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\input texinfo @c -*- Texinfo -*-
@setfilename binutils.info
@settitle @sc{gnu} Binary Utilities
@finalout
@synindex ky cp
@c man begin INCLUDE
@include bfdver.texi
@c man end
@copying
@c man begin COPYRIGHT
Copyright @copyright{} 1991-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no
Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
@c man end
@end copying
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
* Binutils: (binutils). The GNU binary utilities.
@end direntry
@dircategory Individual utilities
@direntry
* addr2line: (binutils)addr2line. Convert addresses to file and line.
* ar: (binutils)ar. Create, modify, and extract from archives.
* c++filt: (binutils)c++filt. Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols.
* cxxfilt: (binutils)c++filt. MS-DOS name for c++filt.
* dlltool: (binutils)dlltool. Create files needed to build and use DLLs.
* nm: (binutils)nm. List symbols from object files.
* objcopy: (binutils)objcopy. Copy and translate object files.
* objdump: (binutils)objdump. Display information from object files.
* ranlib: (binutils)ranlib. Generate index to archive contents.
* readelf: (binutils)readelf. Display the contents of ELF format files.
* size: (binutils)size. List section sizes and total size.
* strings: (binutils)strings. List printable strings from files.
* strip: (binutils)strip. Discard symbols.
* elfedit: (binutils)elfedit. Update ELF header and property of ELF files.
* windmc: (binutils)windmc. Generator for Windows message resources.
* windres: (binutils)windres. Manipulate Windows resources.
@end direntry
@titlepage
@title The @sc{gnu} Binary Utilities
@ifset VERSION_PACKAGE
@subtitle @value{VERSION_PACKAGE}
@end ifset
@subtitle Version @value{VERSION}
@sp 1
@subtitle @value{UPDATED}
@author Roland H. Pesch
@author Jeffrey M. Osier
@author Cygnus Support
@page
@tex
{\parskip=0pt \hfill Cygnus Support\par \hfill
Texinfo \texinfoversion\par }
@end tex
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
@contents
@node Top
@top Introduction
@cindex version
This brief manual contains documentation for the @sc{gnu} binary
utilities
@ifset VERSION_PACKAGE
@value{VERSION_PACKAGE}
@end ifset
version @value{VERSION}:
@iftex
@table @code
@item ar
Create, modify, and extract from archives
@item nm
List symbols from object files
@item objcopy
Copy and translate object files
@item objdump
Display information from object files
@item ranlib
Generate index to archive contents
@item readelf
Display the contents of ELF format files.
@item size
List file section sizes and total size
@item strings
List printable strings from files
@item strip
Discard symbols
@item elfedit
Update the ELF header and program property of ELF files.
@item c++filt
Demangle encoded C++ symbols (on MS-DOS, this program is named
@code{cxxfilt})
@item addr2line
Convert addresses into file names and line numbers
@item windres
Manipulate Windows resources
@item windmc
Generator for Windows message resources
@item dlltool
Create the files needed to build and use Dynamic Link Libraries
@end table
@end iftex
This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License version 1.3. A copy of the license is included
in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
@menu
* ar:: Create, modify, and extract from archives
* nm:: List symbols from object files
* objcopy:: Copy and translate object files
* objdump:: Display information from object files
* ranlib:: Generate index to archive contents
* size:: List section sizes and total size
* strings:: List printable strings from files
* strip:: Discard symbols
* c++filt:: Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols
* cxxfilt: c++filt. MS-DOS name for c++filt
* addr2line:: Convert addresses to file and line
* windmc:: Generator for Windows message resources
* windres:: Manipulate Windows resources
* dlltool:: Create files needed to build and use DLLs
* readelf:: Display the contents of ELF format files
* elfedit:: Update ELF header and property of ELF files
* Common Options:: Command-line options for all utilities
* Selecting the Target System:: How these utilities determine the target
* debuginfod:: Using binutils with debuginfod
* Reporting Bugs:: Reporting Bugs
* GNU Free Documentation License:: GNU Free Documentation License
* Binutils Index:: Binutils Index
@end menu
@node ar
@chapter ar
@kindex ar
@cindex archives
@cindex collections of files
@c man title ar create, modify, and extract from archives
@smallexample
ar [-]@var{p}[@var{mod}] [@option{--plugin} @var{name}] [@option{--target} @var{bfdname}] [@option{--output} @var{dirname}] [@option{--record-libdeps} @var{libdeps}] [@var{relpos}] [@var{count}] @var{archive} [@var{member}@dots{}]
ar -M [ <mri-script ]
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION ar
The @sc{gnu} @command{ar} program creates, modifies, and extracts from
archives. An @dfn{archive} is a single file holding a collection of
other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve
the original individual files (called @dfn{members} of the archive).
The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and
group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on
extraction.
@cindex name length
@sc{gnu} @command{ar} can maintain archives whose members have names of any
length; however, depending on how @command{ar} is configured on your
system, a limit on member-name length may be imposed for compatibility
with archive formats maintained with other tools. If it exists, the
limit is often 15 characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16
characters (typical of formats related to coff).
@cindex libraries
@command{ar} is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort
are most often used as @dfn{libraries} holding commonly needed
subroutines. Since libraries often will depend on other libraries,
@command{ar} can also record the dependencies of a library when the
@option{--record-libdeps} option is specified.
@cindex symbol index
@command{ar} creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable
object modules in the archive when you specify the modifier @samp{s}.
Once created, this index is updated in the archive whenever @command{ar}
makes a change to its contents (save for the @samp{q} update operation).
An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library, and
allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to
their placement in the archive.
You may use @samp{nm -s} or @samp{nm --print-armap} to list this index
table. If an archive lacks the table, another form of @command{ar} called
@command{ranlib} can be used to add just the table.
@cindex thin archives
@sc{gnu} @command{ar} can optionally create a @emph{thin} archive,
which contains a symbol index and references to the original copies
of the member files of the archive. This is useful for building
libraries for use within a local build tree, where the relocatable
objects are expected to remain available, and copying the contents of
each object would only waste time and space.
An archive can either be @emph{thin} or it can be normal. It cannot
be both at the same time. Once an archive is created its format
cannot be changed without first deleting it and then creating a new
archive in its place.
Thin archives are also @emph{flattened}, so that adding one thin
archive to another thin archive does not nest it, as would happen with
a normal archive. Instead the elements of the first archive are added
individually to the second archive.
The paths to the elements of the archive are stored relative to the
archive itself.
@cindex compatibility, @command{ar}
@cindex @command{ar} compatibility
@sc{gnu} @command{ar} is designed to be compatible with two different
facilities. You can control its activity using command-line options,
like the different varieties of @command{ar} on Unix systems; or, if you
specify the single command-line option @option{-M}, you can control it
with a script supplied via standard input, like the MRI ``librarian''
program.
@c man end
@menu
* ar cmdline:: Controlling @command{ar} on the command line
* ar scripts:: Controlling @command{ar} with a script
@end menu
@page
@node ar cmdline
@section Controlling @command{ar} on the Command Line
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS ar
ar [@option{-X32_64}] [@option{-}]@var{p}[@var{mod}] [@option{--plugin} @var{name}] [@option{--target} @var{bfdname}] [@option{--output} @var{dirname}] [@option{--record-libdeps} @var{libdeps}] [@var{relpos}] [@var{count}] @var{archive} [@var{member}@dots{}]
@c man end
@end smallexample
@cindex Unix compatibility, @command{ar}
When you use @command{ar} in the Unix style, @command{ar} insists on at least two
arguments to execute: one keyletter specifying the @emph{operation}
(optionally accompanied by other keyletters specifying
@emph{modifiers}), and the archive name to act on.
Most operations can also accept further @var{member} arguments,
specifying particular files to operate on.
@c man begin OPTIONS ar
@sc{gnu} @command{ar} allows you to mix the operation code @var{p} and modifier
flags @var{mod} in any order, within the first command-line argument.
If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a
dash.
@cindex operations on archive
The @var{p} keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be
any of the following, but you must specify only one of them:
@table @samp
@item d
@cindex deleting from archive
@emph{Delete} modules from the archive. Specify the names of modules to
be deleted as @var{member}@dots{}; the archive is untouched if you
specify no files to delete.
If you specify the @samp{v} modifier, @command{ar} lists each module
as it is deleted.
@item m
@cindex moving in archive
Use this operation to @emph{move} members in an archive.
The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how
programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in more
than one member.
If no modifiers are used with @code{m}, any members you name in the
@var{member} arguments are moved to the @emph{end} of the archive;
you can use the @samp{a}, @samp{b}, or @samp{i} modifiers to move them to a
specified place instead.
@item p
@cindex printing from archive
@emph{Print} the specified members of the archive, to the standard
output file. If the @samp{v} modifier is specified, show the member
name before copying its contents to standard output.
If you specify no @var{member} arguments, all the files in the archive are
printed.
@item q
@cindex quick append to archive
@emph{Quick append}; Historically, add the files @var{member}@dots{} to the end of
@var{archive}, without checking for replacement.
The modifiers @samp{a}, @samp{b}, and @samp{i} do @emph{not} affect this
operation; new members are always placed at the end of the archive.
The modifier @samp{v} makes @command{ar} list each file as it is appended.
Since the point of this operation is speed, implementations of
@command{ar} have the option of not updating the archive's symbol
table if one exists. Too many different systems however assume that
symbol tables are always up-to-date, so @sc{gnu} @command{ar} will
rebuild the table even with a quick append.
Note - @sc{gnu} @command{ar} treats the command @samp{qs} as a
synonym for @samp{r} - replacing already existing files in the
archive and appending new ones at the end.
@item r
@cindex replacement in archive
Insert the files @var{member}@dots{} into @var{archive} (with
@emph{replacement}). This operation differs from @samp{q} in that any
previously existing members are deleted if their names match those being
added.
If one of the files named in @var{member}@dots{} does not exist, @command{ar}
displays an error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing members
of the archive matching that name.
By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you may
use one of the modifiers @samp{a}, @samp{b}, or @samp{i} to request
placement relative to some existing member.
The modifier @samp{v} used with this operation elicits a line of
output for each file inserted, along with one of the letters @samp{a} or
@samp{r} to indicate whether the file was appended (no old member
deleted) or replaced.
@item s
@cindex ranlib
Add an index to the archive, or update it if it already exists. Note
this command is an exception to the rule that there can only be one
command letter, as it is possible to use it as either a command or a
modifier. In either case it does the same thing.
@item t
@cindex contents of archive
Display a @emph{table} listing the contents of @var{archive}, or those
of the files listed in @var{member}@dots{} that are present in the
archive. Normally only the member name is shown, but if the modifier
@samp{O} is specified, then the corresponding offset of the member is also
displayed. Finally, in order to see the modes (permissions), timestamp,
owner, group, and size the @samp{v} modifier should be included.
If you do not specify a @var{member}, all files in the archive
are listed.
@cindex repeated names in archive
@cindex name duplication in archive
If there is more than one file with the same name (say, @samp{fie}) in
an archive (say @samp{b.a}), @samp{ar t b.a fie} lists only the
first instance; to see them all, you must ask for a complete
listing---in our example, @samp{ar t b.a}.
@c WRS only; per Gumby, this is implementation-dependent, and in a more
@c recent case in fact works the other way.
@item x
@cindex extract from archive
@emph{Extract} members (named @var{member}) from the archive. You can
use the @samp{v} modifier with this operation, to request that
@command{ar} list each name as it extracts it.
If you do not specify a @var{member}, all files in the archive
are extracted.
Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive, and there are
restrictions on extracting from archives created with @option{P}: The
paths must not be absolute, may not contain @code{..}, and any
subdirectories in the paths must exist. If it is desired to avoid
these restrictions then used the @option{--output} option to specify
an output directory.
@end table
A number of modifiers (@var{mod}) may immediately follow the @var{p}
keyletter, to specify variations on an operation's behavior:
@table @samp
@item a
@cindex relative placement in archive
Add new files @emph{after} an existing member of the
archive. If you use the modifier @samp{a}, the name of an existing archive
member must be present as the @var{relpos} argument, before the
@var{archive} specification.
@item b
Add new files @emph{before} an existing member of the
archive. If you use the modifier @samp{b}, the name of an existing archive
member must be present as the @var{relpos} argument, before the
@var{archive} specification. (same as @samp{i}).
@item c
@cindex creating archives
@emph{Create} the archive. The specified @var{archive} is always
created if it did not exist, when you request an update. But a warning is
issued unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it, by
using this modifier.
@item D
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. When adding files and the archive
index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file modes
for all files. When this option is used, if @command{ar} is used with
identical options and identical input files, multiple runs will create
identical output files regardless of the input files' owners, groups,
file modes, or modification times.
If @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}, then this mode is on by default.
It can be disabled with the @samp{U} modifier, below.
@item f
Truncate names in the archive. @sc{gnu} @command{ar} will normally permit file
names of any length. This will cause it to create archives which are
not compatible with the native @command{ar} program on some systems. If
this is a concern, the @samp{f} modifier may be used to truncate file
names when putting them in the archive.
@item i
Insert new files @emph{before} an existing member of the
archive. If you use the modifier @samp{i}, the name of an existing archive
member must be present as the @var{relpos} argument, before the
@var{archive} specification. (same as @samp{b}).
@item l
@c This modifier was accepted but not used.
@c whaffor ar l modifier??? presumably compat; with
@c what???---doc@@cygnus.com, 25jan91
Specify dependencies of this library. The dependencies must immediately
follow this option character, must use the same syntax as the linker
command line, and must be specified within a single argument. I.e., if
multiple items are needed, they must be quoted to form a single command
line argument. For example @samp{L "-L/usr/local/lib -lmydep1 -lmydep2"}
@item N
Uses the @var{count} parameter. This is used if there are multiple
entries in the archive with the same name. Extract or delete instance
@var{count} of the given name from the archive.
@item o
@cindex dates in archive
Preserve the @emph{original} dates of members when extracting them. If
you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive
are stamped with the time of extraction.
@item O
@cindex offsets of files
Display member offsets inside the archive. Use together with the @samp{t}
option.
@item P
Use the full path name when matching or storing names in the archive.
Archives created with full path names are not POSIX compliant, and
thus may not work with tools other than up to date @sc{gnu} tools.
