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.. role:: switch(samp)
.. |rightarrow| unicode:: 0x2192
.. _GNAT_Utility_Programs:
*********************
GNAT Utility Programs
*********************
This chapter describes a number of utility programs:
.. only:: PRO or GPL
* :ref:`The_File_Cleanup_Utility_gnatclean`
* :ref:`The_GNAT_Library_Browser_gnatls`
* :ref:`The_Coding_Standard_Verifier_gnatcheck`
* :ref:`The_GNAT_Metrics_Tool_gnatmetric`
* :ref:`The_GNAT_Pretty_Printer_gnatpp`
* :ref:`The_Body_Stub_Generator_gnatstub`
* :ref:`The_Unit_Test_Generator_gnattest`
* :ref:`The_Backtrace_Symbolizer_gnatsymbolize`
It also describes how several of these tools can be used in conjunction
with project files: :ref:`Using_Project_Files_with_GNAT_Tools`
.. only:: FSF
* :ref:`The_File_Cleanup_Utility_gnatclean`
* :ref:`The_GNAT_Library_Browser_gnatls`
Other GNAT utilities are described elsewhere in this manual:
* :ref:`Handling_Arbitrary_File_Naming_Conventions_with_gnatname`
* :ref:`File_Name_Krunching_with_gnatkr`
* :ref:`Renaming_Files_with_gnatchop`
* :ref:`Preprocessing_with_gnatprep`
.. _The_File_Cleanup_Utility_gnatclean:
The File Cleanup Utility ``gnatclean``
======================================
.. index:: File cleanup tool
.. index:: gnatclean
``gnatclean`` is a tool that allows the deletion of files produced by the
compiler, binder and linker, including ALI files, object files, tree files,
expanded source files, library files, interface copy source files, binder
generated files and executable files.
.. _Running_gnatclean:
Running ``gnatclean``
---------------------
The ``gnatclean`` command has the form:
::
$ gnatclean switches names
where ``names`` is a list of source file names. Suffixes :file:`.ads` and
:file:`adb` may be omitted. If a project file is specified using switch
:switch:`-P`, then ``names`` may be completely omitted.
In normal mode, ``gnatclean`` delete the files produced by the compiler and,
if switch :switch:`-c` is not specified, by the binder and
the linker. In informative-only mode, specified by switch
:switch:`-n`, the list of files that would have been deleted in
normal mode is listed, but no file is actually deleted.
.. _Switches_for_gnatclean:
Switches for ``gnatclean``
--------------------------
``gnatclean`` recognizes the following switches:
.. index:: --version (gnatclean)
:switch:`--version`
Display copyright and version, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: --help (gnatclean)
:switch:`--help`
If :switch:`--version` was not used, display usage, then exit disregarding
all other options.
:switch:`--subdirs={subdir}`
Actual object directory of each project file is the subdirectory subdir of the
object directory specified or defaulted in the project file.
:switch:`--unchecked-shared-lib-imports`
By default, shared library projects are not allowed to import static library
projects. When this switch is used on the command line, this restriction is
relaxed.
.. index:: -c (gnatclean)
:switch:`-c`
Only attempt to delete the files produced by the compiler, not those produced
by the binder or the linker. The files that are not to be deleted are library
files, interface copy files, binder generated files and executable files.
.. index:: -D (gnatclean)
:switch:`-D {dir}`
Indicate that ALI and object files should normally be found in directory ``dir``.
.. index:: -F (gnatclean)
:switch:`-F`
When using project files, if some errors or warnings are detected during
parsing and verbose mode is not in effect (no use of switch
-v), then error lines start with the full path name of the project
file, rather than its simple file name.
.. index:: -h (gnatclean)
:switch:`-h`
Output a message explaining the usage of ``gnatclean``.
.. index:: -n (gnatclean)
:switch:`-n`
Informative-only mode. Do not delete any files. Output the list of the files
that would have been deleted if this switch was not specified.
.. index:: -P (gnatclean)
:switch:`-P{project}`
Use project file ``project``. Only one such switch can be used.
When cleaning a project file, the files produced by the compilation of the
immediate sources or inherited sources of the project files are to be
deleted. This is not depending on the presence or not of executable names
on the command line.
.. index:: -q (gnatclean)
:switch:`-q`
Quiet output. If there are no errors, do not output anything, except in
verbose mode (switch -v) or in informative-only mode
(switch -n).
.. index:: -r (gnatclean)
:switch:`-r`
When a project file is specified (using switch -P),
clean all imported and extended project files, recursively. If this switch
is not specified, only the files related to the main project file are to be
deleted. This switch has no effect if no project file is specified.
.. index:: -v (gnatclean)
:switch:`-v`
Verbose mode.
.. index:: -vP (gnatclean)
:switch:`-vP{x}`
Indicates the verbosity of the parsing of GNAT project files.
:ref:`Switches_Related_to_Project_Files`.
.. index:: -X (gnatclean)
:switch:`-X{name}={value}`
Indicates that external variable ``name`` has the value ``value``.
The Project Manager will use this value for occurrences of
``external(name)`` when parsing the project file.
See :ref:`Switches_Related_to_Project_Files`.
.. index:: -aO (gnatclean)
:switch:`-aO{dir}`
When searching for ALI and object files, look in directory ``dir``.
.. index:: -I (gnatclean)
:switch:`-I{dir}`
Equivalent to :switch:`-aO{dir}`.
.. index:: -I- (gnatclean)
.. index:: Source files, suppressing search
:switch:`-I-`
Do not look for ALI or object files in the directory
where ``gnatclean`` was invoked.
.. _The_GNAT_Library_Browser_gnatls:
The GNAT Library Browser ``gnatls``
===================================
.. index:: Library browser
.. index:: ! gnatls
``gnatls`` is a tool that outputs information about compiled
units. It gives the relationship between objects, unit names and source
files. It can also be used to check the source dependencies of a unit
as well as various characteristics.
.. _Running_gnatls:
Running ``gnatls``
------------------
The ``gnatls`` command has the form
::
$ gnatls switches object_or_ali_file
The main argument is the list of object or :file:`ali` files
(see :ref:`The_Ada_Library_Information_Files`)
for which information is requested.
In normal mode, without additional option, ``gnatls`` produces a
four-column listing. Each line represents information for a specific
object. The first column gives the full path of the object, the second
column gives the name of the principal unit in this object, the third
column gives the status of the source and the fourth column gives the
full path of the source representing this unit.
Here is a simple example of use:
::
$ gnatls *.o
./demo1.o demo1 DIF demo1.adb
./demo2.o demo2 OK demo2.adb
./hello.o h1 OK hello.adb
./instr-child.o instr.child MOK instr-child.adb
./instr.o instr OK instr.adb
./tef.o tef DIF tef.adb
./text_io_example.o text_io_example OK text_io_example.adb
./tgef.o tgef DIF tgef.adb
The first line can be interpreted as follows: the main unit which is
contained in
object file :file:`demo1.o` is demo1, whose main source is in
:file:`demo1.adb`. Furthermore, the version of the source used for the
compilation of demo1 has been modified (DIF). Each source file has a status
qualifier which can be:
*OK (unchanged)*
The version of the source file used for the compilation of the
specified unit corresponds exactly to the actual source file.
*MOK (slightly modified)*
The version of the source file used for the compilation of the
specified unit differs from the actual source file but not enough to
require recompilation. If you use gnatmake with the option
:switch:`-m` (minimal recompilation), a file marked
MOK will not be recompiled.
*DIF (modified)*
No version of the source found on the path corresponds to the source
used to build this object.
*??? (file not found)*
No source file was found for this unit.
*HID (hidden, unchanged version not first on PATH)*
The version of the source that corresponds exactly to the source used
for compilation has been found on the path but it is hidden by another
version of the same source that has been modified.
.. _Switches_for_gnatls:
Switches for ``gnatls``
-----------------------
``gnatls`` recognizes the following switches:
.. index:: --version (gnatls)
:switch:`--version`
Display copyright and version, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: --help (gnatls)
:switch:`--help`
If :switch:`--version` was not used, display usage, then exit disregarding
all other options.
.. index:: -a (gnatls)
:switch:`-a`
Consider all units, including those of the predefined Ada library.
Especially useful with :switch:`-d`.
.. index:: -d (gnatls)
:switch:`-d`
List sources from which specified units depend on.
.. index:: -h (gnatls)
:switch:`-h`
Output the list of options.
.. index:: -o (gnatls)
:switch:`-o`
Only output information about object files.
.. index:: -s (gnatls)
:switch:`-s`
Only output information about source files.
.. index:: -u (gnatls)
:switch:`-u`
Only output information about compilation units.
.. index:: -files (gnatls)
:switch:`-files={file}`
Take as arguments the files listed in text file ``file``.
Text file ``file`` may contain empty lines that are ignored.
Each nonempty line should contain the name of an existing file.
Several such switches may be specified simultaneously.
.. index:: -aO (gnatls)
.. index:: -aI (gnatls)
.. index:: -I (gnatls)
.. index:: -I- (gnatls)
:switch:`-aO{dir}`, :switch:`-aI{dir}`, :switch:`-I{dir}`, :switch:`-I-`, :switch:`-nostdinc`
Source path manipulation. Same meaning as the equivalent ``gnatmake``
flags (:ref:`Switches_for_gnatmake`).
