" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC13">1.4 Bindable Readline Commands</A>
<BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="TOC14" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC14">1.4.1 Commands For Moving</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC15" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC15">1.4.2 Commands For Manipulating The History</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC16" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC16">1.4.3 Commands For Changing Text</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC17" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC17">1.4.4 Killing And Yanking</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC18" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC18">1.4.5 Specifying Numeric Arguments</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC19" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC19">1.4.6 Letting Readline Type For You</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC20" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC20">1.4.7 Keyboard Macros</A>
<BR>
<A NAME="TOC21" HREF="rluserman.html#SEC21">1.4.8 Some Miscellaneous Commands</A>
<BR>
</UL>
<A <