Modifying such archives with @sc{gnu} @command{ar} without using
@option{P} will remove the full path names unless the archive is a
thin archive. Note that @option{P} may be useful when adding files to
a thin archive since @option{r} without @option{P} ignores the path
when choosing which element to replace. Thus
@smallexample
ar rcST archive.a subdir/file1 subdir/file2 file1
@end smallexample
will result in the first @code{subdir/file1} being replaced with
@code{file1} from the current directory. Adding @option{P} will
prevent this replacement.
@item s
@cindex writing archive index
Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing one,
even if no other change is made to the archive. You may use this modifier
flag either with any operation, or alone. Running @samp{ar s} on an
archive is equivalent to running @samp{ranlib} on it.
@item S
@cindex not writing archive index
Do not generate an archive symbol table. This can speed up building a
large library in several steps. The resulting archive can not be used
with the linker. In order to build a symbol table, you must omit the
@samp{S} modifier on the last execution of @samp{ar}, or you must run
@samp{ranlib} on the archive.
@item T
@cindex creating thin archive
Make the specified @var{archive} a @emph{thin} archive. If it already
exists and is a regular archive, the existing members must be present
in the same directory as @var{archive}.
@item u
@cindex updating an archive
Normally, @samp{ar r}@dots{} inserts all files
listed into the archive. If you would like to insert @emph{only} those
of the files you list that are newer than existing members of the same
names, use this modifier. The @samp{u} modifier is allowed only for the
operation @samp{r} (replace). In particular, the combination @samp{qu} is
not allowed, since checking the timestamps would lose any speed
advantage from the operation @samp{q}.
@item U
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Do @emph{not} operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. This is the inverse
of the @samp{D} modifier, above: added files and the archive index will
get their actual UID, GID, timestamp, and file mode values.
This is the default unless @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}.
@item v
This modifier requests the @emph{verbose} version of an operation. Many
operations display additional information, such as filenames processed,
when the modifier @samp{v} is appended.
@item V
This modifier shows the version number of @command{ar}.
@end table
The @command{ar} program also supports some command-line options which
are neither modifiers nor actions, but which do change its behaviour
in specific ways:
@table @samp
@item --help
Displays the list of command-line options supported by @command{ar}
and then exits.
@item --version
Displays the version information of @command{ar} and then exits.
@item -X32_64
@command{ar} ignores an initial option spelled @samp{-X32_64}, for
compatibility with AIX. The behaviour produced by this option is the
default for @sc{gnu} @command{ar}. @command{ar} does not support any
of the other @samp{-X} options; in particular, it does not support
@option{-X32} which is the default for AIX @command{ar}.
@item --plugin @var{name}
@cindex plugins
The optional command-line switch @option{--plugin @var{name}} causes
@command{ar} to load the plugin called @var{name} which adds support
for more file formats, including object files with link-time
optimization information.
This option is only available if the toolchain has been built with
plugin support enabled.
If @option{--plugin} is not provided, but plugin support has been
enabled then @command{ar} iterates over the files in
@file{$@{libdir@}/bfd-plugins} in alphabetic order and the first
plugin that claims the object in question is used.
Please note that this plugin search directory is @emph{not} the one
used by @command{ld}'s @option{-plugin} option. In order to make
@command{ar} use the linker plugin it must be copied into the
@file{$@{libdir@}/bfd-plugins} directory. For GCC based compilations
the linker plugin is called @file{liblto_plugin.so.0.0.0}. For Clang
based compilations it is called @file{LLVMgold.so}. The GCC plugin
is always backwards compatible with earlier versions, so it is
sufficient to just copy the newest one.
@item --target @var{target}
The optional command-line switch @option{--target @var{bfdname}}
specifies that the archive members are in an object code format
different from your system's default format. See
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item --output @var{dirname}
The @option{--output} option can be used to specify a path to a
directory into which archive members should be extracted. If this
option is not specified then the current directory will be used.
Note - although the presence of this option does imply a @option{x}
extraction operation that option must still be included on the command
line.
@item --record-libdeps @var{libdeps}
The @option{--record-libdeps} option is identical to the @option{l} modifier,
just handled in long form.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO ar
nm(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node ar scripts
@section Controlling @command{ar} with a Script
@smallexample
ar -M [ <@var{script} ]
@end smallexample
@cindex MRI compatibility, @command{ar}
@cindex scripts, @command{ar}
If you use the single command-line option @samp{-M} with @command{ar}, you
can control its operation with a rudimentary command language. This
form of @command{ar} operates interactively if standard input is coming
directly from a terminal. During interactive use, @command{ar} prompts for
input (the prompt is @samp{AR >}), and continues executing even after
errors. If you redirect standard input to a script file, no prompts are
issued, and @command{ar} abandons execution (with a nonzero exit code)
on any error.
The @command{ar} command language is @emph{not} designed to be equivalent
to the command-line options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control
over archives. The only purpose of the command language is to ease the
transition to @sc{gnu} @command{ar} for developers who already have scripts
written for the MRI ``librarian'' program.
The syntax for the @command{ar} command language is straightforward:
@itemize @bullet
@item
commands are recognized in upper or lower case; for example, @code{LIST}
is the same as @code{list}. In the following descriptions, commands are
shown in upper case for clarity.
@item
a single command may appear on each line; it is the first word on the
line.
@item
empty lines are allowed, and have no effect.
@item
comments are allowed; text after either of the characters @samp{*}
or @samp{;} is ignored.
@item
Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an @command{ar}
command, you can separate the individual names with either commas or
blanks. Commas are shown in the explanations below, for clarity.
@item
@samp{+} is used as a line continuation character; if @samp{+} appears
at the end of a line, the text on the following line is considered part
of the current command.
@end itemize
Here are the commands you can use in @command{ar} scripts, or when using
@command{ar} interactively. Three of them have special significance:
@code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE} specify a @dfn{current archive}, which is
a temporary file required for most of the other commands.
@code{SAVE} commits the changes so far specified by the script. Prior
to @code{SAVE}, commands affect only the temporary copy of the current
archive.
@table @code
@item ADDLIB @var{archive}
@itemx ADDLIB @var{archive} (@var{module}, @var{module}, @dots{} @var{module})
Add all the contents of @var{archive} (or, if specified, each named
@var{module} from @var{archive}) to the current archive.
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@item ADDMOD @var{member}, @var{member}, @dots{} @var{member}
@c FIXME! w/Replacement?? If so, like "ar r @var{archive} @var{names}"
@c else like "ar q..."
Add each named @var{member} as a module in the current archive.
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@item CLEAR
Discard the contents of the current archive, canceling the effect of
any operations since the last @code{SAVE}. May be executed (with no
effect) even if no current archive is specified.
@item CREATE @var{archive}
Creates an archive, and makes it the current archive (required for many
other commands). The new archive is created with a temporary name; it
is not actually saved as @var{archive} until you use @code{SAVE}.
You can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the contents of any
existing file named @var{archive} will not be destroyed until @code{SAVE}.
@item DELETE @var{module}, @var{module}, @dots{} @var{module}
Delete each listed @var{module} from the current archive; equivalent to
@samp{ar -d @var{archive} @var{module} @dots{} @var{module}}.
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@item DIRECTORY @var{archive} (@var{module}, @dots{} @var{module})
@itemx DIRECTORY @var{archive} (@var{module}, @dots{} @var{module}) @var{outputfile}
List each named @var{module} present in @var{archive}. The separate
command @code{VERBOSE} specifies the form of the output: when verbose
output is off, output is like that of @samp{ar -t @var{archive}
@var{module}@dots{}}. When verbose output is on, the listing is like
@samp{ar -tv @var{archive} @var{module}@dots{}}.
Output normally goes to the standard output stream; however, if you
specify @var{outputfile} as a final argument, @command{ar} directs the
output to that file.
@item END
Exit from @command{ar}, with a @code{0} exit code to indicate successful
completion. This command does not save the output file; if you have
changed the current archive since the last @code{SAVE} command, those
changes are lost.
@item EXTRACT @var{module}, @var{module}, @dots{} @var{module}
Extract each named @var{module} from the current archive, writing them
into the current directory as separate files. Equivalent to @samp{ar -x
@var{archive} @var{module}@dots{}}.
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@ignore
@c FIXME Tokens but no commands???
@item FULLDIR
@item HELP
@end ignore
@item LIST
Display full contents of the current archive, in ``verbose'' style
regardless of the state of @code{VERBOSE}. The effect is like @samp{ar
tv @var{archive}}. (This single command is a @sc{gnu} @command{ar}
enhancement, rather than present for MRI compatibility.)
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@item OPEN @var{archive}
Opens an existing archive for use as the current archive (required for
many other commands). Any changes as the result of subsequent commands
will not actually affect @var{archive} until you next use @code{SAVE}.
@item REPLACE @var{module}, @var{module}, @dots{} @var{module}
In the current archive, replace each existing @var{module} (named in
the @code{REPLACE} arguments) from files in the current working directory.
To execute this command without errors, both the file, and the module in
the current archive, must exist.
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@item VERBOSE
Toggle an internal flag governing the output from @code{DIRECTORY}.
When the flag is on, @code{DIRECTORY} output matches output from
@samp{ar -tv }@dots{}.
@item SAVE
Commit your changes to the current archive, and actually save it as a
file with the name specified in the last @code{CREATE} or @code{OPEN}
command.
Requires prior use of @code{OPEN} or @code{CREATE}.
@end table
@iftex
@node ld
@chapter ld
@cindex linker
@kindex ld
The @sc{gnu} linker @command{ld} is now described in a separate manual.
@xref{Top,, Overview,, Using LD: the @sc{gnu} linker}.
@end iftex
@node nm
@chapter nm
@cindex symbols
@kindex nm
@c man title nm list symbols from object files
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS nm
nm [@option{-A}|@option{-o}|@option{--print-file-name}]
[@option{-a}|@option{--debug-syms}]
[@option{-B}|@option{--format=bsd}]
[@option{-C}|@option{--demangle}[=@var{style}]]
[@option{-D}|@option{--dynamic}]
[@option{-f}@var{format}|@option{--format=}@var{format}]
[@option{-g}|@option{--extern-only}]
[@option{-h}|@option{--help}]
[@option{--ifunc-chars=@var{CHARS}}]
[@option{-j}|@option{--format=just-symbols}]
[@option{-l}|@option{--line-numbers}] [@option{--inlines}]
[@option{-n}|@option{-v}|@option{--numeric-sort}]
[@option{-P}|@option{--portability}]
[@option{-p}|@option{--no-sort}]
[@option{-r}|@option{--reverse-sort}]
[@option{-S}|@option{--print-size}]
[@option{-s}|@option{--print-armap}]
[@option{-t} @var{radix}|@option{--radix=}@var{radix}]
[@option{-u}|@option{--undefined-only}]
[@option{-V}|@option{--version}]
[@option{-X 32_64}]
[@option{--defined-only}]
[@option{--no-demangle}]
[@option{--no-recurse-limit}|@option{--recurse-limit}]]
[@option{--plugin} @var{name}]
[@option{--size-sort}]
[@option{--special-syms}]
[@option{--synthetic}]
[@option{--target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{--with-symbol-versions}]
[@option{--without-symbol-versions}]
[@var{objfile}@dots{}]
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION nm
@sc{gnu} @command{nm} lists the symbols from object files @var{objfile}@dots{}.
If no object files are listed as arguments, @command{nm} assumes the file
@file{a.out}.
For each symbol, @command{nm} shows:
@itemize @bullet
@item
The symbol value, in the radix selected by options (see below), or
hexadecimal by default.
@item
The symbol type. At least the following types are used; others are, as
well, depending on the object file format. If lowercase, the symbol is
usually local; if uppercase, the symbol is global (external). There
are however a few lowercase symbols that are shown for special global
symbols (@code{u}, @code{v} and @code{w}).
@c Some more detail on exactly what these symbol types are used for
@c would be nice.
@table @code
@item A
The symbol's value is absolute, and will not be changed by further
linking.
@item B
@itemx b
The symbol is in the BSS data section. This section typically
contains zero-initialized or uninitialized data, although the exact
behavior is system dependent.
@item C
@itemx c
The symbol is common. Common symbols are uninitialized data. When
linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the same name. If the
symbol is defined anywhere, the common symbols are treated as undefined
references.
@ifclear man
For more details on common symbols, see the discussion of
--warn-common in @ref{Options,,Linker options,ld.info,The GNU linker}.
@end ifclear
The lower case @var{c} character is used when the symbol is in a
special section for small commons.
@item D
@itemx d
The symbol is in the initialized data section.
@item G
@itemx g
The symbol is in an initialized data section for small objects. Some
object file formats permit more efficient access to small data objects,
such as a global int variable as opposed to a large global array.
@item i
For PE format files this indicates that the symbol is in a section
specific to the implementation of DLLs.
For ELF format files this indicates that the symbol is an indirect
function. This is a GNU extension to the standard set of ELF symbol
types. It indicates a symbol which if referenced by a relocation does
not evaluate to its address, but instead must be invoked at runtime.
The runtime execution will then return the value to be used in the
relocation.
Note - the actual symbols display for GNU indirect symbols is
controlled by the @option{--ifunc-chars} command line option. If this
option has been provided then the first character in the string will
be used for global indirect function symbols. If the string contains
a second character then that will be used for local indirect function
symbols.
@item I
The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol.
@item N
The symbol is a debugging symbol.
@item n
The symbol is in the read-only data section.
@item p
The symbol is in a stack unwind section.
@item R
@itemx r
The symbol is in a read only data section.
@item S
@itemx s
The symbol is in an uninitialized or zero-initialized data section
for small objects.
@item T
@itemx t
The symbol is in the text (code) section.
@item U
The symbol is undefined.
@item u
The symbol is a unique global symbol. This is a GNU extension to the
standard set of ELF symbol bindings. For such a symbol the dynamic linker
will make sure that in the entire process there is just one symbol with
this name and type in use.
@item V
@itemx v
The symbol is a weak object. When a weak defined symbol is linked with
a normal defined symbol, the normal defined symbol is used with no error.
When a weak undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined,
the value of the weak symbol becomes zero with no error. On some
systems, uppercase indicates that a default value has been specified.
@item W
@itemx w
The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically tagged as a
weak object symbol. When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal
defined symbol, the normal defined symbol is used with no error.
When a weak undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined,
the value of the symbol is determined in a system-specific manner without
error. On some systems, uppercase indicates that a default value has been
specified.
@item -
The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file. In this case, the
next values printed are the stabs other field, the stabs desc field, and
the stab type. Stabs symbols are used to hold debugging information.
@item ?
The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.