.. index:: -aP (gnatls)
:switch:`-aP{dir}`
Add ``dir`` at the beginning of the project search dir.
.. index:: --RTS (gnatls)
:switch:`--RTS={rts-path}`
Specifies the default location of the runtime library. Same meaning as the
equivalent ``gnatmake`` flag (:ref:`Switches_for_gnatmake`).
.. index:: -v (gnatls)
:switch:`-v`
Verbose mode. Output the complete source, object and project paths. Do not use
the default column layout but instead use long format giving as much as
information possible on each requested units, including special
characteristics such as:
* *Preelaborable*: The unit is preelaborable in the Ada sense.
* *No_Elab_Code*: No elaboration code has been produced by the compiler for this unit.
* *Pure*: The unit is pure in the Ada sense.
* *Elaborate_Body*: The unit contains a pragma Elaborate_Body.
* *Remote_Types*: The unit contains a pragma Remote_Types.
* *Shared_Passive*: The unit contains a pragma Shared_Passive.
* *Predefined*: This unit is part of the predefined environment and cannot be modified
by the user.
* *Remote_Call_Interface*: The unit contains a pragma Remote_Call_Interface.
.. _Example_of_gnatls_Usage:
Example of ``gnatls`` Usage
---------------------------
Example of using the verbose switch. Note how the source and
object paths are affected by the -I switch.
::
$ gnatls -v -I.. demo1.o
GNATLS 5.03w (20041123-34)
Copyright 1997-2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Source Search Path:
<Current_Directory>
../
/home/comar/local/adainclude/
Object Search Path:
<Current_Directory>
../
/home/comar/local/lib/gcc-lib/x86-linux/3.4.3/adalib/
Project Search Path:
<Current_Directory>
/home/comar/local/lib/gnat/
./demo1.o
Unit =>
Name => demo1
Kind => subprogram body
Flags => No_Elab_Code
Source => demo1.adb modified
The following is an example of use of the dependency list.
Note the use of the -s switch
which gives a straight list of source files. This can be useful for
building specialized scripts.
::
$ gnatls -d demo2.o
./demo2.o demo2 OK demo2.adb
OK gen_list.ads
OK gen_list.adb
OK instr.ads
OK instr-child.ads
$ gnatls -d -s -a demo1.o
demo1.adb
/home/comar/local/adainclude/ada.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/a-finali.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/a-filico.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/a-stream.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/a-tags.ads
gen_list.ads
gen_list.adb
/home/comar/local/adainclude/gnat.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/g-io.ads
instr.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/system.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-exctab.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-finimp.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-finroo.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-secsta.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-stalib.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-stoele.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-stratt.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-tasoli.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/s-unstyp.ads
/home/comar/local/adainclude/unchconv.ads
.. only:: PRO or GPL
.. _The_Coding_Standard_Verifier_gnatcheck:
The Coding Standard Verifier ``gnatcheck``
==========================================
.. index:: ! gnatcheck
.. index:: ASIS
The ``gnatcheck`` tool is an ASIS-based utility that checks coding standard
compliance of Ada source files according to a given set of semantic rules.
``gnatcheck`` is a project-aware tool
(see :ref:`Using_Project_Files_with_GNAT_Tools` for a description of
the project-related switches). The project file package that can specify
``gnatcheck`` switches is named ``Check``.
For full details, plese refer to :title:`GNATcheck Reference Manual`.
.. only:: PRO or GPL
.. _The_GNAT_Metrics_Tool_gnatmetric:
The GNAT Metrics Tool ``gnatmetric``
====================================
.. index:: ! gnatmetric
.. index:: Metric tool
The ``gnatmetric`` tool is a utility
for computing various program metrics.
It takes an Ada source file as input and generates a file containing the
metrics data as output. Various switches control which
metrics are reported.
``gnatmetric`` is a project-aware tool
(see :ref:`Using_Project_Files_with_GNAT_Tools` for a description of
the project-related switches). The project file package that can specify
``gnatmetric`` switches is named ``Metrics``.
The ``gnatmetric`` command has the form
::
$ gnatmetric [ switches ] { filename }
where:
* ``switches`` specify the metrics to compute and define the destination for
the output
* Each ``filename`` is the name of a source file to process. 'Wildcards' are
allowed, and the file name may contain path information. If no
``filename`` is supplied, then the ``switches`` list must contain at least
one :switch:`--files` switch (see :ref:`Other_gnatmetric_Switches`).
Including both a :switch:`--files` switch and one or more ``filename``
arguments is permitted.
Note that it is no longer necessary to specify the Ada language version;
``gnatmetric`` can process Ada source code written in any version from
Ada 83 onward without specifying any language version switch.
The following subsections describe the various switches accepted by
``gnatmetric``, organized by category.
.. _Output_File_Control-gnatmetric:
Output File Control
-------------------
.. index:: Output file control in gnatmetric
``gnatmetric`` has two output formats. It can generate a
textual (human-readable) form, and also XML. By default only textual
output is generated.
When generating the output in textual form, ``gnatmetric`` creates
for each Ada source file a corresponding text file
containing the computed metrics, except for the case when the set of metrics
specified by gnatmetric parameters consists only of metrics that are computed
for the whole set of analyzed sources, but not for each Ada source.
By default, the name of the file containing metric information for a source
is obtained by appending the :file:`.metrix` suffix to the
name of the input source file. If not otherwise specified and no project file
is specified as ``gnatmetric`` option this file is placed in the same
directory as where the source file is located. If ``gnatmetric`` has a
project file as its parameter, it places all the generated files in the
object directory of the project (or in the project source directory if the
project does not define an object directory). If :switch:`--subdirs` option
is specified, the files are placed in the subrirectory of this directory
specified by this option.
All the output information generated in XML format is placed in a single
file. By default the name of this file is :file:`metrix.xml`.
If not otherwise specified and if no project file is specified
as ``gnatmetric`` option this file is placed in the
current directory.
Some of the computed metrics are summed over the units passed to
``gnatmetric``; for example, the total number of lines of code.
By default this information is sent to :file:`stdout`, but a file
can be specified with the :switch:`--global-file-name` switch.
The following switches control the ``gnatmetric`` output:
.. index:: --generate-xml-output (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--generate-xml-output`
Generate XML output.
.. index:: --generate-xml-schema (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--generate-xml-schema`
Generate XML output and an XML schema file that describes the structure
of the XML metric report. This schema is assigned to the XML file. The schema
file has the same name as the XML output file with :file:`.xml` suffix replaced
with :file:`.xsd`.
.. index:: --no-text-output (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--no-text-output`
Do not generate the output in text form (implies :switch:`-x`).
.. index:: --output-dir (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--output-dir={output_dir}`
Put text files with detailed metrics into ``output_dir``.
.. index:: --output-suffix (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--output-suffix={file_suffix}`
Use ``file_suffix``, instead of :file:`.metrix`
in the name of the output file.
.. index:: --global-file-name (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--global-file-name={file_name}`
Put global metrics into ``file_name``.
.. index:: --xml-file-name (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--xml-file-name={file_name}`
Put the XML output into ``file_name``
(also implies :switch:`--generate-xml-output`).
.. index:: --short-file-names (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--short-file-names`
Use 'short' source file names in the output. (The ``gnatmetric``
output includes the name(s) of the Ada source file(s) from which the
metrics are computed. By default each name includes the absolute
path. The :switch:`--short-file-names` switch causes ``gnatmetric``
to exclude all directory information from the file names that are
output.)
.. index:: --wide-character-encoding (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--wide-character-encoding={e}`
Specify the wide character encoding method for the input and output
files. ``e`` is one of the following:
* *8* - UTF-8 encoding
* *b* - Brackets encoding (default value)
.. index:: Disable Metrics For Local Units in gnatmetric
.. _Disable_Metrics_For_Local_Units:
Disable Metrics For Local Units
-------------------------------
``gnatmetric`` relies on the GNAT compilation model --
one compilation
unit per one source file. It computes line metrics for the whole source
file, and it also computes syntax
and complexity metrics for the file's outermost unit.
By default, ``gnatmetric`` will also compute all metrics for certain
kinds of locally declared program units:
* subprogram (and generic subprogram) bodies;
* package (and generic package) specs and bodies;
* task object and type specifications and bodies;
* protected object and type specifications and bodies.
.. index:: Eligible local unit (for gnatmetric)
These kinds of entities will be referred to as
*eligible local program units*, or simply *eligible local units*,
in the discussion below.
Note that a subprogram declaration, generic instantiation,
or renaming declaration only receives metrics
computation when it appear as the outermost entity
in a source file.
Suppression of metrics computation for eligible local units can be
obtained via the following switch:
.. index:: --no-local-metrics (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--no-local-metrics`
Do not compute detailed metrics for eligible local program units.
.. _Specifying_a_set_of_metrics_to_compute:
Specifying a set of metrics to compute
--------------------------------------
By default all the metrics are reported. The switches described in this
subsection allow you to control, on an individual basis, whether metrics are
reported. If at least one positive metric switch is specified (that is, a
switch that defines that a given metric or set of metrics is to be computed),
then only explicitly specified metrics are reported.