@end table
@item
The symbol name. If a symbol has version information associated with it,
then the version information is displayed as well. If the versioned
symbol is undefined or hidden from linker, the version string is displayed
as a suffix to the symbol name, preceded by an @@ character. For example
@samp{foo@@VER_1}. If the version is the default version to be used when
resolving unversioned references to the symbol, then it is displayed as a
suffix preceded by two @@ characters. For example @samp{foo@@@@VER_2}.
@end itemize
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS nm
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.
@table @env
@item -A
@itemx -o
@itemx --print-file-name
@cindex input file name
@cindex file name
@cindex source file name
Precede each symbol by the name of the input file (or archive member)
in which it was found, rather than identifying the input file once only,
before all of its symbols.
@item -a
@itemx --debug-syms
@cindex debugging symbols
Display all symbols, even debugger-only symbols; normally these are not
listed.
@item -B
@cindex @command{nm} format
@cindex @command{nm} compatibility
The same as @option{--format=bsd} (for compatibility with the MIPS @command{nm}).
@item -C
@itemx --demangle[=@var{style}]
@cindex demangling in nm
Decode (@dfn{demangle}) low-level symbol names into user-level names.
Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system, this
makes C++ function names readable. Different compilers have different
mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument can be used to
choose an appropriate demangling style for your compiler. @xref{c++filt},
for more information on demangling.
@item --no-demangle
Do not demangle low-level symbol names. This is the default.
@item --recurse-limit
@itemx --no-recurse-limit
@itemx --recursion-limit
@itemx --no-recursion-limit
Enables or disables a limit on the amount of recursion performed
whilst demangling strings. Since the name mangling formats allow for
an infinite level of recursion it is possible to create strings whose
decoding will exhaust the amount of stack space available on the host
machine, triggering a memory fault. The limit tries to prevent this
from happening by restricting recursion to 2048 levels of nesting.
The default is for this limit to be enabled, but disabling it may be
necessary in order to demangle truly complicated names. Note however
that if the recursion limit is disabled then stack exhaustion is
possible and any bug reports about such an event will be rejected.
@item -D
@itemx --dynamic
@cindex dynamic symbols
Display the dynamic symbols rather than the normal symbols. This is
only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
libraries.
@item -f @var{format}
@itemx --format=@var{format}
@cindex @command{nm} format
@cindex @command{nm} compatibility
Use the output format @var{format}, which can be @code{bsd},
@code{sysv}, @code{posix} or @code{just-symbols}. The default is @code{bsd}.
Only the first character of @var{format} is significant; it can be
either upper or lower case.
@item -g
@itemx --extern-only
@cindex external symbols
Display only external symbols.
@item -h
@itemx --help
Show a summary of the options to @command{nm} and exit.
@item --ifunc-chars=@var{CHARS}
When display GNU indirect function symbols @command{nm} will default
to using the @code{i} character for both local indirect functions and
global indirect functions. The @option{--ifunc-chars} option allows
the user to specify a string containing one or two characters. The
first character will be used for global indirect function symbols and
the second character, if present, will be used for local indirect
function symbols.
@item j
The same as @option{--format=just-symbols}.
@item -l
@itemx --line-numbers
@cindex symbol line numbers
For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find a filename and
line number. For a defined symbol, look for the line number of the
address of the symbol. For an undefined symbol, look for the line
number of a relocation entry which refers to the symbol. If line number
information can be found, print it after the other symbol information.
@item --inlines
@cindex objdump inlines
When option @option{-l} is active, if the address belongs to a
function that was inlined, then this option causes the source
information for all enclosing scopes back to the first non-inlined
function to be printed as well. For example, if @code{main} inlines
@code{callee1} which inlines @code{callee2}, and address is from
@code{callee2}, the source information for @code{callee1} and @code{main}
will also be printed.
@item -n
@itemx -v
@itemx --numeric-sort
Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, rather than alphabetically
by their names.
@item -p
@itemx --no-sort
@cindex sorting symbols
Do not bother to sort the symbols in any order; print them in the order
encountered.
@item -P
@itemx --portability
Use the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default format.
Equivalent to @samp{-f posix}.
@item -r
@itemx --reverse-sort
Reverse the order of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic); let the
last come first.
@item -S
@itemx --print-size
Print both value and size of defined symbols for the @code{bsd} output style.
This option has no effect for object formats that do not record symbol
sizes, unless @samp{--size-sort} is also used in which case a
calculated size is displayed.
@item -s
@itemx --print-armap
@cindex symbol index, listing
When listing symbols from archive members, include the index: a mapping
(stored in the archive by @command{ar} or @command{ranlib}) of which modules
contain definitions for which names.
@item -t @var{radix}
@itemx --radix=@var{radix}
Use @var{radix} as the radix for printing the symbol values. It must be
@samp{d} for decimal, @samp{o} for octal, or @samp{x} for hexadecimal.
@item -u
@itemx --undefined-only
@cindex external symbols
@cindex undefined symbols
Display only undefined symbols (those external to each object file).
@item -V
@itemx --version
Show the version number of @command{nm} and exit.
@item -X
This option is ignored for compatibility with the AIX version of
@command{nm}. It takes one parameter which must be the string
@option{32_64}. The default mode of AIX @command{nm} corresponds
to @option{-X 32}, which is not supported by @sc{gnu} @command{nm}.
@item --defined-only
@cindex external symbols
@cindex undefined symbols
Display only defined symbols for each object file.
@item --plugin @var{name}
@cindex plugins
Load the plugin called @var{name} to add support for extra target
types. This option is only available if the toolchain has been built
with plugin support enabled.
If @option{--plugin} is not provided, but plugin support has been
enabled then @command{nm} iterates over the files in
@file{$@{libdir@}/bfd-plugins} in alphabetic order and the first
plugin that claims the object in question is used.
Please note that this plugin search directory is @emph{not} the one
used by @command{ld}'s @option{-plugin} option. In order to make
@command{nm} use the linker plugin it must be copied into the
@file{$@{libdir@}/bfd-plugins} directory. For GCC based compilations
the linker plugin is called @file{liblto_plugin.so.0.0.0}. For Clang
based compilations it is called @file{LLVMgold.so}. The GCC plugin
is always backwards compatible with earlier versions, so it is
sufficient to just copy the newest one.
@item --size-sort
Sort symbols by size. For ELF objects symbol sizes are read from the
ELF, for other object types the symbol sizes are computed as the
difference between the value of the symbol and the value of the symbol
with the next higher value. If the @code{bsd} output format is used
the size of the symbol is printed, rather than the value, and
@samp{-S} must be used in order both size and value to be printed.
@item --special-syms
Display symbols which have a target-specific special meaning. These
symbols are usually used by the target for some special processing and
are not normally helpful when included in the normal symbol lists.
For example for ARM targets this option would skip the mapping symbols
used to mark transitions between ARM code, THUMB code and data.
@item --synthetic
Include synthetic symbols in the output. These are special symbols
created by the linker for various purposes. They are not shown by
default since they are not part of the binary's original source code.
@item --with-symbol-versions
@item --without-symbol-versions
Enables or disables the display of symbol version information. The
version string is displayed as a suffix to the symbol name, preceded
by an @@ character. For example @samp{foo@@VER_1}. If the version is
the default version to be used when resolving unversioned references
to the symbol then it is displayed as a suffix preceded by two @@
characters. For example @samp{foo@@@@VER_2}. By default, symbol
version information is displayed.
@item --target=@var{bfdname}
@cindex object code format
Specify an object code format other than your system's default format.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO nm
ar(1), objdump(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node objcopy
@chapter objcopy
@c man title objcopy copy and translate object files
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS objcopy
objcopy [@option{-F} @var{bfdname}|@option{--target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-I} @var{bfdname}|@option{--input-target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-O} @var{bfdname}|@option{--output-target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-B} @var{bfdarch}|@option{--binary-architecture=}@var{bfdarch}]
[@option{-S}|@option{--strip-all}]
[@option{-g}|@option{--strip-debug}]
[@option{--strip-unneeded}]
[@option{-K} @var{symbolname}|@option{--keep-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{--keep-file-symbols}]
[@option{--keep-section-symbols}]
[@option{-N} @var{symbolname}|@option{--strip-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{--strip-unneeded-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{-G} @var{symbolname}|@option{--keep-global-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{--localize-hidden}]
[@option{-L} @var{symbolname}|@option{--localize-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{--globalize-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{--globalize-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{-W} @var{symbolname}|@option{--weaken-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{-w}|@option{--wildcard}]
[@option{-x}|@option{--discard-all}]
[@option{-X}|@option{--discard-locals}]
[@option{-b} @var{byte}|@option{--byte=}@var{byte}]
[@option{-i} [@var{breadth}]|@option{--interleave}[=@var{breadth}]]
[@option{--interleave-width=}@var{width}]
[@option{-j} @var{sectionpattern}|@option{--only-section=}@var{sectionpattern}]
[@option{-R} @var{sectionpattern}|@option{--remove-section=}@var{sectionpattern}]
[@option{--keep-section=}@var{sectionpattern}]
[@option{--remove-relocations=}@var{sectionpattern}]
[@option{-p}|@option{--preserve-dates}]
[@option{-D}|@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}]
[@option{-U}|@option{--disable-deterministic-archives}]
[@option{--debugging}]
[@option{--gap-fill=}@var{val}]
[@option{--pad-to=}@var{address}]
[@option{--set-start=}@var{val}]
[@option{--adjust-start=}@var{incr}]
[@option{--change-addresses=}@var{incr}]
[@option{--change-section-address} @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}]
[@option{--change-section-lma} @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}]
[@option{--change-section-vma} @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}]
[@option{--change-warnings}] [@option{--no-change-warnings}]
[@option{--set-section-flags} @var{sectionpattern}=@var{flags}]
[@option{--set-section-alignment} @var{sectionpattern}=@var{align}]
[@option{--add-section} @var{sectionname}=@var{filename}]
[@option{--dump-section} @var{sectionname}=@var{filename}]
[@option{--update-section} @var{sectionname}=@var{filename}]
[@option{--rename-section} @var{oldname}=@var{newname}[,@var{flags}]]
[@option{--long-section-names} @{enable,disable,keep@}]
[@option{--change-leading-char}] [@option{--remove-leading-char}]
[@option{--reverse-bytes=}@var{num}]
[@option{--srec-len=}@var{ival}] [@option{--srec-forceS3}]
[@option{--redefine-sym} @var{old}=@var{new}]
[@option{--redefine-syms=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--weaken}]
[@option{--keep-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--strip-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--strip-unneeded-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--keep-global-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--localize-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--weaken-symbols=}@var{filename}]
[@option{--add-symbol} @var{name}=[@var{section}:]@var{value}[,@var{flags}]]
[@option{--alt-machine-code=}@var{index}]
[@option{--prefix-symbols=}@var{string}]
[@option{--prefix-sections=}@var{string}]
[@option{--prefix-alloc-sections=}@var{string}]
[@option{--add-gnu-debuglink=}@var{path-to-file}]
[@option{--only-keep-debug}]
[@option{--strip-dwo}]
[@option{--extract-dwo}]
[@option{--extract-symbol}]
[@option{--writable-text}]
[@option{--readonly-text}]
[@option{--pure}]
[@option{--impure}]
[@option{--file-alignment=}@var{num}]
[@option{--heap=}@var{size}]
[@option{--image-base=}@var{address}]
[@option{--section-alignment=}@var{num}]
[@option{--stack=}@var{size}]
[@option{--subsystem=}@var{which}:@var{major}.@var{minor}]
[@option{--compress-debug-sections}]
[@option{--decompress-debug-sections}]
[@option{--elf-stt-common=@var{val}}]
[@option{--merge-notes}]
[@option{--no-merge-notes}]
[@option{--verilog-data-width=@var{val}}]
[@option{-v}|@option{--verbose}]
[@option{-V}|@option{--version}]
[@option{--help}] [@option{--info}]
@var{infile} [@var{outfile}]
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION objcopy
The @sc{gnu} @command{objcopy} utility copies the contents of an object
file to another. @command{objcopy} uses the @sc{gnu} @sc{bfd} Library to
read and write the object files. It can write the destination object
file in a format different from that of the source object file. The
exact behavior of @command{objcopy} is controlled by command-line options.
Note that @command{objcopy} should be able to copy a fully linked file
between any two formats. However, copying a relocatable object file
between any two formats may not work as expected.
@command{objcopy} creates temporary files to do its translations and
deletes them afterward. @command{objcopy} uses @sc{bfd} to do all its
translation work; it has access to all the formats described in @sc{bfd}
and thus is able to recognize most formats without being told
explicitly. @xref{BFD,,BFD,ld.info,Using LD}.
@command{objcopy} can be used to generate S-records by using an output
target of @samp{srec} (e.g., use @samp{-O srec}).
@command{objcopy} can be used to generate a raw binary file by using an
output target of @samp{binary} (e.g., use @option{-O binary}). When
@command{objcopy} generates a raw binary file, it will essentially produce
a memory dump of the contents of the input object file. All symbols and
relocation information will be discarded. The memory dump will start at
the load address of the lowest section copied into the output file.
When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful to
use @option{-S} to remove sections containing debugging information. In
some cases @option{-R} will be useful to remove sections which contain
information that is not needed by the binary file.
Note---@command{objcopy} is not able to change the endianness of its input
files. If the input format has an endianness (some formats do not),
@command{objcopy} can only copy the inputs into file formats that have the
same endianness or which have no endianness (e.g., @samp{srec}).
(However, see the @option{--reverse-bytes} option.)
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS objcopy
@table @env
@item @var{infile}
@itemx @var{outfile}
The input and output files, respectively.
If you do not specify @var{outfile}, @command{objcopy} creates a
temporary file and destructively renames the result with
the name of @var{infile}.
@item -I @var{bfdname}
@itemx --input-target=@var{bfdname}
Consider the source file's object format to be @var{bfdname}, rather than
attempting to deduce it. @xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -O @var{bfdname}
@itemx --output-target=@var{bfdname}
Write the output file using the object format @var{bfdname}.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -F @var{bfdname}
@itemx --target=@var{bfdname}
Use @var{bfdname} as the object format for both the input and the output
file; i.e., simply transfer data from source to destination with no
translation. @xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -B @var{bfdarch}
@itemx --binary-architecture=@var{bfdarch}
Useful when transforming a architecture-less input file into an object file.
In this case the output architecture can be set to @var{bfdarch}. This
option will be ignored if the input file has a known @var{bfdarch}. You
can access this binary data inside a program by referencing the special
symbols that are created by the conversion process. These symbols are
called _binary_@var{objfile}_start, _binary_@var{objfile}_end and
_binary_@var{objfile}_size. e.g. you can transform a picture file into
an object file and then access it in your code using these symbols.
@item -j @var{sectionpattern}
@itemx --only-section=@var{sectionpattern}
Copy only the indicated sections from the input file to the output file.
This option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
inappropriately may make the output file unusable. Wildcard
characters are accepted in @var{sectionpattern}.
If the first character of @var{sectionpattern} is the exclamation
point (!) then matching sections will not be copied, even if earlier
use of @option{--only-section} on the same command line would
otherwise copy it. For example:
@smallexample
--only-section=.text.* --only-section=!.text.foo
@end smallexample
will copy all sectinos matching '.text.*' but not the section
'.text.foo'.
@item -R @var{sectionpattern}
@itemx --remove-section=@var{sectionpattern}
Remove any section matching @var{sectionpattern} from the output file.
This option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
inappropriately may make the output file unusable. Wildcard
characters are accepted in @var{sectionpattern}. Using both the
@option{-j} and @option{-R} options together results in undefined
behaviour.
If the first character of @var{sectionpattern} is the exclamation
point (!) then matching sections will not be removed even if an
earlier use of @option{--remove-section} on the same command line
would otherwise remove it. For example:
@smallexample
--remove-section=.text.* --remove-section=!.text.foo
@end smallexample
will remove all sections matching the pattern '.text.*', but will not
remove the section '.text.foo'.
@item --keep-section=@var{sectionpattern}
When removing sections from the output file, keep sections that match
@var{sectionpattern}.
@item --remove-relocations=@var{sectionpattern}
Remove non-dynamic relocations from the output file for any section
matching @var{sectionpattern}. This option may be given more than
once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the output
file unusable, and attempting to remove a dynamic relocation section
such as @samp{.rela.plt} from an executable or shared library with
@option{--remove-relocations=.plt} will not work. Wildcard characters
are accepted in @var{sectionpattern}.
For example:
@smallexample
--remove-relocations=.text.*
@end smallexample
will remove the relocations for all sections matching the pattern
'.text.*'.
If the first character of @var{sectionpattern} is the exclamation
point (!) then matching sections will not have their relocation
removed even if an earlier use of @option{--remove-relocations} on the
same command line would otherwise cause the relocations to be removed.
For example:
@smallexample
--remove-relocations=.text.* --remove-relocations=!.text.foo
@end smallexample
will remove all relocations for sections matching the pattern
'.text.*', but will not remove relocations for the section
'.text.foo'.
@item -S
@itemx --strip-all
Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source file.
Also deletes debug sections.
@item -g
@itemx --strip-debug
Do not copy debugging symbols or sections from the source file.
@item --strip-unneeded
Remove all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing in
addition to debugging symbols and sections stripped by
@option{--strip-debug}.
@item -K @var{symbolname}
@itemx --keep-symbol=@var{symbolname}
When stripping symbols, keep symbol @var{symbolname} even if it would
normally be stripped. This option may be given more than once.
@item -N @var{symbolname}
@itemx --strip-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Do not copy symbol @var{symbolname} from the source file. This option
may be given more than once.
@item --strip-unneeded-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Do not copy symbol @var{symbolname} from the source file unless it is needed
by a relocation. This option may be given more than once.
@item -G @var{symbolname}
@itemx --keep-global-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Keep only symbol @var{symbolname} global. Make all other symbols local
to the file, so that they are not visible externally. This option may
be given more than once. Note: this option cannot be used in
conjunction with the @option{--globalize-symbol} or
@option{--globalize-symbols} options.
@item --localize-hidden
In an ELF object, mark all symbols that have hidden or internal visibility
as local. This option applies on top of symbol-specific localization options
such as @option{-L}.
@item -L @var{symbolname}
@itemx --localize-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Convert a global or weak symbol called @var{symbolname} into a local
symbol, so that it is not visible externally. This option may be
given more than once. Note - unique symbols are not converted.
@item -W @var{symbolname}
@itemx --weaken-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Make symbol @var{symbolname} weak. This option may be given more than once.
@item --globalize-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Give symbol @var{symbolname} global scoping so that it is visible
outside of the file in which it is defined. This option may be given
more than once. Note: this option cannot be used in conjunction with
the @option{-G} or @option{--keep-global-symbol} options.
@item -w
@itemx --wildcard
Permit regular expressions in @var{symbolname}s used in other command
line options. The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\) and
square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the symbol
name. If the first character of the symbol name is the exclamation
point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for that symbol.
For example:
@smallexample
-w -W !foo -W fo*
@end smallexample
would cause objcopy to weaken all symbols that start with ``fo''
except for the symbol ``foo''.
@item -x
@itemx --discard-all
Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.
@c FIXME any reason to prefer "non-global" to "local" here?
@item -X
@itemx --discard-locals
Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols.
(These usually start with @samp{L} or @samp{.}.)
@item -b @var{byte}
@itemx --byte=@var{byte}
If interleaving has been enabled via the @option{--interleave} option
then start the range of bytes to keep at the @var{byte}th byte.
@var{byte} can be in the range from 0 to @var{breadth}-1, where
@var{breadth} is the value given by the @option{--interleave} option.
@item -i [@var{breadth}]
@itemx --interleave[=@var{breadth}]
Only copy a range out of every @var{breadth} bytes. (Header data is
not affected). Select which byte in the range begins the copy with
the @option{--byte} option. Select the width of the range with the
@option{--interleave-width} option.
This option is useful for creating files to program @sc{rom}. It is
typically used with an @code{srec} output target. Note that
@command{objcopy} will complain if you do not specify the
@option{--byte} option as well.
The default interleave breadth is 4, so with @option{--byte} set to 0,
@command{objcopy} would copy the first byte out of every four bytes
from the input to the output.
@item --interleave-width=@var{width}
When used with the @option{--interleave} option, copy @var{width}
bytes at a time. The start of the range of bytes to be copied is set
by the @option{--byte} option, and the extent of the range is set with
the @option{--interleave} option.
The default value for this option is 1. The value of @var{width} plus
the @var{byte} value set by the @option{--byte} option must not exceed
the interleave breadth set by the @option{--interleave} option.
This option can be used to create images for two 16-bit flashes interleaved
in a 32-bit bus by passing @option{-b 0 -i 4 --interleave-width=2}
and @option{-b 2 -i 4 --interleave-width=2} to two @command{objcopy}
commands. If the input was '12345678' then the outputs would be
'1256' and '3478' respectively.
@item -p
@itemx --preserve-dates
Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be the same
as those of the input file.
@item -D
@itemx --enable-deterministic-archives
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. When copying archive members
and writing the archive index, use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps,
and use consistent file modes for all files.
If @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}, then this mode is on by default.
It can be disabled with the @samp{-U} option, below.
@item -U
@itemx --disable-deterministic-archives
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Do @emph{not} operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. This is the
inverse of the @option{-D} option, above: when copying archive members
and writing the archive index, use their actual UID, GID, timestamp,
and file mode values.
This is the default unless @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}.
@item --debugging
Convert debugging information, if possible. This is not the default
because only certain debugging formats are supported, and the
conversion process can be time consuming.
@item --gap-fill @var{val}
Fill gaps between sections with @var{val}. This operation applies to
the @emph{load address} (LMA) of the sections. It is done by increasing
the size of the section with the lower address, and filling in the extra
space created with @var{val}.
@item --pad-to @var{address}
Pad the output file up to the load address @var{address}. This is
done by increasing the size of the last section. The extra space is
filled in with the value specified by @option{--gap-fill} (default zero).
@item --set-start @var{val}
Set the start address (also known as the entry address) of the new
file to @var{val}. Not all object file formats support setting the
start address.
@item --change-start @var{incr}
@itemx --adjust-start @var{incr}
@cindex changing start address
Change the start address (also known as the entry address) by adding
@var{incr}. Not all object file formats support setting the start
address.
@item --change-addresses @var{incr}
@itemx --adjust-vma @var{incr}
@cindex changing object addresses
Change the VMA and LMA addresses of all sections, as well as the start
address, by adding @var{incr}. Some object file formats do not permit
section addresses to be changed arbitrarily. Note that this does not
relocate the sections; if the program expects sections to be loaded at a
certain address, and this option is used to change the sections such
that they are loaded at a different address, the program may fail.
@item --change-section-address @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}
@itemx --adjust-section-vma @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}
@cindex changing section address
Set or change both the VMA address and the LMA address of any section
matching @var{sectionpattern}. If @samp{=} is used, the section
address is set to @var{val}. Otherwise, @var{val} is added to or
subtracted from the section address. See the comments under
@option{--change-addresses}, above. If @var{sectionpattern} does not
match any sections in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
@option{--no-change-warnings} is used.
@item --change-section-lma @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}
@cindex changing section LMA
Set or change the LMA address of any sections matching
@var{sectionpattern}. The LMA address is the address where the
section will be loaded into memory at program load time. Normally
this is the same as the VMA address, which is the address of the
section at program run time, but on some systems, especially those
where a program is held in ROM, the two can be different. If @samp{=}
is used, the section address is set to @var{val}. Otherwise,
@var{val} is added to or subtracted from the section address. See the
comments under @option{--change-addresses}, above. If
@var{sectionpattern} does not match any sections in the input file, a
warning will be issued, unless @option{--no-change-warnings} is used.
@item --change-section-vma @var{sectionpattern}@{=,+,-@}@var{val}
@cindex changing section VMA
Set or change the VMA address of any section matching
@var{sectionpattern}. The VMA address is the address where the
section will be located once the program has started executing.
Normally this is the same as the LMA address, which is the address
where the section will be loaded into memory, but on some systems,
especially those where a program is held in ROM, the two can be
different. If @samp{=} is used, the section address is set to
@var{val}. Otherwise, @var{val} is added to or subtracted from the
section address. See the comments under @option{--change-addresses},
above. If @var{sectionpattern} does not match any sections in the
input file, a warning will be issued, unless
@option{--no-change-warnings} is used.
@item --change-warnings
@itemx --adjust-warnings
If @option{--change-section-address} or @option{--change-section-lma} or
@option{--change-section-vma} is used, and the section pattern does not
match any sections, issue a warning. This is the default.
@item --no-change-warnings
@itemx --no-adjust-warnings
Do not issue a warning if @option{--change-section-address} or
@option{--adjust-section-lma} or @option{--adjust-section-vma} is used, even
if the section pattern does not match any sections.
@item --set-section-flags @var{sectionpattern}=@var{flags}
Set the flags for any sections matching @var{sectionpattern}. The
@var{flags} argument is a comma separated string of flag names. The
recognized names are @samp{alloc}, @samp{contents}, @samp{load},
@samp{noload}, @samp{readonly}, @samp{code}, @samp{data}, @samp{rom},
@samp{exclude}, @samp{share}, and @samp{debug}. You can set the
@samp{contents} flag for a section which does not have contents, but it
is not meaningful to clear the @samp{contents} flag of a section which
does have contents--just remove the section instead. Not all flags are
meaningful for all object file formats. In particular the
@samp{share} flag is only meaningful for COFF format files and not for
ELF format files.
@item --set-section-alignment @var{sectionpattern}=@var{align}
Set the alignment for any sections matching @var{sectionpattern}.
@var{align} specifies the alignment in bytes and must be a power of
two, i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8@dots{}.
@item --add-section @var{sectionname}=@var{filename}
Add a new section named @var{sectionname} while copying the file. The
contents of the new section are taken from the file @var{filename}. The
size of the section will be the size of the file. This option only
works on file formats which can support sections with arbitrary names.
Note - it may be necessary to use the @option{--set-section-flags}
option to set the attributes of the newly created section.
@item --dump-section @var{sectionname}=@var{filename}
Place the contents of section named @var{sectionname} into the file
@var{filename}, overwriting any contents that may have been there
previously. This option is the inverse of @option{--add-section}.
This option is similar to the @option{--only-section} option except
that it does not create a formatted file, it just dumps the contents
as raw binary data, without applying any relocations. The option can
be specified more than once.
@item --update-section @var{sectionname}=@var{filename}
Replace the existing contents of a section named @var{sectionname}
with the contents of file @var{filename}. The size of the section
will be adjusted to the size of the file. The section flags for
@var{sectionname} will be unchanged. For ELF format files the section
to segment mapping will also remain unchanged, something which is not
possible using @option{--remove-section} followed by
@option{--add-section}. The option can be specified more than once.
Note - it is possible to use @option{--rename-section} and
@option{--update-section} to both update and rename a section from one
command line. In this case, pass the original section name to
@option{--update-section}, and the original and new section names to
@option{--rename-section}.
@item --add-symbol @var{name}=[@var{section}:]@var{value}[,@var{flags}]
Add a new symbol named @var{name} while copying the file. This option may be
specified multiple times. If the @var{section} is given, the symbol will be
associated with and relative to that section, otherwise it will be an ABS
symbol. Specifying an undefined section will result in a fatal error. There
is no check for the value, it will be taken as specified. Symbol flags can
be specified and not all flags will be meaningful for all object file
formats. By default, the symbol will be global. The special flag
'before=@var{othersym}' will insert the new symbol in front of the specified
@var{othersym}, otherwise the symbol(s) will be added at the end of the
symbol table in the order they appear.
@item --rename-section @var{oldname}=@var{newname}[,@var{flags}]
Rename a section from @var{oldname} to @var{newname}, optionally
changing the section's flags to @var{flags} in the process. This has
the advantage over using a linker script to perform the rename in that
the output stays as an object file and does not become a linked
executable. This option accepts the same set of flags as the
@option{--sect-section-flags} option.
This option is particularly helpful when the input format is binary,
since this will always create a section called .data. If for example,
you wanted instead to create a section called .rodata containing binary
data you could use the following command line to achieve it:
@smallexample
objcopy -I binary -O <output_format> -B <architecture> \
--rename-section .data=.rodata,alloc,load,readonly,data,contents \
<input_binary_file> <output_object_file>
@end smallexample
@item --long-section-names @{enable,disable,keep@}
Controls the handling of long section names when processing @code{COFF}
and @code{PE-COFF} object formats. The default behaviour, @samp{keep},
is to preserve long section names if any are present in the input file.
The @samp{enable} and @samp{disable} options forcibly enable or disable
the use of long section names in the output object; when @samp{disable}
is in effect, any long section names in the input object will be truncated.