.. _Line_Metrics_Control:
Line Metrics Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Line metrics control in gnatmetric
For each source file, and for each of its eligible local program
units, ``gnatmetric`` computes the following metrics:
* the total number of lines;
* the total number of code lines (i.e., non-blank lines that are not
comments)
* the number of comment lines
* the number of code lines containing end-of-line comments;
* the comment percentage: the ratio between the number of lines that
contain comments and the number of all non-blank lines, expressed as
a percentage
* the number of empty lines and lines containing only space characters
and/or format effectors (blank lines)
* the average number of code lines in subprogram bodies, task bodies,
entry bodies and statement sequences in package bodies
``gnatmetric`` sums the values of the line metrics for all the files
being processed and then generates the cumulative results. The tool
also computes for all the files being processed the average number of
code lines in bodies.
You can use the following switches to select the specific line metrics
to be reported.
.. index:: --lines (gnatmetric)
.. index:: --no-lines (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--lines-all`
Report all the line metrics
:switch:`--no-lines-all`
Do not report any of line metrics
:switch:`--lines`
Report the number of all lines
:switch:`--no-lines`
Do not report the number of all lines
:switch:`--lines-code`
Report the number of code lines
:switch:`--no-lines-code`
Do not report the number of code lines
:switch:`--lines-comment`
Report the number of comment lines
:switch:`--no-lines-comment`
Do not report the number of comment lines
:switch:`--lines-eol-comment`
Report the number of code lines containing
end-of-line comments
:switch:`--no-lines-eol-comment`
Do not report the number of code lines containing
end-of-line comments
:switch:`--lines-ratio`
Report the comment percentage in the program text
:switch:`--no-lines-ratio`
Do not report the comment percentage in the program text
:switch:`--lines-blank`
Report the number of blank lines
:switch:`--no-lines-blank`
Do not report the number of blank lines
:switch:`--lines-average`
Report the average number of code lines in subprogram bodies, task bodies,
entry bodies and statement sequences in package bodies.
:switch:`--no-lines-average`
Do not report the average number of code lines in subprogram bodies,
task bodies, entry bodies and statement sequences in package bodies.
:switch:`--lines-spark`
Report the number of lines written in SPARK.
:switch:`--no-lines-spark`
Do not report the number of lines written in SPARK.
.. _Syntax_Metrics_Control:
Syntax Metrics Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Syntax metrics control in gnatmetric
``gnatmetric`` computes various syntactic metrics for the
outermost unit and for each eligible local unit:
* *LSLOC ('Logical Source Lines Of Code')*
The total number of declarations and the total number of
statements. Note that the definition of declarations is the one
given in the reference manual:
"Each of the following is defined to be a declaration: any
basic_declaration; an enumeration_literal_specification; a
discriminant_specification; a component_declaration; a
loop_parameter_specification; a parameter_specification; a
subprogram_body; an entry_declaration; an
entry_index_specification; a choice_parameter_specification; a
generic_formal_parameter_declaration."
This means for example that each enumeration literal adds one to
the count, as well as each subprogram parameter.
* *Maximal static nesting level of inner program units*
According to :title:`Ada Reference Manual`, 10.1(1):
"A program unit is either a package, a task unit, a protected
unit, a protected entry, a generic unit, or an explicitly
declared subprogram other than an enumeration literal."
* *Maximal nesting level of composite syntactic constructs*
This corresponds to the notion of the maximum nesting level in the
GNAT built-in style checks (see :ref:`Style_Checking`).
* *Number of formal parameters*
Number of formal parameters of a subprogram; if a subprogram does
have parameters, then numbers of "in", "out" and "in out"
parameters are also reported. This metric is reported for
subprogram specifications and for subprogram instantiations. For
subprogram bodies, expression functions and null procedures this
metric is reported if the construct acts as a subprogram
declaration but is not a completion of previous declaration. This
metric is not reported for generic and formal subprograms.
For the outermost unit in the file, ``gnatmetric`` additionally
computes the following metrics:
* *Public subprograms*
This metric is computed for package specs. It is the number of
subprograms and generic subprograms declared in the visible part
(including the visible part of nested packages, protected objects,
and protected types).
* *All subprograms*
This metric is computed for bodies and subunits. The metric is
equal to a total number of subprogram bodies in the compilation
unit.
Neither generic instantiations nor renamings-as-a-body nor body
stubs are counted. Any subprogram body is counted, independently
of its nesting level and enclosing constructs. Generic bodies and
bodies of protected subprograms are counted in the same way as
'usual' subprogram bodies.
* *Public types*
This metric is computed for package specs and generic package
declarations. It is the total number of types that can be
referenced from outside this compilation unit, plus the number of
types from all the visible parts of all the visible generic
packages. Generic formal types are not counted. Only types, not
subtypes, are included.
Along with the total number of public types, the following
types are counted and reported separately:
* *Abstract types*
* *Root tagged types^ (abstract, non-abstract, private,
non-private). Type extensions are *not* counted
* *Private types* (including private extensions)
* *Task types*
* *Protected types*
* *All types*
This metric is computed for any compilation unit. It is equal to
the total number of the declarations of different types given in
the compilation unit. The private and the corresponding full type
declaration are counted as one type declaration. Incomplete type
declarations and generic formal types are not counted.
No distinction is made among different kinds of types (abstract,
private etc.); the total number of types is reported.
By default, all the syntax metrics are reported. You can use the following
switches to select specific syntax metrics.
.. index:: --syntax (gnatmetric)
.. index:: --no-syntax (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--syntax-all`
Report all the syntax metrics
:switch:`--no-syntax-all`
Do not report any of syntax metrics
:switch:`--declarations`
Report the total number of declarations
:switch:`--no-declarations`
Do not report the total number of declarations
:switch:`--statements`
Report the total number of statements
:switch:`--no-statements`
Do not report the total number of statements
:switch:`--public-subprograms`
Report the number of public subprograms in a compilation unit
:switch:`--no-public-subprograms`
Do not report the number of public subprograms in a compilation unit
:switch:`--all-subprograms`
Report the number of all the subprograms in a compilation unit
:switch:`--no-all-subprograms`
Do not report the number of all the subprograms in a compilation unit
:switch:`--public-types`
Report the number of public types in a compilation unit
:switch:`--no-public-types`
Do not report the number of public types in a compilation unit
:switch:`--all-types`
Report the number of all the types in a compilation unit
:switch:`--no-all-types`
Do not report the number of all the types in a compilation unit
:switch:`--unit-nesting`
Report the maximal program unit nesting level
:switch:`--no-unit-nesting`
Do not report the maximal program unit nesting level
:switch:`--construct-nesting`
Report the maximal construct nesting level
:switch:`--no-construct-nesting`
Do not report the maximal construct nesting level
:switch:`--param-number`
Report the number of subprogram parameters
:switch:`--no-param-number`
Do not report the number of subprogram parameters
.. _Contract_Metrics_Control:
Contract Metrics Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Contract metrics control in gnatmetric
:switch:`--contract-all`
Report all the contract metrics
:switch:`--no-contract-all`
Do not report any of the contract metrics
:switch:`--contract`
Report the number of public subprograms with contracts
:switch:`--no-contract`
Do not report the number of public subprograms with contracts
:switch:`--post`
Report the number of public subprograms with postconditions
:switch:`--no-post`
Do not report the number of public subprograms with postconditions
:switch:`--contract-complete`
Report the number of public subprograms with complete contracts
:switch:`--no-contract-complete`
Do not report the number of public subprograms with complete contracts
:switch:`--contract-cyclomatic`
Report the McCabe complexity of public subprograms
:switch:`--no-contract-cyclomatic`
Do not report the McCabe complexity of public subprograms
.. _Complexity_Metrics_Control:
Complexity Metrics Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Complexity metrics control in gnatmetric
For a program unit that is an executable body (a subprogram body
(including generic bodies), task body, entry body or a package body
containing its own statement sequence) ``gnatmetric`` computes the
following complexity metrics:
* McCabe cyclomatic complexity;
* McCabe essential complexity;
* maximal loop nesting level;
* extra exit points (for subprograms);
The McCabe cyclomatic complexity metric is defined
in `http://www.mccabe.com/pdf/mccabe-nist235r.pdf <http://www.mccabe.com/pdf/mccabe-nist235r.pdf>`_
According to McCabe, both control statements and short-circuit control
forms should be taken into account when computing cyclomatic
complexity. For Ada 2012 we have also take into account conditional
expressions and quantified expressions. For each body, we compute
three metric values:
* the complexity introduced by control
statements only, without taking into account short-circuit forms
(referred as ``statement complexity`` in ``gnatmetric`` output),
* the complexity introduced by short-circuit control forms only
(referred as ``expression complexity`` in ``gnatmetric`` output),
and
* the total
cyclomatic complexity, which is the sum of these two values
(referred as ``cyclomatic complexity`` in ``gnatmetric`` output).
The cyclomatic complexity is also computed for Ada 2012 expression functions.
An expression function cannot have statements as its components, so only one
metric value is computed as a cyclomatic complexity of an expression function.
The origin of cyclomatic complexity metric is the need to estimate the number
of independent paths in the control flow graph that in turn gives the number
of tests needed to satisfy paths coverage testing completeness criterion.