The @samp{enable} option will only emit long section names if any are
present in the inputs; this is mostly the same as @samp{keep}, but it
is left undefined whether the @samp{enable} option might force the
creation of an empty string table in the output file.
@item --change-leading-char
Some object file formats use special characters at the start of
symbols. The most common such character is underscore, which compilers
often add before every symbol. This option tells @command{objcopy} to
change the leading character of every symbol when it converts between
object file formats. If the object file formats use the same leading
character, this option has no effect. Otherwise, it will add a
character, or remove a character, or change a character, as
appropriate.
@item --remove-leading-char
If the first character of a global symbol is a special symbol leading
character used by the object file format, remove the character. The
most common symbol leading character is underscore. This option will
remove a leading underscore from all global symbols. This can be useful
if you want to link together objects of different file formats with
different conventions for symbol names. This is different from
@option{--change-leading-char} because it always changes the symbol name
when appropriate, regardless of the object file format of the output
file.
@item --reverse-bytes=@var{num}
Reverse the bytes in a section with output contents. A section length must
be evenly divisible by the value given in order for the swap to be able to
take place. Reversing takes place before the interleaving is performed.
This option is used typically in generating ROM images for problematic
target systems. For example, on some target boards, the 32-bit words
fetched from 8-bit ROMs are re-assembled in little-endian byte order
regardless of the CPU byte order. Depending on the programming model, the
endianness of the ROM may need to be modified.
Consider a simple file with a section containing the following eight
bytes: @code{12345678}.
Using @samp{--reverse-bytes=2} for the above example, the bytes in the
output file would be ordered @code{21436587}.
Using @samp{--reverse-bytes=4} for the above example, the bytes in the
output file would be ordered @code{43218765}.
By using @samp{--reverse-bytes=2} for the above example, followed by
@samp{--reverse-bytes=4} on the output file, the bytes in the second
output file would be ordered @code{34127856}.
@item --srec-len=@var{ival}
Meaningful only for srec output. Set the maximum length of the Srecords
being produced to @var{ival}. This length covers both address, data and
crc fields.
@item --srec-forceS3
Meaningful only for srec output. Avoid generation of S1/S2 records,
creating S3-only record format.
@item --redefine-sym @var{old}=@var{new}
Change the name of a symbol @var{old}, to @var{new}. This can be useful
when one is trying link two things together for which you have no
source, and there are name collisions.
@item --redefine-syms=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--redefine-sym} to each symbol pair "@var{old} @var{new}"
listed in the file @var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file,
with one symbol pair per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
character. This option may be given more than once.
@item --weaken
Change all global symbols in the file to be weak. This can be useful
when building an object which will be linked against other objects using
the @option{-R} option to the linker. This option is only effective when
using an object file format which supports weak symbols.
@item --keep-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--keep-symbol} option to each symbol listed in the file
@var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one symbol
name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
@item --strip-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--strip-symbol} option to each symbol listed in the file
@var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one symbol
name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
@item --strip-unneeded-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--strip-unneeded-symbol} option to each symbol listed in
the file @var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one
symbol name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
character. This option may be given more than once.
@item --keep-global-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--keep-global-symbol} option to each symbol listed in the
file @var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one
symbol name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
character. This option may be given more than once.
@item --localize-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--localize-symbol} option to each symbol listed in the file
@var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one symbol
name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
@item --globalize-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--globalize-symbol} option to each symbol listed in the file
@var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one symbol
name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once. Note: this option cannot be
used in conjunction with the @option{-G} or @option{--keep-global-symbol}
options.
@item --weaken-symbols=@var{filename}
Apply @option{--weaken-symbol} option to each symbol listed in the file
@var{filename}. @var{filename} is simply a flat file, with one symbol
name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
@item --alt-machine-code=@var{index}
If the output architecture has alternate machine codes, use the
@var{index}th code instead of the default one. This is useful in case
a machine is assigned an official code and the tool-chain adopts the
new code, but other applications still depend on the original code
being used. For ELF based architectures if the @var{index}
alternative does not exist then the value is treated as an absolute
number to be stored in the e_machine field of the ELF header.
@item --writable-text
Mark the output text as writable. This option isn't meaningful for all
object file formats.
@item --readonly-text
Make the output text write protected. This option isn't meaningful for all
object file formats.
@item --pure
Mark the output file as demand paged. This option isn't meaningful for all
object file formats.
@item --impure
Mark the output file as impure. This option isn't meaningful for all
object file formats.
@item --prefix-symbols=@var{string}
Prefix all symbols in the output file with @var{string}.
@item --prefix-sections=@var{string}
Prefix all section names in the output file with @var{string}.
@item --prefix-alloc-sections=@var{string}
Prefix all the names of all allocated sections in the output file with
@var{string}.
@item --add-gnu-debuglink=@var{path-to-file}
Creates a .gnu_debuglink section which contains a reference to
@var{path-to-file} and adds it to the output file. Note: the file at
@var{path-to-file} must exist. Part of the process of adding the
.gnu_debuglink section involves embedding a checksum of the contents
of the debug info file into the section.
If the debug info file is built in one location but it is going to be
installed at a later time into a different location then do not use
the path to the installed location. The @option{--add-gnu-debuglink}
option will fail because the installed file does not exist yet.
Instead put the debug info file in the current directory and use the
@option{--add-gnu-debuglink} option without any directory components,
like this:
@smallexample
objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.debug
@end smallexample
At debug time the debugger will attempt to look for the separate debug
info file in a set of known locations. The exact set of these
locations varies depending upon the distribution being used, but it
typically includes:
@table @code
@item * The same directory as the executable.
@item * A sub-directory of the directory containing the executable
called .debug
@item * A global debug directory such as /usr/lib/debug.
@end table
As long as the debug info file has been installed into one of these
locations before the debugger is run everything should work
correctly.
@item --keep-section-symbils
When stripping a file, perhaps with @option{--strip-debug} or
@option{--strip-unneeded}, retain any symbols specifying section names,
which would otherwise get stripped.
@item --keep-file-symbols
When stripping a file, perhaps with @option{--strip-debug} or
@option{--strip-unneeded}, retain any symbols specifying source file names,
which would otherwise get stripped.
@item --only-keep-debug
Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
stripped by @option{--strip-debug} and leaving the debugging sections
intact. In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the output.
Note - the section headers of the stripped sections are preserved,
including their sizes, but the contents of the section are discarded.
The section headers are preserved so that other tools can match up the
debuginfo file with the real executable, even if that executable has
been relocated to a different address space.
The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with
@option{--add-gnu-debuglink} to create a two part executable. One a
stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
distribution and the second a debugging information file which is only
needed if debugging abilities are required. The suggested procedure
to create these files is as follows:
@enumerate
@item Link the executable as normal. Assuming that it is called
@code{foo} then...
@item Run @code{objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg} to
create a file containing the debugging info.
@item Run @code{objcopy --strip-debug foo} to create a
stripped executable.
@item Run @code{objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo}
to add a link to the debugging info into the stripped executable.
@end enumerate
Note---the choice of @code{.dbg} as an extension for the debug info
file is arbitrary. Also the @code{--only-keep-debug} step is
optional. You could instead do this:
@enumerate
@item Link the executable as normal.
@item Copy @code{foo} to @code{foo.full}
@item Run @code{objcopy --strip-debug foo}
@item Run @code{objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo}
@end enumerate
i.e., the file pointed to by the @option{--add-gnu-debuglink} can be the
full executable. It does not have to be a file created by the
@option{--only-keep-debug} switch.
Note---this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files. It
does not make sense to use it on object files where the debugging
information may be incomplete. Besides the gnu_debuglink feature
currently only supports the presence of one filename containing
debugging information, not multiple filenames on a one-per-object-file
basis.
@item --strip-dwo
Remove the contents of all DWARF .dwo sections, leaving the
remaining debugging sections and all symbols intact.
This option is intended for use by the compiler as part of
the @option{-gsplit-dwarf} option, which splits debug information
between the .o file and a separate .dwo file. The compiler
generates all debug information in the same file, then uses
the @option{--extract-dwo} option to copy the .dwo sections to
the .dwo file, then the @option{--strip-dwo} option to remove
those sections from the original .o file.
@item --extract-dwo
Extract the contents of all DWARF .dwo sections. See the
@option{--strip-dwo} option for more information.
@item --file-alignment @var{num}
Specify the file alignment. Sections in the file will always begin at
file offsets which are multiples of this number. This defaults to
512.
[This option is specific to PE targets.]
@item --heap @var{reserve}
@itemx --heap @var{reserve},@var{commit}
Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally commit)
to be used as heap for this program.
[This option is specific to PE targets.]
@item --image-base @var{value}
Use @var{value} as the base address of your program or dll. This is
the lowest memory location that will be used when your program or dll
is loaded. To reduce the need to relocate and improve performance of
your dlls, each should have a unique base address and not overlap any
other dlls. The default is 0x400000 for executables, and 0x10000000
for dlls.
[This option is specific to PE targets.]
@item --section-alignment @var{num}
Sets the section alignment field in the PE header. Sections in memory
will always begin at addresses which are a multiple of this number.
Defaults to 0x1000.
[This option is specific to PE targets.]
@item --stack @var{reserve}
@itemx --stack @var{reserve},@var{commit}
Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally commit)
to be used as stack for this program.
[This option is specific to PE targets.]
@item --subsystem @var{which}
@itemx --subsystem @var{which}:@var{major}
@itemx --subsystem @var{which}:@var{major}.@var{minor}
Specifies the subsystem under which your program will execute. The
legal values for @var{which} are @code{native}, @code{windows},
@code{console}, @code{posix}, @code{efi-app}, @code{efi-bsd},
@code{efi-rtd}, @code{sal-rtd}, and @code{xbox}. You may optionally set
the subsystem version also. Numeric values are also accepted for
@var{which}.
[This option is specific to PE targets.]
@item --extract-symbol
Keep the file's section flags and symbols but remove all section data.
Specifically, the option:
@itemize
@item removes the contents of all sections;
@item sets the size of every section to zero; and
@item sets the file's start address to zero.
@end itemize
This option is used to build a @file{.sym} file for a VxWorks kernel.
It can also be a useful way of reducing the size of a @option{--just-symbols}
linker input file.
@item --compress-debug-sections
Compress DWARF debug sections using zlib with SHF_COMPRESSED from the
ELF ABI. Note - if compression would actually make a section
@emph{larger}, then it is not compressed.
@item --compress-debug-sections=none
@itemx --compress-debug-sections=zlib
@itemx --compress-debug-sections=zlib-gnu
@itemx --compress-debug-sections=zlib-gabi
For ELF files, these options control how DWARF debug sections are
compressed. @option{--compress-debug-sections=none} is equivalent
to @option{--decompress-debug-sections}.
@option{--compress-debug-sections=zlib} and
@option{--compress-debug-sections=zlib-gabi} are equivalent to
@option{--compress-debug-sections}.
@option{--compress-debug-sections=zlib-gnu} compresses DWARF debug
sections using zlib. The debug sections are renamed to begin with
@samp{.zdebug} instead of @samp{.debug}. Note - if compression would
actually make a section @emph{larger}, then it is not compressed nor
renamed.
@item --decompress-debug-sections
Decompress DWARF debug sections using zlib. The original section
names of the compressed sections are restored.
@item --elf-stt-common=yes
@itemx --elf-stt-common=no
For ELF files, these options control whether common symbols should be
converted to the @code{STT_COMMON} or @code{STT_OBJECT} type.
@option{--elf-stt-common=yes} converts common symbol type to
@code{STT_COMMON}. @option{--elf-stt-common=no} converts common symbol
type to @code{STT_OBJECT}.
@item --merge-notes
@itemx --no-merge-notes
For ELF files, attempt (or do not attempt) to reduce the size of any
SHT_NOTE type sections by removing duplicate notes.
@item -V
@itemx --version
Show the version number of @command{objcopy}.
@item --verilog-data-width=@var{bytes}
For Verilog output, this options controls the number of bytes
converted for each output data element. The input target controls the
endianness of the conversion.
@item -v
@itemx --verbose
Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
archives, @samp{objcopy -V} lists all members of the archive.
@item --help
Show a summary of the options to @command{objcopy}.
@item --info
Display a list showing all architectures and object formats available.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO objcopy
ld(1), objdump(1), and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node objdump
@chapter objdump
@cindex object file information
@kindex objdump
@c man title objdump display information from object files
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS objdump
objdump [@option{-a}|@option{--archive-headers}]
[@option{-b} @var{bfdname}|@option{--target=@var{bfdname}}]
[@option{-C}|@option{--demangle}[=@var{style}] ]
[@option{-d}|@option{--disassemble}[=@var{symbol}]]
[@option{-D}|@option{--disassemble-all}]
[@option{-z}|@option{--disassemble-zeroes}]
[@option{-EB}|@option{-EL}|@option{--endian=}@{big | little @}]
[@option{-f}|@option{--file-headers}]
[@option{-F}|@option{--file-offsets}]
[@option{--file-start-context}]
[@option{-g}|@option{--debugging}]
[@option{-e}|@option{--debugging-tags}]
[@option{-h}|@option{--section-headers}|@option{--headers}]
[@option{-i}|@option{--info}]
[@option{-j} @var{section}|@option{--section=}@var{section}]
[@option{-l}|@option{--line-numbers}]
[@option{-S}|@option{--source}]
[@option{--source-comment}[=@var{text}]]
[@option{-m} @var{machine}|@option{--architecture=}@var{machine}]
[@option{-M} @var{options}|@option{--disassembler-options=}@var{options}]
[@option{-p}|@option{--private-headers}]
[@option{-P} @var{options}|@option{--private=}@var{options}]
[@option{-r}|@option{--reloc}]
[@option{-R}|@option{--dynamic-reloc}]
[@option{-s}|@option{--full-contents}]
[@option{-W[lLiaprmfFsoORtUuTgAck]}|
@option{--dwarf}[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=str-offsets,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges,=gdb_index,=addr,=cu_index,=links]]
[@option{-WK}|@option{--dwarf=follow-links}]
[@option{-WN}|@option{--dwarf=no-follow-links}]
[@option{-L}|@option{--process-links}]
[@option{--ctf=}@var{section}]
[@option{-G}|@option{--stabs}]
[@option{-t}|@option{--syms}]
[@option{-T}|@option{--dynamic-syms}]
[@option{-x}|@option{--all-headers}]
[@option{-w}|@option{--wide}]
[@option{--start-address=}@var{address}]
[@option{--stop-address=}@var{address}]
[@option{--no-addresses}]
[@option{--prefix-addresses}]
[@option{--[no-]show-raw-insn}]
[@option{--adjust-vma=}@var{offset}]
[@option{--dwarf-depth=@var{n}}]
[@option{--dwarf-start=@var{n}}]
[@option{--ctf-parent=}@var{section}]
[@option{--no-recurse-limit}|@option{--recurse-limit}]
[@option{--special-syms}]
[@option{--prefix=}@var{prefix}]
[@option{--prefix-strip=}@var{level}]
[@option{--insn-width=}@var{width}]
[@option{--visualize-jumps[=color|=extended-color|=off]}
[@option{-V}|@option{--version}]
[@option{-H}|@option{--help}]
@var{objfile}@dots{}
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION objdump
@command{objdump} displays information about one or more object files.