Considered from the testing point of view, a static Ada ``loop`` (that is,
the ``loop`` statement having static subtype in loop parameter
specification) does not add to cyclomatic complexity. By providing
:switch:`--no-static-loop` option a user
may specify that such loops should not be counted when computing the
cyclomatic complexity metric
The Ada essential complexity metric is a McCabe cyclomatic complexity metric
counted for the code that is reduced by excluding all the pure structural Ada
control statements. An compound statement is considered as a non-structural
if it contains a ``raise`` or ``return`` statement as it subcomponent,
or if it contains a ``goto`` statement that transfers the control outside
the operator. A selective ``accept`` statement with a ``terminate`` alternative
is considered a non-structural statement. When computing this metric,
``exit`` statements are treated in the same way as ``goto``
statements unless the :switch:`-ne` option is specified.
The Ada essential complexity metric defined here is intended to quantify
the extent to which the software is unstructured. It is adapted from
the McCabe essential complexity metric defined in
http://www.mccabe.com/pdf/mccabe-nist235r.pdf
but is modified to be more
suitable for typical Ada usage. For example, short circuit forms
are not penalized as unstructured in the Ada essential complexity metric.
When computing cyclomatic and essential complexity, ``gnatmetric`` skips
the code in the exception handlers and in all the nested program units. The
code of assertions and predicates (that is, subprogram preconditions and
postconditions, subtype predicates and type invariants) is also skipped.
By default, all the complexity metrics are reported. For more fine-grained
control you can use the following switches:
.. index:: --complexity (gnatmetric)
.. index:: --no-complexity (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--complexity-all`
Report all the complexity metrics
:switch:`--no-complexity-all`
Do not report any of the complexity metrics
:switch:`--complexity-cyclomatic`
Report the McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity
:switch:`--no-complexity-cyclomatic`
Do not report the McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity
:switch:`--complexity-essential`
Report the Essential Complexity
:switch:`--no-complexity-essential`
Do not report the Essential Complexity
:switch:`--loop-nesting`
Report maximal loop nesting level
:switch:`-no-loop-nesting`
Do not report maximal loop nesting level
:switch:`--complexity-average`
Report the average McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity for all the subprogram bodies,
task bodies, entry bodies and statement sequences in package bodies.
The metric is reported for whole set of processed Ada sources only.
:switch:`--no-complexity-average`
Do not report the average McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity for all the subprogram
bodies, task bodies, entry bodies and statement sequences in package bodies
.. index:: --no-treat-exit-as-goto (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--no-treat-exit-as-goto`
Do not consider ``exit`` statements as ``goto``\ s when
computing Essential Complexity
.. index:: --no-static-loop (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--no-static-loop`
Do not consider static loops when computing cyclomatic complexity
:switch:`--extra-exit-points`
Report the extra exit points for subprogram bodies. As an exit point, this
metric counts ``return`` statements and raise statements in case when the
raised exception is not handled in the same body. In case of a function this
metric subtracts 1 from the number of exit points, because a function body
must contain at least one ``return`` statement.
:switch:`--no-extra-exit-points`
Do not report the extra exit points for subprogram bodies
.. _Coupling_Metrics_Control:
Coupling Metrics Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Coupling metrics control in gnatmetric
.. index:: Coupling metrics (in gnatmetric)
Coupling metrics measure the dependencies between a given entity and other
entities in the program. This information is useful since high coupling
may signal potential issues with maintainability as the program evolves.
``gnatmetric`` computes the following coupling metrics:
* *object-oriented coupling*, for classes in traditional object-oriented
sense;
* *unit coupling*, for all the program units making up a program;
* *control coupling*, reflecting dependencies between a unit and
other units that contain subprograms.
.. index:: fan-out coupling
.. index:: efferent coupling
Two kinds of coupling metrics are computed:
* fan-out coupling ('efferent coupling'):
the number of entities the given entity depends upon. This metric
reflects how the given entity depends on the changes in the
'external world'.
.. index:: fan-in coupling
.. index:: afferent coupling
* fan-in coupling ('afferent' coupling):
the number of entities that depend on a given entity.
This metric reflects how the 'external world' depends on the changes in a
given entity.
Object-oriented coupling metrics measure the dependencies
between a given class (or a group of classes) and the other classes in the
program. In this subsection the term 'class' is used in its traditional
object-oriented programming sense (an instantiable module that contains data
and/or method members). A *category* (of classes) is a group of closely
related classes that are reused and/or modified together.
A class ``K``\ 's fan-out coupling is the number of classes
that ``K`` depends upon.
A category's fan-out coupling is the number of classes outside the
category that the classes inside the category depend upon.
A class ``K``\ 's fan-in coupling is the number of classes
that depend upon ``K``.
A category's fan-in coupling is the number of classes outside the
category that depend on classes belonging to the category.
Ada's object-oriented paradigm separates the instantiable entity
(type) from the module (package), so the definition of the coupling
metrics for Ada maps the class and class category notions
onto Ada constructs.
For the coupling metrics, several kinds of modules that define a tagged type
or an interface type -- library packages, library generic packages, and
library generic package instantiations -- are considered to be classes.
A category consists of a library package (or
a library generic package) that defines a tagged or an interface type,
together with all its descendant (generic) packages that define tagged
or interface types. Thus a
category is an Ada hierarchy of library-level program units. Class
coupling in Ada is referred to as 'tagged coupling', and category coupling
is referred to as 'hierarchy coupling'.
For any package serving as a class, its body and subunits (if any) are
considered together with its spec when computing dependencies, and coupling
metrics are reported for spec units only. Dependencies between classes
mean Ada semantic dependencies. For object-oriented coupling
metrics, only dependencies on units treated as classes are
considered.
Similarly, for unit and control coupling an entity is considered to be the
conceptual construct consisting of the entity's specification, body, and
any subunits (transitively).
``gnatmetric`` computes
the dependencies of all these units as a whole, but
metrics are only reported for spec
units (or for a subprogram body unit in case if there is no
separate spec for the given subprogram).
For unit coupling, dependencies are computed between all kinds of program
units. For control coupling, the dependencies of a given unit are limited to
those units that define subprograms. Thus control fan-out coupling is reported
for all units, but control fan-in coupling is only reported for units
that define subprograms.
The following simple example illustrates the difference between unit coupling
and control coupling metrics:
.. code-block:: ada
package Lib_1 is
function F_1 (I : Integer) return Integer;
end Lib_1;
package Lib_2 is
type T_2 is new Integer;
end Lib_2;
package body Lib_1 is
function F_1 (I : Integer) return Integer is
begin
return I + 1;
end F_1;
end Lib_1;
with Lib_2; use Lib_2;
package Pack is
Var : T_2;
function Fun (I : Integer) return Integer;
end Pack;
with Lib_1; use Lib_1;
package body Pack is
function Fun (I : Integer) return Integer is
begin
return F_1 (I);
end Fun;
end Pack;
If we apply ``gnatmetric`` with the :switch:`--coupling-all` option to
these units, the result will be:
::
Coupling metrics:
=================
Unit Lib_1 (C:\\customers\\662\\L406-007\\lib_1.ads)
control fan-out coupling : 0
control fan-in coupling : 1
unit fan-out coupling : 0
unit fan-in coupling : 1
Unit Pack (C:\\customers\\662\\L406-007\\pack.ads)
control fan-out coupling : 1
control fan-in coupling : 0
unit fan-out coupling : 2
unit fan-in coupling : 0
Unit Lib_2 (C:\\customers\\662\\L406-007\\lib_2.ads)
control fan-out coupling : 0
unit fan-out coupling : 0
unit fan-in coupling : 1
The result does not contain values for object-oriented
coupling because none of the argument units contains a tagged type and
therefore none of these units can be treated as a class.
The ``Pack`` package (spec and body) depends on two
units -- ``Lib_1`` and ``Lib_2`` -- and so its unit fan-out coupling
is 2. Since nothing depends on it, its unit fan-in coupling is 0, as
is its control fan-in coupling. Only one of the units ``Pack`` depends
upon defines a subprogram, so its control fan-out coupling is 1.
``Lib_2`` depends on nothing, so its fan-out metrics are 0. It does
not define any subprograms, so it has no control fan-in metric.
One unit (``Pack``) depends on it , so its unit fan-in coupling is 1.
``Lib_1`` is similar to ``Lib_2``, but it does define a subprogram.
Its control fan-in coupling is 1 (because there is one unit
depending on it).
When computing coupling metrics, ``gnatmetric`` counts only
dependencies between units that are arguments of the ``gnatmetric``
invocation. Coupling metrics are program-wide (or project-wide) metrics, so
you should invoke ``gnatmetric`` for
the complete set of sources comprising your program. This can be done
by invoking ``gnatmetric`` with the corresponding project file
and with the :switch:`-U` option.
By default, all the coupling metrics are reported. You can use the following
switches to select specific syntax metrics.
.. index:: --tagged-coupling (gnatmetric)
.. index:: --hierarchy-coupling (gnatmetric)
.. index:: --unit-coupling (gnatmetric)
.. index:: --control-coupling (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--coupling-all`
Report all the coupling metrics
:switch:`--tagged-coupling-out`
Report tagged (class) fan-out coupling
:switch:`--tagged-coupling-in`
Report tagged (class) fan-in coupling
:switch:`--hierarchy-coupling-out`
Report hierarchy (category) fan-out coupling
:switch:`--hierarchy-coupling-in`
Report hierarchy (category) fan-in coupling
:switch:`--unit-coupling-out`
Report unit fan-out coupling
:switch:`--unit-coupling-in`
Report unit fan-in coupling
:switch:`--control-coupling-out`
Report control fan-out coupling
:switch:`--control-coupling-in`
Report control fan-in coupling
.. _Other_gnatmetric_Switches:
Other ``gnatmetric`` Switches
-----------------------------
Additional ``gnatmetric`` switches are as follows:
.. index:: --version (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--version`
Display copyright and version, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: --help (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--help`
Display usage, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: -P (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-P {file}`
Indicates the name of the project file that describes the set of sources
to be processed. The exact set of argument sources depends on other options
specified, see below. An aggregate project is allowed as the file parameter
only if it has exactly one non-aggregate project being aggregated.
.. index:: -U (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-U`
If a project file is specified and no argument source is explicitly
specified (either directly or by means of :switch:`-files` option), process
all the units of the closure of the argument project. Otherwise this option
has no effect.
:switch:`-U {main_unit}`
If a project file is specified and no argument source is explicitly
specified (either directly or by means of :switch:`-files` option), process
the closure of units rooted at ``main_unit``. Otherwise this option
has no effect.
.. index:: -X (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-X{name}={value}`
Indicates that external variable ``name`` in the argument project
has the value ``value``. Has no effect if no project is specified.
.. index:: --RTS (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--RTS={rts-path}`
Specifies the default location of the runtime library. Same meaning as the
equivalent ``gnatmake`` flag (see :ref:`Switches_for_gnatmake`).
.. index:: --subdirs=dir (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--subdirs={dir}`
Use the specified subdirectory of the project objects file (or of the
project file directory if the project does not specify an object directory)
for tool output files. Has no effect if no project is specified as
tool argument r if :switch:`--no-objects-dir` is specified.
.. index:: --files (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--files={file}`
Take as arguments the files listed in text file ``file``.
Text file ``file`` may contain empty lines that are ignored.
Each nonempty line should contain the name of an existing file.
Several such switches may be specified simultaneously.
.. index:: --ignore (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--ignore={filename}`
Do not process the sources listed in a specified file.
.. index:: --verbose (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--verbose`
Verbose mode;
``gnatmetric`` generates version information and then
a trace of sources being processed.
.. index:: --quiet (gnatmetric)
:switch:`--quiet`
Quiet mode.
If a project file is specified and no argument source is explicitly
specified (either directly or by means of :switch:`-files` option), and no
:switch:`-U` is specified, then the set of processed sources is
all the immediate units of the argument project.
Legacy Switches
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Some switches have a short form, mostly for legacy reasons,
as shown below.
.. index:: -x (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-x`
:switch:`--generate-xml-output`
.. index:: -xs (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-xs`
:switch:`--generate-xml-schema`
.. index:: -nt (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-nt`
:switch:`--no-text-output`
.. index:: -d (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-d {output-dir}`
:switch:`--output-dir`
.. index:: -o (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-o {file-suffix}`
:switch:`--output-suffix`
.. index:: -og (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-og {file-name}`
:switch:`--global-file-name`
.. index:: -ox (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-ox {file-name}`
:switch:`--xml-file-name`
.. index:: -sfn (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-sfn`
:switch:`--short-file-names`
.. index:: -W (gnatsmetric)
:switch:`-W{e}`
:switch:`--wide-character-encoding={e}`
.. index:: -nolocal (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-nolocal`
:switch:`--no-local-metrics`
.. index:: -ne (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-ne`
:switch:`--no-treat-exit-as-goto`
.. index:: -files (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-files {filename}`
:switch:`--files`
.. index:: -v (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-v`
:switch:`--verbose`
.. index:: -q (gnatmetric)
:switch:`-q`
:switch:`--quiet`
.. only:: PRO or GPL
.. _The_GNAT_Pretty_Printer_gnatpp:
The GNAT Pretty Printer ``gnatpp``
==================================
.. index:: ! gnatpp
.. index:: pretty printer
The ``gnatpp`` tool is a utility for source reformatting / pretty
printing. It takes an Ada source file as input and generates a
reformatted version as output. You can specify various style
directives via switches; e.g., identifier case conventions, rules of
indentation, and comment layout.
``gnatpp`` is a project-aware tool
(see :ref:`Using_Project_Files_with_GNAT_Tools` for a description of
the project-related switches). The project file package that can specify
``gnatpp`` switches is named ``Pretty_Printer``.
``gnatpp`` cannot process sources that contain preprocessing
directives.
The ``gnatpp`` command has the form
::
$ gnatpp [ switches ] filename
where
* ``switches`` is an optional sequence of switches defining such properties as
the formatting rules, the source search path, and the destination for the
output source file
* ``filename`` is the name of the source file to reformat; wildcards
or several file names on the same gnatpp command are allowed. The
file name may contain path information; it does not have to follow
the GNAT file naming rules
Note that it is no longer necessary to specify the Ada language version;
``gnatpp`` can process Ada source code written in any version from
Ada 83 onward without specifying any language version switch.
.. _Switches_for_gnatpp:
Switches for ``gnatpp``
-----------------------
The following subsections describe the various switches accepted by
``gnatpp``, organized by category.
You specify a switch by supplying a name and generally also a value.
In many cases the values for a switch with a given name are incompatible with
each other
(for example the switch that controls the casing of a reserved word may have
exactly one value: upper case, lower case, or
mixed case) and thus exactly one such switch can be in effect for an
invocation of ``gnatpp``.
If more than one is supplied, the last one is used.
However, some values for the same switch are mutually compatible.
You may supply several such switches to ``gnatpp``, but then
each must be specified in full, with both the name and the value.
Abbreviated forms (the name appearing once, followed by each value) are
not permitted.
.. _Alignment_Control:
Alignment Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Alignment control in gnatpp
Programs can be easier to read if certain constructs are vertically aligned.
By default, alignment of the following constructs is set ON:
* ``:`` in declarations,
* ``:=`` in initializations in declarations,
* ``:=`` in assignment statements,
* ``=>`` in associations, and
* ``at`` keywords in the component clauses in record representation clauses.
In addition, ``in`` and ``out`` in parameter specifications are lined up.
.. index:: --no-alignment (gnatpp)
.. index:: --alignment (gnatpp)
.. index:: --no-align-modes (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-alignment`
Set alignment to OFF
:switch:`--alignment`
Set alignment to ON
:switch:`--no-align-modes`
Do not line up ``in`` and ``out`` in parameter specifications.
.. _Casing_Control:
Casing Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. index:: Casing control in gnatpp
``gnatpp`` allows you to specify the casing for reserved words,
pragma names, attribute designators and identifiers.
For identifiers you may define a
general rule for name casing but also override this rule
via a set of dictionary files.
Three types of casing are supported: lower case, upper case, and mixed case.
'Mixed case' means that the first letter, and also each letter immediately
following an underscore, are converted to their uppercase forms;
all the other letters are converted to their lowercase forms.
(Note: the casing switches are not yet fully supported in the
libadalang-based version of gnatpp.)
.. index:: --name-case-as-declared (gnatpp)
:switch:`--name-case-as-declared`
Name casing for defining occurrences are as they appear in the source file
(this is the default)
.. index:: --name-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--name-upper-case`
Names are in upper case
.. index:: --name-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--name-lower-case`
Names are in lower case
.. index:: --name-mixed-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--name-mixed-case`
Names are in mixed case
.. index:: --attribute-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--attribute-lower-case`
Attribute designators are lower case
.. index:: --attribute-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--attribute-upper-case`
Attribute designators are upper case
.. index:: --attribute-mixed-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--attribute-mixed-case`
Attribute designators are mixed case (this is the default)
.. index:: --keyword-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--keyword-lower-case`
Keywords (technically, these are known in Ada as *reserved words*) are
lower case (this is the default)
.. index:: --keyword-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--keyword-upper-case`
Keywords are upper case
.. index:: --enum-case-as-declared (gnatpp)
:switch:`--enum-case-as-declared`
Enumeration literal casing for defining occurrences are as they appear in the
source file. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --enum-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--enum-upper-case`
Enumeration literals are in upper case. Overrides -n casing
setting.
.. index:: --enum-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--enum-lower-case`
Enumeration literals are in lower case. Overrides -n casing
setting.
.. index:: --enum-mixed-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--enum-mixed-case`
Enumeration literals are in mixed case. Overrides -n casing
setting.
.. index:: --type-case-as-declared (gnatpp)
:switch:`--type-case-as-declared`
Names introduced by type and subtype declarations are always
cased as they appear in the declaration in the source file.
Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --type-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--type-upper-case`
Names introduced by type and subtype declarations are always in
upper case. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --type-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--type-lower-case`
Names introduced by type and subtype declarations are always in
lower case. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --type-mixed-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--type-mixed-case`
Names introduced by type and subtype declarations are always in
mixed case. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --number-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--number-upper-case`
Names introduced by number declarations are always in
upper case. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --number-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--number-lower-case`
Names introduced by number declarations are always in
lower case. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --number-mixed-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--number-mixed-case`
Names introduced by number declarations are always in
mixed case. Overrides -n casing setting.