The options control what particular information to display. This
information is mostly useful to programmers who are working on the
compilation tools, as opposed to programmers who just want their
program to compile and work.
@var{objfile}@dots{} are the object files to be examined. When you
specify archives, @command{objdump} shows information on each of the member
object files.
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS objdump
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent. At least one option from the list
@option{-a,-d,-D,-e,-f,-g,-G,-h,-H,-p,-P,-r,-R,-s,-S,-t,-T,-V,-x} must be given.
@table @env
@item -a
@itemx --archive-header
@cindex archive headers
If any of the @var{objfile} files are archives, display the archive
header information (in a format similar to @samp{ls -l}). Besides the
information you could list with @samp{ar tv}, @samp{objdump -a} shows
the object file format of each archive member.
@item --adjust-vma=@var{offset}
@cindex section addresses in objdump
@cindex VMA in objdump
When dumping information, first add @var{offset} to all the section
addresses. This is useful if the section addresses do not correspond to
the symbol table, which can happen when putting sections at particular
addresses when using a format which can not represent section addresses,
such as a.out.
@item -b @var{bfdname}
@itemx --target=@var{bfdname}
@cindex object code format
Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
@var{bfdname}. This option may not be necessary; @var{objdump} can
automatically recognize many formats.
For example,
@example
objdump -b oasys -m vax -h fu.o
@end example
@noindent
displays summary information from the section headers (@option{-h}) of
@file{fu.o}, which is explicitly identified (@option{-m}) as a VAX object
file in the format produced by Oasys compilers. You can list the
formats available with the @option{-i} option.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -C
@itemx --demangle[=@var{style}]
@cindex demangling in objdump
Decode (@dfn{demangle}) low-level symbol names into user-level names.
Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system, this
makes C++ function names readable. Different compilers have different
mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument can be used to
choose an appropriate demangling style for your compiler. @xref{c++filt},
for more information on demangling.
@item --recurse-limit
@itemx --no-recurse-limit
@itemx --recursion-limit
@itemx --no-recursion-limit
Enables or disables a limit on the amount of recursion performed
whilst demangling strings. Since the name mangling formats allow for
an infinite level of recursion it is possible to create strings whose
decoding will exhaust the amount of stack space available on the host
machine, triggering a memory fault. The limit tries to prevent this
from happening by restricting recursion to 2048 levels of nesting.
The default is for this limit to be enabled, but disabling it may be
necessary in order to demangle truly complicated names. Note however
that if the recursion limit is disabled then stack exhaustion is
possible and any bug reports about such an event will be rejected.
@item -g
@itemx --debugging
Display debugging information. This attempts to parse STABS
debugging format information stored in the file and print it out using
a C like syntax. If no STABS debugging was found this option
falls back on the @option{-W} option to print any DWARF information in
the file.
@item -e
@itemx --debugging-tags
Like @option{-g}, but the information is generated in a format compatible
with ctags tool.
@item -d
@itemx --disassemble
@itemx --disassemble=@var{symbol}
@cindex disassembling object code
@cindex machine instructions
Display the assembler mnemonics for the machine instructions from the
input file. This option only disassembles those sections which are
expected to contain instructions. If the optional @var{symbol}
argument is given, then display the assembler mnemonics starting at
@var{symbol}. If @var{symbol} is a function name then disassembly
will stop at the end of the function, otherwise it will stop when the
next symbol is encountered. If there are no matches for @var{symbol}
then nothing will be displayed.
Note if the @option{--dwarf=follow-links} option is enabled
then any symbol tables in linked debug info files will be read in and
used when disassembling.
@item -D
@itemx --disassemble-all
Like @option{-d}, but disassemble the contents of all sections, not just
those expected to contain instructions.
This option also has a subtle effect on the disassembly of
instructions in code sections. When option @option{-d} is in effect
objdump will assume that any symbols present in a code section occur
on the boundary between instructions and it will refuse to disassemble
across such a boundary. When option @option{-D} is in effect however
this assumption is supressed. This means that it is possible for the
output of @option{-d} and @option{-D} to differ if, for example, data
is stored in code sections.
If the target is an ARM architecture this switch also has the effect
of forcing the disassembler to decode pieces of data found in code
sections as if they were instructions.
Note if the @option{--dwarf=follow-links} option is enabled
then any symbol tables in linked debug info files will be read in and
used when disassembling.
@item --no-addresses
When disassembling, don't print addresses on each line or for symbols
and relocation offsets. In combination with @option{--no-show-raw-insn}
this may be useful for comparing compiler output.
@item --prefix-addresses
When disassembling, print the complete address on each line. This is
the older disassembly format.
@item -EB
@itemx -EL
@itemx --endian=@{big|little@}
@cindex endianness
@cindex disassembly endianness
Specify the endianness of the object files. This only affects
disassembly. This can be useful when disassembling a file format which
does not describe endianness information, such as S-records.
@item -f
@itemx --file-headers
@cindex object file header
Display summary information from the overall header of
each of the @var{objfile} files.
@item -F
@itemx --file-offsets
@cindex object file offsets
When disassembling sections, whenever a symbol is displayed, also
display the file offset of the region of data that is about to be
dumped. If zeroes are being skipped, then when disassembly resumes,
tell the user how many zeroes were skipped and the file offset of the
location from where the disassembly resumes. When dumping sections,
display the file offset of the location from where the dump starts.
@item --file-start-context
@cindex source code context
Specify that when displaying interlisted source code/disassembly
(assumes @option{-S}) from a file that has not yet been displayed, extend the
context to the start of the file.
@item -h
@itemx --section-headers
@itemx --headers
@cindex section headers
Display summary information from the section headers of the
object file.
File segments may be relocated to nonstandard addresses, for example by
using the @option{-Ttext}, @option{-Tdata}, or @option{-Tbss} options to
@command{ld}. However, some object file formats, such as a.out, do not
store the starting address of the file segments. In those situations,
although @command{ld} relocates the sections correctly, using @samp{objdump
-h} to list the file section headers cannot show the correct addresses.
Instead, it shows the usual addresses, which are implicit for the
target.
Note, in some cases it is possible for a section to have both the
READONLY and the NOREAD attributes set. In such cases the NOREAD
attribute takes precedence, but @command{objdump} will report both
since the exact setting of the flag bits might be important.
@item -H
@itemx --help
Print a summary of the options to @command{objdump} and exit.
@item -i
@itemx --info
@cindex architectures available
@cindex object formats available
Display a list showing all architectures and object formats available
for specification with @option{-b} or @option{-m}.
@item -j @var{name}
@itemx --section=@var{name}
@cindex section information
Display information only for section @var{name}.
@item -L
@itemx --process-links
Display the contents of non-debug sections found in separate debuginfo
files that are linked to the main file. This option automatically
implies the @option{-WK} option, and only sections requested by other
command line options will be displayed.
@item -l
@itemx --line-numbers
@cindex source filenames for object files
Label the display (using debugging information) with the filename and
source line numbers corresponding to the object code or relocs shown.
Only useful with @option{-d}, @option{-D}, or @option{-r}.
@item -m @var{machine}
@itemx --architecture=@var{machine}
@cindex architecture
@cindex disassembly architecture
Specify the architecture to use when disassembling object files. This
can be useful when disassembling object files which do not describe
architecture information, such as S-records. You can list the available
architectures with the @option{-i} option.
If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch has an
additional effect. It restricts the disassembly to only those
instructions supported by the architecture specified by @var{machine}.
If it is necessary to use this switch because the input file does not
contain any architecture information, but it is also desired to
disassemble all the instructions use @option{-marm}.
@item -M @var{options}
@itemx --disassembler-options=@var{options}
Pass target specific information to the disassembler. Only supported on
some targets. If it is necessary to specify more than one
disassembler option then multiple @option{-M} options can be used or
can be placed together into a comma separated list.
For ARC, @option{dsp} controls the printing of DSP instructions,
@option{spfp} selects the printing of FPX single precision FP
instructions, @option{dpfp} selects the printing of FPX double
precision FP instructions, @option{quarkse_em} selects the printing of
special QuarkSE-EM instructions, @option{fpuda} selects the printing
of double precision assist instructions, @option{fpus} selects the
printing of FPU single precision FP instructions, while @option{fpud}
selects the printing of FPU double precision FP instructions.
Additionally, one can choose to have all the immediates printed in
hexadecimal using @option{hex}. By default, the short immediates are
printed using the decimal representation, while the long immediate
values are printed as hexadecimal.
@option{cpu=...} allows one to enforce a particular ISA when disassembling
instructions, overriding the @option{-m} value or whatever is in the ELF file.
This might be useful to select ARC EM or HS ISA, because architecture is same
for those and disassembler relies on private ELF header data to decide if code
is for EM or HS. This option might be specified multiple times - only the
latest value will be used. Valid values are same as for the assembler
@option{-mcpu=...} option.
If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch can be used to
select which register name set is used during disassembler. Specifying
@option{-M reg-names-std} (the default) will select the register names as
used in ARM's instruction set documentation, but with register 13 called
'sp', register 14 called 'lr' and register 15 called 'pc'. Specifying
@option{-M reg-names-apcs} will select the name set used by the ARM
Procedure Call Standard, whilst specifying @option{-M reg-names-raw} will
just use @samp{r} followed by the register number.
There are also two variants on the APCS register naming scheme enabled
by @option{-M reg-names-atpcs} and @option{-M reg-names-special-atpcs} which
use the ARM/Thumb Procedure Call Standard naming conventions. (Either
with the normal register names or the special register names).
This option can also be used for ARM architectures to force the
disassembler to interpret all instructions as Thumb instructions by
using the switch @option{--disassembler-options=force-thumb}. This can be
useful when attempting to disassemble thumb code produced by other
compilers.
For AArch64 targets this switch can be used to set whether instructions are
disassembled as the most general instruction using the @option{-M no-aliases}
option or whether instruction notes should be generated as comments in the
disasssembly using @option{-M notes}.
For the x86, some of the options duplicate functions of the @option{-m}
switch, but allow finer grained control.
@table @code
@item x86-64
@itemx i386
@itemx i8086
Select disassembly for the given architecture.
@item intel
@itemx att
Select between intel syntax mode and AT&T syntax mode.
@item amd64
@itemx intel64
Select between AMD64 ISA and Intel64 ISA.
@item intel-mnemonic
@itemx att-mnemonic
Select between intel mnemonic mode and AT&T mnemonic mode.
Note: @code{intel-mnemonic} implies @code{intel} and
@code{att-mnemonic} implies @code{att}.
@item addr64
@itemx addr32
@itemx addr16
@itemx data32
@itemx data16
Specify the default address size and operand size. These five options
will be overridden if @code{x86-64}, @code{i386} or @code{i8086}
appear later in the option string.
@item suffix
When in AT&T mode and also for a limited set of instructions when in Intel
mode, instructs the disassembler to print a mnemonic suffix even when the
suffix could be inferred by the operands or, for certain instructions, the
execution mode's defaults.
@end table
For PowerPC, the @option{-M} argument @option{raw} selects
disasssembly of hardware insns rather than aliases. For example, you
will see @code{rlwinm} rather than @code{clrlwi}, and @code{addi}
rather than @code{li}. All of the @option{-m} arguments for
@command{gas} that select a CPU are supported. These are:
@option{403}, @option{405}, @option{440}, @option{464}, @option{476},
@option{601}, @option{603}, @option{604}, @option{620}, @option{7400},
@option{7410}, @option{7450}, @option{7455}, @option{750cl},
@option{821}, @option{850}, @option{860}, @option{a2}, @option{booke},
@option{booke32}, @option{cell}, @option{com}, @option{e200z4},
@option{e300}, @option{e500}, @option{e500mc}, @option{e500mc64},
@option{e500x2}, @option{e5500}, @option{e6500}, @option{efs},
@option{power4}, @option{power5}, @option{power6}, @option{power7},
@option{power8}, @option{power9}, @option{power10}, @option{ppc},
@option{ppc32}, @option{ppc64}, @option{ppc64bridge}, @option{ppcps},
@option{pwr}, @option{pwr2}, @option{pwr4}, @option{pwr5}, @option{pwr5x},
@option{pwr6}, @option{pwr7}, @option{pwr8}, @option{pwr9}, @option{pwr10},
@option{pwrx}, @option{titan}, and @option{vle}.
@option{32} and @option{64} modify the default or a prior CPU
selection, disabling and enabling 64-bit insns respectively. In
addition, @option{altivec}, @option{any}, @option{htm}, @option{vsx},
and @option{spe} add capabilities to a previous @emph{or later} CPU
selection. @option{any} will disassemble any opcode known to
binutils, but in cases where an opcode has two different meanings or
different arguments, you may not see the disassembly you expect.
If you disassemble without giving a CPU selection, a default will be
chosen from information gleaned by BFD from the object files headers,
but the result again may not be as you expect.
For MIPS, this option controls the printing of instruction mnemonic
names and register names in disassembled instructions. Multiple
selections from the following may be specified as a comma separated
string, and invalid options are ignored:
@table @code
@item no-aliases
Print the 'raw' instruction mnemonic instead of some pseudo
instruction mnemonic. I.e., print 'daddu' or 'or' instead of 'move',
'sll' instead of 'nop', etc.
@item msa
Disassemble MSA instructions.
@item virt
Disassemble the virtualization ASE instructions.
@item xpa
Disassemble the eXtended Physical Address (XPA) ASE instructions.
@item gpr-names=@var{ABI}
Print GPR (general-purpose register) names as appropriate
for the specified ABI. By default, GPR names are selected according to
the ABI of the binary being disassembled.
@item fpr-names=@var{ABI}
Print FPR (floating-point register) names as
appropriate for the specified ABI. By default, FPR numbers are printed
rather than names.