.. index:: --pragma-lower-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--pragma-lower-case`
Pragma names are lower case
.. index:: --pragma-upper-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--pragma-upper-case`
Pragma names are upper case
.. index:: --pragma-mixed-case (gnatpp)
:switch:`--pragma-mixed-case`
Pragma names are mixed case (this is the default)
.. index:: --syntax-only (gnatpp)
:switch:`--syntax-only`
Disable the semantic analysis (name resolution) done by libadalang.
This means gnatpp will not be able to support any of the
"as-declared" switches.
.. index:: --dictionary (gnatpp)
:switch:`--dictionary={file}`
Use ``file`` as a *dictionary file* that defines
the casing for a set of specified names,
thereby overriding the effect on these names by
any explicit or implicit
-n switch.
To supply more than one dictionary file,
use several ``--dictionary`` switches.
``gnatpp`` implicitly uses a *default dictionary file*
to define the casing for the Ada predefined names and
the names declared in the GNAT libraries.
.. index:: --dictionary=- (gnatpp)
:switch:`--dictionary=-`
Do not use the default dictionary file;
instead, use the casing
defined by a ``-n`` switch and any explicit
dictionary file(s)
The structure of a dictionary file, and details on the conventions
used in the default dictionary file, are defined in :ref:`Name_Casing`.
The :switch:`--dictionary=-` and
:switch:`--dictionary={file}` switches are mutually
compatible.
This group of ``gnatpp`` switches controls the layout of comments and
complex syntactic constructs. See :ref:`Formatting_Comments` for details
on their effect.
.. index:: -c (gnatpp)
:switch:`--comments-unchanged`
All comments remain unchanged.
:switch:`--comments-gnat-indentation`
GNAT-style comment line indentation.
This is the default.
:switch:`--comments-gnat-beginning`
GNAT-style comment beginning.
:switch:`--comments-fill`
Fill comment blocks.
The default is :switch:`--no-comments-fill`.
:switch:`--comments-special`
Keep unchanged special form comments.
The default is :switch:`--no-comments-special`.
.. index:: --comments-only (gnatpp)
:switch:`--comments-only`
Format just the comments.
.. index:: --no-end-id (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-end-id`
Do not insert the name of a unit after ``end``; leave whatever comes
after ``end``, if anything, alone.
.. index:: --no-separate-is (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-separate-is`
Do not place the keyword ``is`` on a separate line in a subprogram body in
case if the spec occupies more than one line.
.. index:: --no-separate-return (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-separate-return`
In :switch:`--no-compact` mode, if a subprogram spec does not fit on
one line, try to place the ``return`` on the same line as the last
formal parameter.
.. index:: --separate-loop (gnatpp)
:switch:`--separate-loop`
Place the keyword ``loop`` in FOR and WHILE loop statements
on a separate line.
.. index:: --no-separate-then (gnatpp)
:switch:`--separate-then`
Place the keyword ``then`` in IF statements
on a separate line.
.. index:: --no-separate-loop (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-separate-loop`
Do not place the keyword ``loop`` in FOR and WHILE loop statements
on a separate line. This option is
incompatible with the :switch:`--separate-loop` option.
.. index:: --no-separate-then (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-separate-then`
Do not place the keyword ``then`` in IF statements
on a separate line. This option is
incompatible with the :switch:`--separate-then` option.
.. index:: --separate-loop-then (gnatpp)
:switch:`--separate-loop-then`
Equivalent to :switch:`--separate-loop` :switch:`--separate-then`.
.. index:: --no-separate-loop-then (gnatpp)
:switch:`--no-separate-loop-then`
Equivalent to :switch:`--no-separate-loop` :switch:`--no-separate-then`.
.. index:: --use-on-new-line (gnatpp)
:switch:`--use-on-new-line`
Start each USE clause in a context clause from a separate line.
.. index:: --insert-blank-lines (gnatpp)
:switch:`--insert-blank-lines`
Insert blank lines where appropriate (between bodies and other large
constructs).
.. index:: --preserve-blank-lines (gnatpp)
:switch:`--preserve-blank-lines`
Preserve blank lines in the input. By default, gnatpp will squeeze
multiple blank lines down to one.
.. index:: --preserve-line-breaks (gnatpp)
:switch:`--preserve-line-breaks`
Preserve line breaks in the input, to the extent possible.
By default, line breaks are also inserted at appropriate
places.
.. index:: --source-line-breaks (gnatpp)
:switch:`--source-line-breaks`
Keep the line breaks from the source; do not insert or delete any
line breaks.
.. index:: --spaces-only (gnatpp)
:switch:`--spaces-only`
Disable all formatting except for inserting and removing spaces.
This implies --source-line-breaks.
The ``--comments`` switches are compatible with one another, except
that the ``--comments-unchanged`` switch disables all other comment
formatting switches.
.. _General_Text_Layout_Control:
General Text Layout Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
These switches allow control over line length and indentation.
.. index:: --max-line-length (gnatpp)
:switch:`--max-line-length={nnn}`
Maximum line length, ``nnn`` from 32...256, the default value is 79
.. index:: --indentation (gnatpp)
:switch:`--indentation={nnn}`
Indentation level, ``nnn`` from 1...9, the default value is 3
.. index:: --indent-continuation (gnatpp)
:switch:`--indent-continuation={nnn}`
Indentation level for continuation lines (relative to the line being
continued), ``nnn`` from 1...9.
The default
value is one less than the (normal) indentation level, unless the
indentation is set to 1 (in which case the default value for continuation
line indentation is also 1)
.. _Other_Formatting_Options:
Other Formatting Options
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
These switches control other formatting not listed above.
.. index:: --decimal-grouping (gnatpp)
:switch:`--decimal-grouping={n}`
Put underscores in decimal literals (numeric literals without a base)
every ``n`` characters. If a literal already has one or more
underscores, it is not modified. For example, with
``--decimal-grouping=3``, ``1000000`` will be changed to
``1_000_000``.
.. index:: --based-grouping (gnatpp)
:switch:`--based-grouping={n}`
Same as ``--decimal-grouping``, but for based literals. For
example, with ``--based-grouping=4``, ``16#0001FFFE#`` will be
changed to ``16#0001_FFFE#``.
.. index:: --split-line-before-record (gnatpp)
:switch:`--split-line-before-record`
Split the line just before ``record`` in a record type declaration.
.. index:: --indent-named-statements (gnatpp)
:switch:`--indent-named-statements`
Named block and loop statements are indented with respect to
the name.
.. index:: --split-line-before-op (gnatpp)
:switch:`--split-line-before-op`
If it is necessary to split a line at a binary operator, by default
the line is split after the operator. With this option, it is split
before the operator.
.. index:: --RM-style-spacing (gnatpp)
:switch:`--RM-style-spacing`
Do not insert an extra blank before various occurrences of
'(' and ':'. Alignment is off by default in this mode;
use :switch:`--alignment` to turn it on.
.. index:: --compact (gnatpp)
.. index:: --no-compact (gnatpp)
:switch:`--compact`
This is the default. In calls and similar, this packs as many
subexpressions on the same line as possible. Example:
.. code-block:: ada
Some_Procedure
(Short_One, Another_Short_One,
A_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Long_One);
:switch:`--no-compact`
Turns off --compact mode. In calls and similar, if it is necessary
to split a line between two subexpressions (because otherwise the
construct would exceed --max-line-length), then all such subexpressions
are placed on separate lines. Example:
.. code-block:: ada
Some_Procedure
(Short_One,
Another_Short_One,
A_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Very_Long_One);
.. index:: --call-threshold (gnatpp)
:switch:`--call-threshold={nnn}`
If the number of parameter associations is greater than ``nnn`` and if at
least one association uses named notation, start each association from
a new line. If ``nnn`` is 0, no check for the number of associations
is made; this is the default.
.. index:: --par-threshold (gnatpp)
:switch:`--par-threshold={nnn}`
If the number of parameter specifications is greater than ``nnn``
(or equal to ``nnn`` in case of a function), start each specification from
a new line. If ``nnn`` is 0, and :switch:`--no-separate-is` was not specified, then
the ``is`` is placed on a separate line. This feature is disabled by default.
.. index:: --vertical-enum-types (gnatpp)
:switch:`--vertical-enum-types`
Format enumeration type declarations "vertically", e.g. each
enumeration literal goes on a separate line.
.. index:: --vertical-array-types (gnatpp)
:switch:`--vertical-array-types`
Format array type declarations "vertically", e.g. for
multidimensional arrays, each index_subtype_definition or
discrete_subtype_definition goes on a separate line.
.. index:: --vertical-named-aggregates (gnatpp)
:switch:`--vertical-named-aggregates`
Format aggregates "vertically" if named notation is used for all
component_associations, e.g. each component_association
goes on a separate line.
.. index:: --vertical-case-alternatives (gnatpp)
:switch:`--vertical-case-alternatives`
Format case statements, case expressions, and variant parts with
additional line breaks.
.. _Setting_the_Source_Search_Path:
Setting the Source Search Path
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
To define the search path for the input source file, ``gnatpp``
uses the same switches as the GNAT compiler, with the same effects:
.. index:: -I (gnatpp)
:switch:`-I{dir}`
.. index:: -I- (gnatpp)
:switch:`-I-`
.. index:: -gnatec (gnatpp)
:switch:`-gnatec={path}`
.. _Output_File_Control-gnatpp:
Output File Control
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
By default the output overwrites the input file.
The output may be redirected by the following switches:
.. index:: --replace (gnatpp)
:switch:`--replace`
This is the default.
Replace the input source file with the reformatted output without
creating any backup copy of the input source.
.. index:: --output-dir (gnatpp)
:switch:`--output-dir={dir}`
Generate output file in directory :file:`dir` with the same name as
the input file. If :file:`dir` is the same as the directory
containing the input file, the input file is not processed; use
``--replace`` if you want to update the input file in
place.
.. index:: --pipe (gnatpp)
:switch:`--pipe`
Send the output to ``Standard_Output``
.. index:: --output (gnatpp)
:switch:`--output={output_file}`
Write the output into ``output_file``.
If ``output_file`` already exists, ``gnatpp`` terminates without
reading or processing the input file.
.. index:: --output-force (gnatpp)
:switch:`--output-force={output_file}`
Write the output into ``output_file``, overwriting the existing file
(if one is present).
.. index:: --replace-backup (gnatpp)
:switch:`--replace-backup`
Replace the input source file with the reformatted output, and copy the
original input source into the file whose name is obtained by appending the
:file:`.npp` suffix to the name of the input file.
If a file with this name already exists, ``gnatpp`` terminates without
reading or processing the input file.
.. index:: --replace-force-backup (gnatpp)
:switch:`--replace-force-backup`
Like ``--replace-backup`` except that if the file with the specified name
already exists, it is overwritten.
.. index:: --eol (gnatpp)
:switch:`--eol={xxx}`
Specifies the line-ending style of the reformatted output file. The
``xxx`` string specified with the switch may be:
* *dos* - MS DOS style, lines end with CR LF characters*
* *crlf* - the same as *dos*
* *unix* - UNIX style, lines end with LF character*
* *lf* - the same as *unix*
The default is to use the same end-of-line convention as the input.
.. index:: --wide-character-encoding (gnatpp)
:switch:`--wide-character-encoding={e}`
Specify the wide character encoding method for the input and output
files. ``e`` is one of the following:
* *8* - UTF-8 encoding
* *b* - Brackets encoding (default value)
Options ``--output-file`` and ``--output-force`` are allowed only if
the call to gnatpp contains only one file to reformat.
Option ``--eol`` and ``--wide-character-encoding`` cannot be used together
with the ``--pipe`` option.
.. _Other_gnatpp_Switches:
Other ``gnatpp`` Switches
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The additional ``gnatpp`` switches are defined in this subsection.
.. index:: --version (gnatpp)
:switch:`--version`
Display copyright and version, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: --help (gnatpp)
:switch:`--help`
Display usage, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: -P (gnatpp)
:switch:`-P {file}`
Indicates the name of the project file that describes the set of sources
to be processed. The exact set of argument sources depends on other options
specified; see below.
.. index:: -U (gnatpp)
:switch:`-U`
If a project file is specified and no argument source is explicitly
specified (either directly or by means of ``--files`` option), process
all the units of the closure of the argument project. Otherwise this option
has no effect.
:switch:`-U {main_unit}`
If a project file is specified and no argument source is explicitly
specified (either directly or by means of ``--files`` option), process
the closure of units rooted at ``main_unit``. Otherwise this option
has no effect.
.. index:: -X (gnatpp)
:switch:`-X{name}={value}`
Indicates that external variable ``name`` in the argument project
has the value ``value``. Has no effect if no project is specified.
.. index:: --RTS (gnatpp)
:switch:`--RTS={rts-path}`
Specifies the default location of the runtime library. Same meaning as the
equivalent ``gnatmake`` flag (:ref:`Switches_for_gnatmake`).
.. index:: --incremental (gnatpp)
:switch:`--incremental`
Incremental processing on a per-file basis. Source files are only
processed if they have been modified, or if files they depend on have
been modified. This is similar to the way gnatmake/gprbuild only
compiles files that need to be recompiled. A project file is required
in this mode, and the gnat driver (as in *gnat pretty*) is not
supported.
(Note: this switch is not yet supported in the libadalang-based
version of gnatpp.)
.. index:: --pp-off (gnatpp)
:switch:`--pp-off={xxx}`
Use :switch:`--xxx` as the command to turn off pretty printing, instead
of the default ``--!pp off``.
.. index:: --pp-on (gnatpp)
:switch:`--pp-on={xxx}`
Use :switch:`--xxx` as the command to turn pretty printing back on, instead
of the default ``--!pp on``.
.. index:: --files (gnatpp)
:switch:`--files={filename}`
Take as arguments the files listed in text file ``file``.
Text file ``file`` may contain empty lines that are ignored.
Each nonempty line should contain the name of an existing file.
Several such switches may be specified simultaneously.
.. index:: --ignore (gnatpp)
:switch:`--ignore={filename}`
Do not process the sources listed in a specified file. This option cannot
be used in incremental mode.
.. index:: --jobs (gnatpp)
:switch:`--jobs={n}`
With ``--incremental``, use *n* ``gnatpp`` processes to perform
pretty printing in parallel. If *n* is 0, then the maximum number
processes is the number of core processors on the platform.
.. index:: --verbose (gnatpp)
:switch:`--verbose`
Verbose mode
.. index:: --quiet (gnatpp)
:switch:`--quiet`
Quiet mode
If a project file is specified and no argument source is explicitly
specified (either directly or by means of ``--files`` option), and no
``-U`` is specified, then the set of processed sources is
all the immediate units of the argument project.
.. _Formatting_Rules:
Formatting Rules
----------------
The following subsections show how ``gnatpp`` treats white space,
comments, program layout, and name casing.
They provide detailed descriptions of the switches shown above.
.. _Disabling_Pretty_Printing:
Disabling Pretty Printing
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Pretty printing is highly heuristic in nature, and sometimes doesn't
do exactly what you want. If you wish to format a certain region of
code by hand, you can turn off pretty printing in that region by
surrounding it with special comments that start with ``--!pp off``
and ``--!pp on``. The text in that region will then be reproduced
verbatim in the output with no formatting.
To disable pretty printing for the whole file, put ``--!pp off`` at
the top, with no following ``--!pp on``.
The comments must appear on a line by themselves, with nothing
preceding except spaces. The initial text of the comment must be
exactly ``--!pp off`` or ``--!pp on`` (case sensitive), but may
be followed by arbitrary additional text. For example:
.. code-block:: ada
package Interrupts is
--!pp off -- turn off pretty printing so "Interrupt_Kind" lines up
type Interrupt_Kind is
(Asynchronous_Interrupt_Kind,
Synchronous_Interrupt_Kind,
Green_Interrupt_Kind);
--!pp on -- reenable pretty printing
...
You can specify different comment strings using the ``--pp-off``
and ``--pp-on`` switches. For example, if you say:
::
$ gnatpp --pp-off=' pp-' *.ad?
then gnatpp will recognize comments of the form
``-- pp-`` instead of ``--!pp off`` for disabling pretty
printing. Note that the leading ``--`` of the comment is not
included in the argument to these switches.
.. _White_Space_and_Empty_Lines:
White Space and Empty Lines
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
``gnatpp`` does not have an option to control space characters.
It will add or remove spaces according to the style illustrated by the
examples in the :title:`Ada Reference Manual`.
The output file will contain no lines with trailing white space.
By default, a sequence of one or more blank lines in the input is
converted to a single blank line in the output; multiple blank lines
are squeezed down to one.
The ``--preserve-blank-lines`` option
turns off the squeezing; each blank line in the input is copied
to the output.
The ``--insert-blank-lines`` option
causes additional blank lines to be inserted if not already
present in the input (e.g. between bodies).
.. _Formatting_Comments:
Formatting Comments
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Comments in Ada code are of two kinds:
* a *whole-line comment*, which appears by itself (possibly preceded by
white space) on a line
* an *end-of-line comment*, which follows some other Ada code on
the same line.
A whole-line comment is indented according to the surrounding code,
with some exceptions. Comments that start in column 1 are kept
there. If possible, comments are not moved so far to the right that
the maximum line length is exceeded. The ``--comments-unchanged``
option turns off comment formatting. Special-form comments such as
SPARK-style ``--#...`` are left alone.
For an end-of-line comment, ``gnatpp`` tries to leave the same
number of spaces between the end of the preceding Ada code and the
beginning of the comment as appear in the original source.
The ``--comments-gnat-beginning`` switch (GNAT style comment
beginning) has the following effect:
* For each whole-line comment that does not end with two hyphens,
``gnatpp`` inserts spaces if necessary after the starting two
hyphens to ensure that there are at least two spaces between
these hyphens and the first non-blank character of the comment.
The ``--comments-fill`` switch specifies that whole-line comments
that form a paragraph will be filled in typical word processor style
(that is, moving words between lines to make the lines other than the
last similar in length ).