@item cp0-names=@var{ARCH}
Print CP0 (system control coprocessor; coprocessor 0) register names
as appropriate for the CPU or architecture specified by
@var{ARCH}. By default, CP0 register names are selected according to
the architecture and CPU of the binary being disassembled.
@item hwr-names=@var{ARCH}
Print HWR (hardware register, used by the @code{rdhwr} instruction) names
as appropriate for the CPU or architecture specified by
@var{ARCH}. By default, HWR names are selected according to
the architecture and CPU of the binary being disassembled.
@item reg-names=@var{ABI}
Print GPR and FPR names as appropriate for the selected ABI.
@item reg-names=@var{ARCH}
Print CPU-specific register names (CP0 register and HWR names)
as appropriate for the selected CPU or architecture.
@end table
For any of the options listed above, @var{ABI} or
@var{ARCH} may be specified as @samp{numeric} to have numbers printed
rather than names, for the selected types of registers.
You can list the available values of @var{ABI} and @var{ARCH} using
the @option{--help} option.
For VAX, you can specify function entry addresses with @option{-M
entry:0xf00ba}. You can use this multiple times to properly
disassemble VAX binary files that don't contain symbol tables (like
ROM dumps). In these cases, the function entry mask would otherwise
be decoded as VAX instructions, which would probably lead the rest
of the function being wrongly disassembled.
@item -p
@itemx --private-headers
Print information that is specific to the object file format. The exact
information printed depends upon the object file format. For some
object file formats, no additional information is printed.
@item -P @var{options}
@itemx --private=@var{options}
Print information that is specific to the object file format. The
argument @var{options} is a comma separated list that depends on the
format (the lists of options is displayed with the help).
For XCOFF, the available options are:
@table @code
@item header
@item aout
@item sections
@item syms
@item relocs
@item lineno,
@item loader
@item except
@item typchk
@item traceback
@item toc
@item ldinfo
@end table
Not all object formats support this option. In particular the ELF
format does not use it.
@item -r
@itemx --reloc
@cindex relocation entries, in object file
Print the relocation entries of the file. If used with @option{-d} or
@option{-D}, the relocations are printed interspersed with the
disassembly.
@item -R
@itemx --dynamic-reloc
@cindex dynamic relocation entries, in object file
Print the dynamic relocation entries of the file. This is only
meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
libraries. As for @option{-r}, if used with @option{-d} or
@option{-D}, the relocations are printed interspersed with the
disassembly.
@item -s
@itemx --full-contents
@cindex sections, full contents
@cindex object file sections
Display the full contents of any sections requested. By default all
non-empty sections are displayed.
@item -S
@itemx --source
@cindex source disassembly
@cindex disassembly, with source
Display source code intermixed with disassembly, if possible. Implies
@option{-d}.
@item --source-comment[=@var{txt}]
@cindex source disassembly
@cindex disassembly, with source
Like the @option{-S} option, but all source code lines are displayed
with a prefix of @var{txt}. Typically @var{txt} will be a comment
string which can be used to distinguish the assembler code from the
source code. If @var{txt} is not provided then a default string of
@var{``# ``} (hash followed by a space), will be used.
@item --prefix=@var{prefix}
@cindex Add prefix to absolute paths
Specify @var{prefix} to add to the absolute paths when used with
@option{-S}.
@item --prefix-strip=@var{level}
@cindex Strip absolute paths
Indicate how many initial directory names to strip off the hardwired
absolute paths. It has no effect without @option{--prefix=}@var{prefix}.
@item --show-raw-insn
When disassembling instructions, print the instruction in hex as well as
in symbolic form. This is the default except when
@option{--prefix-addresses} is used.
@item --no-show-raw-insn
When disassembling instructions, do not print the instruction bytes.
This is the default when @option{--prefix-addresses} is used.
@item --insn-width=@var{width}
@cindex Instruction width
Display @var{width} bytes on a single line when disassembling
instructions.
@item --visualize-jumps[=color|=extended-color|=off]
Visualize jumps that stay inside a function by drawing ASCII art between
the start and target addresses. The optional @option{=color} argument
adds color to the output using simple terminal colors. Alternatively
the @option{=extended-color} argument will add color using 8bit
colors, but these might not work on all terminals.
If it is necessary to disable the @option{visualize-jumps} option
after it has previously been enabled then use
@option{visualize-jumps=off}.
@item -W[lLiaprmfFsoORtUuTgAckK]
@itemx --dwarf[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=str-offsets,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges,=gdb_index,=addr,=cu_index,=links,=follow-links]
@include debug.options.texi
@item --dwarf-check
Enable additional checks for consistency of Dwarf information.
@include ctf.options.texi
@item -G
@itemx --stabs
@cindex stab
@cindex .stab
@cindex debug symbols
@cindex ELF object file format
Display the full contents of any sections requested. Display the
contents of the .stab and .stab.index and .stab.excl sections from an
ELF file. This is only useful on systems (such as Solaris 2.0) in which
@code{.stab} debugging symbol-table entries are carried in an ELF
section. In most other file formats, debugging symbol-table entries are
interleaved with linkage symbols, and are visible in the @option{--syms}
output.
@item --start-address=@var{address}
@cindex start-address
Start displaying data at the specified address. This affects the output
of the @option{-d}, @option{-r} and @option{-s} options.
@item --stop-address=@var{address}
@cindex stop-address
Stop displaying data at the specified address. This affects the output
of the @option{-d}, @option{-r} and @option{-s} options.
@item -t
@itemx --syms
@cindex symbol table entries, printing
Print the symbol table entries of the file.
This is similar to the information provided by the @samp{nm} program,
although the display format is different. The format of the output
depends upon the format of the file being dumped, but there are two main
types. One looks like this:
@smallexample
[ 4](sec 3)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 3) (nx 1) 0x00000000 .bss
[ 6](sec 1)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x00000000 fred
@end smallexample
where the number inside the square brackets is the number of the entry
in the symbol table, the @var{sec} number is the section number, the
@var{fl} value are the symbol's flag bits, the @var{ty} number is the
symbol's type, the @var{scl} number is the symbol's storage class and
the @var{nx} value is the number of auxiliary entries associated with
the symbol. The last two fields are the symbol's value and its name.
The other common output format, usually seen with ELF based files,
looks like this:
@smallexample
00000000 l d .bss 00000000 .bss
00000000 g .text 00000000 fred
@end smallexample
Here the first number is the symbol's value (sometimes referred to as
its address). The next field is actually a set of characters and
spaces indicating the flag bits that are set on the symbol. These
characters are described below. Next is the section with which the
symbol is associated or @emph{*ABS*} if the section is absolute (ie
not connected with any section), or @emph{*UND*} if the section is
referenced in the file being dumped, but not defined there.
After the section name comes another field, a number, which for common
symbols is the alignment and for other symbol is the size. Finally
the symbol's name is displayed.
The flag characters are divided into 7 groups as follows:
@table @code
@item l
@itemx g
@itemx u
@itemx !
The symbol is a local (l), global (g), unique global (u), neither
global nor local (a space) or both global and local (!). A
symbol can be neither local or global for a variety of reasons, e.g.,
because it is used for debugging, but it is probably an indication of
a bug if it is ever both local and global. Unique global symbols are
a GNU extension to the standard set of ELF symbol bindings. For such
a symbol the dynamic linker will make sure that in the entire process
there is just one symbol with this name and type in use.
@item w
The symbol is weak (w) or strong (a space).
@item C
The symbol denotes a constructor (C) or an ordinary symbol (a space).
@item W
The symbol is a warning (W) or a normal symbol (a space). A warning
symbol's name is a message to be displayed if the symbol following the
warning symbol is ever referenced.
@item I
@item i
The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol (I), a function
to be evaluated during reloc processing (i) or a normal symbol (a
space).
@item d
@itemx D
The symbol is a debugging symbol (d) or a dynamic symbol (D) or a
normal symbol (a space).
@item F
@item f
@item O
The symbol is the name of a function (F) or a file (f) or an object
(O) or just a normal symbol (a space).
@end table
@item -T
@itemx --dynamic-syms
@cindex dynamic symbol table entries, printing
Print the dynamic symbol table entries of the file. This is only
meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
libraries. This is similar to the information provided by the @samp{nm}
program when given the @option{-D} (@option{--dynamic}) option.
The output format is similar to that produced by the @option{--syms}
option, except that an extra field is inserted before the symbol's
name, giving the version information associated with the symbol.
If the version is the default version to be used when resolving
unversioned references to the symbol then it's displayed as is,
otherwise it's put into parentheses.
@item --special-syms
When displaying symbols include those which the target considers to be
special in some way and which would not normally be of interest to the
user.
@item -V
@itemx --version
Print the version number of @command{objdump} and exit.
@item -x
@itemx --all-headers
@cindex all header information, object file
@cindex header information, all
Display all available header information, including the symbol table and
relocation entries. Using @option{-x} is equivalent to specifying all of
@option{-a -f -h -p -r -t}.
@item -w
@itemx --wide
@cindex wide output, printing
Format some lines for output devices that have more than 80 columns.
Also do not truncate symbol names when they are displayed.
@item -z
@itemx --disassemble-zeroes
Normally the disassembly output will skip blocks of zeroes. This
option directs the disassembler to disassemble those blocks, just like
any other data.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO objdump
nm(1), readelf(1), and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node ranlib
@chapter ranlib
@kindex ranlib
@cindex archive contents
@cindex symbol index
@c man title ranlib generate an index to an archive
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS ranlib
ranlib [@option{--plugin} @var{name}] [@option{-DhHvVt}] @var{archive}
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION ranlib
@command{ranlib} generates an index to the contents of an archive and
stores it in the archive. The index lists each symbol defined by a
member of an archive that is a relocatable object file.
You may use @samp{nm -s} or @samp{nm --print-armap} to list this index.
An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library and
allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to
their placement in the archive.
The @sc{gnu} @command{ranlib} program is another form of @sc{gnu} @command{ar}; running
@command{ranlib} is completely equivalent to executing @samp{ar -s}.
@xref{ar}.
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS ranlib
@table @env
@item -h
@itemx -H
@itemx --help
Show usage information for @command{ranlib}.
@item -v
@itemx -V
@itemx --version
Show the version number of @command{ranlib}.
@item -D
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. The symbol map archive member's
header will show zero for the UID, GID, and timestamp. When this
option is used, multiple runs will produce identical output files.
If @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}, then this mode is on by
default. It can be disabled with the @samp{-U} option, described
below.
@item -t
Update the timestamp of the symbol map of an archive.
@item -U
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Do @emph{not} operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. This is the
inverse of the @samp{-D} option, above: the archive index will get
actual UID, GID, timestamp, and file mode values.
If @file{binutils} was configured @emph{without}
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}, then this mode is on by
default.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO ranlib
ar(1), nm(1), and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node size
@chapter size
@kindex size
@cindex section sizes
@c man title size list section sizes and total size of binary files
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS size
size [@option{-A}|@option{-B}|@option{-G}|@option{--format=}@var{compatibility}]
[@option{--help}]
[@option{-d}|@option{-o}|@option{-x}|@option{--radix=}@var{number}]
[@option{--common}]
[@option{-t}|@option{--totals}]
[@option{--target=}@var{bfdname}] [@option{-V}|@option{--version}]
[@var{objfile}@dots{}]
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION size
The @sc{gnu} @command{size} utility lists the section sizes and the total
size for each of the binary files @var{objfile} on its argument list.
By default, one line of output is generated for each file or each
module if the file is an archive.
@var{objfile}@dots{} are the files to be examined. If none are
specified, the file @code{a.out} will be used instead.
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS size
The command-line options have the following meanings:
@table @env
@item -A
@itemx -B
@itemx -G
@itemx --format=@var{compatibility}
@cindex @command{size} display format
Using one of these options, you can choose whether the output from @sc{gnu}
@command{size} resembles output from System V @command{size} (using @option{-A},
or @option{--format=sysv}), or Berkeley @command{size} (using @option{-B}, or
@option{--format=berkeley}). The default is the one-line format similar to
Berkeley's. Alternatively, you can choose the GNU format output
(using @option{-G}, or @option{--format=gnu}), this is similar to
Berkeley's output format, but sizes are counted differently.
@c Bonus for doc-source readers: you can also say --format=strange (or
@c anything else that starts with 's') for sysv, and --format=boring (or
@c anything else that starts with 'b') for Berkeley.
Here is an example of the Berkeley (default) format of output from
@command{size}:
@smallexample
$ size --format=Berkeley ranlib size
text data bss dec hex filename
294880 81920 11592 388392 5ed28 ranlib
294880 81920 11888 388688 5ee50 size
@end smallexample
The Berkeley style output counts read only data in the @code{text}
column, not in the @code{data} column, the @code{dec} and @code{hex}
columns both display the sum of the @code{text}, @code{data}, and
@code{bss} columns in decimal and hexadecimal respectively.
The GNU format counts read only data in the @code{data} column, not
the @code{text} column, and only displays the sum of the @code{text},
@code{data}, and @code{bss} columns once, in the @code{total} column.
The @option{--radix} option can be used to change the number base for
all columns. Here is the same data displayed with GNU conventions:
@smallexample
$ size --format=GNU ranlib size
text data bss total filename
279880 96920 11592 388392 ranlib
279880 96920 11888 388688 size
@end smallexample
@noindent
This is the same data, but displayed closer to System V conventions:
@smallexample
$ size --format=SysV ranlib size
ranlib :
section size addr
.text 294880 8192
.data 81920 303104
.bss 11592 385024
Total 388392
size :
section size addr
.text 294880 8192
.data 81920 303104
.bss 11888 385024
Total 388688
@end smallexample
@item --help
Show a summary of acceptable arguments and options.
@item -d
@itemx -o
@itemx -x
@itemx --radix=@var{number}
@cindex @command{size} number format
@cindex radix for section sizes
Using one of these options, you can control whether the size of each
section is given in decimal (@option{-d}, or @option{--radix=10}); octal
(@option{-o}, or @option{--radix=8}); or hexadecimal (@option{-x}, or
@option{--radix=16}). In @option{--radix=@var{number}}, only the three
values (8, 10, 16) are supported. The total size is always given in two
radices; decimal and hexadecimal for @option{-d} or @option{-x} output, or
octal and hexadecimal if you're using @option{-o}.
@item --common
Print total size of common symbols in each file. When using Berkeley
or GNU format these are included in the bss size.
@item -t
@itemx --totals
Show totals of all objects listed (Berkeley or GNU format mode only).
@item --target=@var{bfdname}
@cindex object code format
Specify that the object-code format for @var{objfile} is
@var{bfdname}. This option may not be necessary; @command{size} can
automatically recognize many formats.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -V
@itemx --version
Display the version number of @command{size}.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO size
ar(1), objdump(1), readelf(1), and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node strings
@chapter strings
@kindex strings
@cindex listings strings
@cindex printing strings
@cindex strings, printing
@c man title strings print the sequences of printable characters in files
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS strings
strings [@option{-afovV}] [@option{-}@var{min-len}]
[@option{-n} @var{min-len}] [@option{--bytes=}@var{min-len}]
[@option{-t} @var{radix}] [@option{--radix=}@var{radix}]
[@option{-e} @var{encoding}] [@option{--encoding=}@var{encoding}]
[@option{-}] [@option{--all}] [@option{--print-file-name}]
[@option{-T} @var{bfdname}] [@option{--target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-w}] [@option{--include-all-whitespace}]
[@option{-s}] [@option{--output-separator}@var{sep_string}]
[@option{--help}] [@option{--version}] @var{file}@dots{}
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION strings
For each @var{file} given, @sc{gnu} @command{strings} prints the
printable character sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or
the number given with the options below) and are followed by an
unprintable character.
Depending upon how the strings program was configured it will default
to either displaying all the printable sequences that it can find in
each file, or only those sequences that are in loadable, initialized
data sections. If the file type is unrecognizable, or if strings is
reading from stdin then it will always display all of the printable
sequences that it can find.
For backwards compatibility any file that occurs after a command-line
option of just @option{-} will also be scanned in full, regardless of
the presence of any @option{-d} option.
@command{strings} is mainly useful for determining the contents of
non-text files.
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS strings
@table @env
@item -a
@itemx --all
@itemx -
Scan the whole file, regardless of what sections it contains or
whether those sections are loaded or initialized. Normally this is
the default behaviour, but strings can be configured so that the
@option{-d} is the default instead.
The @option{-} option is position dependent and forces strings to
perform full scans of any file that is mentioned after the @option{-}
on the command line, even if the @option{-d} option has been
specified.
@item -d
@itemx --data
Only print strings from initialized, loaded data sections in the
file. This may reduce the amount of garbage in the output, but it
also exposes the strings program to any security flaws that may be
present in the BFD library used to scan and load sections. Strings
can be configured so that this option is the default behaviour. In
such cases the @option{-a} option can be used to avoid using the BFD
library and instead just print all of the strings found in the file.
@item -f
@itemx --print-file-name
Print the name of the file before each string.
@item --help
Print a summary of the program usage on the standard output and exit.
@item -@var{min-len}
@itemx -n @var{min-len}
@itemx --bytes=@var{min-len}
Print sequences of characters that are at least @var{min-len} characters
long, instead of the default 4.
@item -o
Like @samp{-t o}. Some other versions of @command{strings} have @option{-o}
act like @samp{-t d} instead. Since we can not be compatible with both
ways, we simply chose one.
@item -t @var{radix}
@itemx --radix=@var{radix}
Print the offset within the file before each string. The single
character argument specifies the radix of the offset---@samp{o} for
octal, @samp{x} for hexadecimal, or @samp{d} for decimal.
@item -e @var{encoding}
@itemx --encoding=@var{encoding}
Select the character encoding of the strings that are to be found.
Possible values for @var{encoding} are: @samp{s} = single-7-bit-byte
characters (ASCII, ISO 8859, etc., default), @samp{S} =
single-8-bit-byte characters, @samp{b} = 16-bit bigendian, @samp{l} =
16-bit littleendian, @samp{B} = 32-bit bigendian, @samp{L} = 32-bit
littleendian. Useful for finding wide character strings. (@samp{l}
and @samp{b} apply to, for example, Unicode UTF-16/UCS-2 encodings).
@item -T @var{bfdname}
@itemx --target=@var{bfdname}
@cindex object code format
Specify an object code format other than your system's default format.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -v
@itemx -V
@itemx --version
Print the program version number on the standard output and exit.
@item -w
@itemx --include-all-whitespace
By default tab and space characters are included in the strings that
are displayed, but other whitespace characters, such a newlines and
carriage returns, are not. The @option{-w} option changes this so
that all whitespace characters are considered to be part of a string.
@item -s
@itemx --output-separator
By default, output strings are delimited by a new-line. This option
allows you to supply any string to be used as the output record
separator. Useful with --include-all-whitespace where strings
may contain new-lines internally.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO strings
ar(1), nm(1), objdump(1), ranlib(1), readelf(1)
and the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node strip
@chapter strip
@kindex strip
@cindex removing symbols
@cindex discarding symbols
@cindex symbols, discarding
@c man title strip discard symbols and other data from object files
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS strip
strip [@option{-F} @var{bfdname} |@option{--target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-I} @var{bfdname} |@option{--input-target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-O} @var{bfdname} |@option{--output-target=}@var{bfdname}]
[@option{-s}|@option{--strip-all}]
[@option{-S}|@option{-g}|@option{-d}|@option{--strip-debug}]
[@option{--strip-dwo}]
[@option{-K} @var{symbolname}|@option{--keep-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{-M}|@option{--merge-notes}][@option{--no-merge-notes}]
[@option{-N} @var{symbolname} |@option{--strip-symbol=}@var{symbolname}]
[@option{-w}|@option{--wildcard}]
[@option{-x}|@option{--discard-all}] [@option{-X} |@option{--discard-locals}]
[@option{-R} @var{sectionname} |@option{--remove-section=}@var{sectionname}]
[@option{--keep-section=}@var{sectionpattern}]
[@option{--remove-relocations=}@var{sectionpattern}]
[@option{-o} @var{file}] [@option{-p}|@option{--preserve-dates}]
[@option{-D}|@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}]
[@option{-U}|@option{--disable-deterministic-archives}]
[@option{--keep-section-symbols}]
[@option{--keep-file-symbols}]
[@option{--only-keep-debug}]
[@option{-v} |@option{--verbose}] [@option{-V}|@option{--version}]
[@option{--help}] [@option{--info}]
@var{objfile}@dots{}
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION strip
@sc{gnu} @command{strip} discards all symbols from object files
@var{objfile}. The list of object files may include archives.
At least one object file must be given.
@command{strip} modifies the files named in its argument,
rather than writing modified copies under different names.
@c man end
@c man begin OPTIONS strip
@table @env
@item -F @var{bfdname}
@itemx --target=@var{bfdname}
Treat the original @var{objfile} as a file with the object
code format @var{bfdname}, and rewrite it in the same format.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item --help
Show a summary of the options to @command{strip} and exit.
@item --info
Display a list showing all architectures and object formats available.
@item -I @var{bfdname}
@itemx --input-target=@var{bfdname}
Treat the original @var{objfile} as a file with the object
code format @var{bfdname}.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -O @var{bfdname}
@itemx --output-target=@var{bfdname}
Replace @var{objfile} with a file in the output format @var{bfdname}.
@xref{Target Selection}, for more information.
@item -R @var{sectionname}
@itemx --remove-section=@var{sectionname}
Remove any section named @var{sectionname} from the output file, in
addition to whatever sections would otherwise be removed. This
option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
inappropriately may make the output file unusable. The wildcard
character @samp{*} may be given at the end of @var{sectionname}. If
so, then any section starting with @var{sectionname} will be removed.
If the first character of @var{sectionpattern} is the exclamation
point (!) then matching sections will not be removed even if an
earlier use of @option{--remove-section} on the same command line
would otherwise remove it. For example:
@smallexample
--remove-section=.text.* --remove-section=!.text.foo
@end smallexample
will remove all sections matching the pattern '.text.*', but will not
remove the section '.text.foo'.
@item --keep-section=@var{sectionpattern}
When removing sections from the output file, keep sections that match
@var{sectionpattern}.
@item --remove-relocations=@var{sectionpattern}
Remove relocations from the output file for any section matching
@var{sectionpattern}. This option may be given more than once. Note
that using this option inappropriately may make the output file
unusable. Wildcard characters are accepted in @var{sectionpattern}.
For example:
@smallexample
--remove-relocations=.text.*
@end smallexample
will remove the relocations for all sections matching the patter
'.text.*'.
If the first character of @var{sectionpattern} is the exclamation
point (!) then matching sections will not have their relocation
removed even if an earlier use of @option{--remove-relocations} on the
same command line would otherwise cause the relocations to be removed.
For example:
@smallexample
--remove-relocations=.text.* --remove-relocations=!.text.foo
@end smallexample
will remove all relocations for sections matching the pattern
'.text.*', but will not remove relocations for the section
'.text.foo'.
@item -s
@itemx --strip-all
Remove all symbols.
@item -g
@itemx -S
@itemx -d
@itemx --strip-debug
Remove debugging symbols only.
@item --strip-dwo
Remove the contents of all DWARF .dwo sections, leaving the
remaining debugging sections and all symbols intact.
See the description of this option in the @command{objcopy} section
for more information.
@item --strip-unneeded
Remove all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing in
addition to debugging symbols and sections stripped by
@option{--strip-debug}.
@item -K @var{symbolname}
@itemx --keep-symbol=@var{symbolname}
When stripping symbols, keep symbol @var{symbolname} even if it would
normally be stripped. This option may be given more than once.
@item -M
@itemx --merge-notes
@itemx --no-merge-notes
For ELF files, attempt (or do not attempt) to reduce the size of any
SHT_NOTE type sections by removing duplicate notes. The default is to
attempt this reduction unless stripping debug or DWO information.
@item -N @var{symbolname}
@itemx --strip-symbol=@var{symbolname}
Remove symbol @var{symbolname} from the source file. This option may be
given more than once, and may be combined with strip options other than
@option{-K}.
@item -o @var{file}
Put the stripped output in @var{file}, rather than replacing the
existing file. When this argument is used, only one @var{objfile}
argument may be specified.
@item -p
@itemx --preserve-dates
Preserve the access and modification dates of the file.
@item -D
@itemx --enable-deterministic-archives
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. When copying archive members
and writing the archive index, use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps,
and use consistent file modes for all files.
If @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}, then this mode is on by default.
It can be disabled with the @samp{-U} option, below.
@item -U
@itemx --disable-deterministic-archives
@cindex deterministic archives
@kindex --enable-deterministic-archives
Do @emph{not} operate in @emph{deterministic} mode. This is the
inverse of the @option{-D} option, above: when copying archive members
and writing the archive index, use their actual UID, GID, timestamp,
and file mode values.
This is the default unless @file{binutils} was configured with
@option{--enable-deterministic-archives}.
@item -w
@itemx --wildcard
Permit regular expressions in @var{symbolname}s used in other command
line options. The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\) and
square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the symbol
name. If the first character of the symbol name is the exclamation
point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for that symbol.
For example:
@smallexample
-w -K !foo -K fo*
@end smallexample
would cause strip to only keep symbols that start with the letters
``fo'', but to discard the symbol ``foo''.
@item -x
@itemx --discard-all
Remove non-global symbols.
@item -X
@itemx --discard-locals
Remove compiler-generated local symbols.
(These usually start with @samp{L} or @samp{.}.)
@item --keep-section-symbols
When stripping a file, perhaps with @option{--strip-debug} or
@option{--strip-unneeded}, retain any symbols specifying section names,
which would otherwise get stripped.
@item --keep-file-symbols
When stripping a file, perhaps with @option{--strip-debug} or
@option{--strip-unneeded}, retain any symbols specifying source file names,
which would otherwise get stripped.
@item --only-keep-debug
Strip a file, emptying the contents of any sections that would not be
stripped by @option{--strip-debug} and leaving the debugging sections
intact. In ELF files, this preserves all the note sections in the
output as well.
Note - the section headers of the stripped sections are preserved,
including their sizes, but the contents of the section are discarded.
The section headers are preserved so that other tools can match up the
debuginfo file with the real executable, even if that executable has
been relocated to a different address space.
The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with
@option{--add-gnu-debuglink} to create a two part executable. One a
stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
distribution and the second a debugging information file which is only
needed if debugging abilities are required. The suggested procedure
to create these files is as follows:
@enumerate
@item Link the executable as normal. Assuming that it is called
@code{foo} then...
@item Run @code{objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg} to
create a file containing the debugging info.
@item Run @code{objcopy --strip-debug foo} to create a
stripped executable.
@item Run @code{objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo}
to add a link to the debugging info into the stripped executable.
@end enumerate
Note---the choice of @code{.dbg} as an extension for the debug info
file is arbitrary. Also the @code{--only-keep-debug} step is
optional. You could instead do this:
@enumerate
@item Link the executable as normal.
@item Copy @code{foo} to @code{foo.full}
@item Run @code{strip --strip-debug foo}
@item Run @code{objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo}
@end enumerate
i.e., the file pointed to by the @option{--add-gnu-debuglink} can be the
full executable. It does not have to be a file created by the
@option{--only-keep-debug} switch.
Note---this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files. It
does not make sense to use it on object files where the debugging
information may be incomplete. Besides the gnu_debuglink feature
currently only supports the presence of one filename containing
debugging information, not multiple filenames on a one-per-object-file
basis.
@item -V
@itemx --version
Show the version number for @command{strip}.
@item -v
@itemx --verbose
Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
archives, @samp{strip -v} lists all members of the archive.
@end table
@c man end
@ignore
@c man begin SEEALSO strip
the Info entries for @file{binutils}.
@c man end
@end ignore
@node c++filt, addr2line, strip, Top
@chapter c++filt
@kindex c++filt
@cindex demangling C++ symbols
@c man title cxxfilt demangle C++ and Java symbols
@smallexample
@c man begin SYNOPSIS cxxfilt
c++filt [@option{-_}|@option{--strip-underscore}]
[@option{-n}|@option{--no-strip-underscore}]
[@option{-p}|@option{--no-params}]
[@option{-t}|@option{--types}]
[@option{-i}|@option{--no-verbose}]
[@option{-r}|@option{--no-recurse-limit}]
[@option{-R}|@option{--recurse-limit}]
[@option{-s} @var{format}|@option{--format=}@var{format}]
[@option{--help}] [@option{--version}] [@var{symbol}@dots{}]
@c man end
@end smallexample
@c man begin DESCRIPTION cxxfilt
@kindex cxxfilt
The C++ and Java languages provide function overloading, which means
that you can write many functions with the same name, providing that