The ``--comments-only`` switch specifies that only the comments are
formatted; the rest of the program text is left alone. The comments
are formatted according to the ``--comments-gnat-beginning`` and
``--comments-fill`` switches; other formatting switches are ignored. For
example, ``--comments-only --comments-fill`` means to fill comment
paragraphs, and do nothing else. Likewise, ``--comments-only
--comments-gnat-beginning`` ensures comments start with at least two
spaces after ``--``, and ``--comments-only --comments-gnat-beginning
--comments-fill`` does both. If ``--comments-only`` is given without
``--comments-gnat-beginning`` or ``--comments-fill``, then gnatpp
doesn't format anything.
.. _Name_Casing:
Name Casing
^^^^^^^^^^^
``gnatpp`` always converts the usage occurrence of a (simple) name to
the same casing as the corresponding defining identifier.
You control the casing for defining occurrences via the ``--name...``
switches. With ``--name-case-as-declared``, which is the default,
defining occurrences appear exactly as in the source file where they
are declared. The other values for this switch --
``--name-upper-case``, ``--name-lower-case``, ``--name-mixed-case``
-- result in upper, lower, or mixed case, respectively. If
``gnatpp`` changes the casing of a defining occurrence, it
analogously changes the casing of all the usage occurrences of this
name.
If the defining occurrence of a name is not in the source compilation
unit currently being processed by ``gnatpp``, the casing of each
reference to this name is changed according to the switch (subject to
the dictionary file mechanism described below). Thus ``gnatpp`` acts
as though the switch had affected the casing for the defining
occurrence of the name.
The options
:switch:`--attribute...`,
:switch:`--keyword...`,
:switch:`--enum...`,
:switch:`--type...`,
:switch:`--number...`, and
:switch:`--pragma...`
allow finer-grained control over casing for
attributes, keywords, enumeration literals,
types, named numbers and pragmas, respectively.
:switch:`--type...` cover subtypes as well.
Some names may need to be spelled with casing conventions that are not
covered by the upper-, lower-, and mixed-case transformations.
You can arrange correct casing by placing such names in a
*dictionary file*,
and then supplying a ``--dictionary`` switch.
The casing of names from dictionary files overrides
any ``--name...`` switch.
To handle the casing of Ada predefined names and the names from GNAT libraries,
``gnatpp`` assumes a default dictionary file.
The name of each predefined entity is spelled with the same casing as is used
for the entity in the :title:`Ada Reference Manual` (usually mixed case).
The name of each entity in the GNAT libraries is spelled with the same casing
as is used in the declaration of that entity.
The ``--dictionary=-`` switch suppresses the use of
the default dictionary file. Instead, the casing for predefined and
GNAT-defined names will be established by the
``-n`` switch or explicit dictionary files. For
example, by default the names ``Ada.Text_IO`` and
``GNAT.OS_Lib`` will appear as just shown, even in the presence of
a ``--name-upper-case`` switch. To ensure that even
such names are rendered in uppercase, additionally supply the
--dictionary=- switch (or else place these names
in upper case in a dictionary file).
A dictionary file is a plain text file; each line in this file can be
either a blank line (containing only space characters), an Ada comment
line, or the specification of exactly one *casing schema*.
A casing schema is a string that has the following syntax:
::
casing_schema ::= identifier | simple_identifier
simple_identifier ::= letter{letter_or_digit}
(See :title:`Ada Reference Manual`, Section 2.3) for the definition of the
``identifier`` lexical element and the ``letter_or_digit`` category.)
The casing schema string can be followed by white space and/or an Ada-style
comment; any amount of white space is allowed before the string.
If a dictionary file is passed as
the value of a :switch:`--dictionary={file}` switch
then for every
simple name and every identifier, ``gnatpp`` checks if the dictionary
defines the casing for the name or for some of its parts (the term 'subword'
is used below to denote the part of a name which is delimited by '_' or by
the beginning or end of the word and which does not contain any '_' inside):
* if the whole name is in the dictionary, ``gnatpp`` uses for this name
the casing defined by the dictionary; no subwords are checked for this word
* for every subword ``gnatpp`` checks if the dictionary contains the
corresponding string of the form ``simple_identifier``,
and if it does, the casing of this ``simple_identifier`` is used
for this subword
* if the whole name does not contain any '_' inside, and if for this name
the dictionary contains two entries -- one of the form ``identifier``,
and another of the form ``simple_identifier`` -- then the first one
is applied to define the casing of this name
* if more than one dictionary file is passed as ``gnatpp`` switches, each
dictionary adds new casing exceptions and overrides all the existing casing
exceptions set by the previous dictionaries
* when ``gnatpp`` checks if the word or subword is in the dictionary,
this check is not case sensitive
For example, suppose we have the following source to reformat:
.. code-block:: ada
procedure test is
name1 : integer := 1;
name4_name3_name2 : integer := 2;
name2_name3_name4 : Boolean;
name1_var : Float;
begin
name2_name3_name4 := name4_name3_name2 > name1;
end;
And suppose we have two dictionaries:
::
*dict1:*
NAME1
*NaMe3*
*Name1*
*dict2:*
*NAME3*
If ``gnatpp`` is called with the following switches:
::
$ gnatpp --name-mixed-case --dictionary=dict1 --dictionary=dict2 test.adb
then we will get the following name casing in the ``gnatpp`` output:
.. code-block:: ada
procedure Test is
NAME1 : Integer := 1;
Name4_NAME3_Name2 : Integer := 2;
Name2_NAME3_Name4 : Boolean;
Name1_Var : Float;
begin
Name2_NAME3_Name4 := Name4_NAME3_Name2 > NAME1;
end Test;
.. _Preprocessor_directives:
Preprocessor Directives
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
``gnatpp`` has some support for preprocessor directives.
You can use preprocessor symbols, as in ``$symbol``.
In addition, you can use conditional compilation,
so long as the program text is syntactically legal Ada code
after removing all the preprocessor directives (lines starting
with ``#``). For example, ``gnatpp`` can format the following:
.. code-block:: ada
package P is
#IF SOMETHING
X : constant Integer := 123;
#ELSE
X : constant Integer := 456;
#END IF;
end P;
which will be formatted as if it were:
.. code-block:: ada
package P is
X : constant Integer := 123;
X : constant Integer := 456;
end P;
except that the ``#`` lines will be preserved.
However, ``gnatpp`` cannot format the following:
.. code-block:: ada
procedure P is
begin
#IF SOMETHING
if X = 0 then
#ELSE
if X = 1 then
#END IF;
null;
end if;
end P;
because removing the ``#`` lines gives:
.. code-block:: ada
procedure P is
begin
if X = 0 then
if X = 1 then
null;
end if;
end P;
which is not syntactically legal.
Legacy Switches
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Some switches have a short form, mostly for legacy reasons,
as shown below.
.. index:: -n (gnatpp)
:switch:`-nD`
:switch:`--name-case-as-declared`
:switch:`-nU`
:switch:`--name-upper-case`
:switch:`-nL`
:switch:`--name-lower-case`
:switch:`-nM`
:switch:`--name-mixed-case`
.. index:: -a (gnatpp)
:switch:`-aL`
:switch:`--attribute-lower-case`
:switch:`-aU`
:switch:`--attribute-upper-case`
:switch:`-aM`
:switch:`--attribute-mixed-case`
.. index:: -k (gnatpp)
:switch:`-kL`
:switch:`--keyword-lower-case`
:switch:`-kU`
:switch:`--keyword-upper-case`
.. index:: -ne (gnatpp)
:switch:`-neD`
:switch:`--enum-case-as-declared`
:switch:`-neU`
:switch:`--enum-upper-case`
:switch:`-neL`
:switch:`--enum-lower-case`
:switch:`-neM`
:switch:`--enum-mixed-case`
.. index:: -nt (gnatpp)
:switch:`-ntD`
:switch:`--type-case-as-declared`
:switch:`-ntU`
:switch:`--type-upper-case`
:switch:`-ntL`
:switch:`--type-lower-case`
:switch:`-ntM`
:switch:`--type-mixed-case`
:switch:`-nnU`
:switch:`--number-upper-case`
:switch:`-nnL`
:switch:`--number-lower-case`
:switch:`-nnM`
:switch:`--number-mixed-case`
.. index:: -p (gnatpp)
:switch:`-pL`
:switch:`--pragma-lower-case`
:switch:`-pU`
:switch:`--pragma-upper-case`
:switch:`-pM`
:switch:`--pragma-mixed-case`
.. index:: -D (gnatpp)
:switch:`-D{file}`
:switch:`--dictionary={file}`
.. index:: -D- (gnatpp)
:switch:`-D-`
:switch:`--dictionary=-`
.. index:: -c (gnatpp)
:switch:`-c0`
:switch:`--comments-unchanged`
:switch:`-c1`
:switch:`--comments-gnat-indentation`
:switch:`-c3`
:switch:`--comments-gnat-beginning`
:switch:`-c4`
:switch:`--comments-fill`
:switch:`-c5`
:switch:`--comments-special`
.. index:: -M (gnatpp)
:switch:`-M{nnn}`
:switch:`--max-line-length={nnn}`
.. index:: -i (gnatpp)
:switch:`-i{nnn}`
:switch:`--indentation={nnn}`
.. index:: -cl (gnatpp)
:switch:`-cl{nnn}`
:switch:`--indent-continuation={nnn}`
.. index:: -pipe (gnatpp)
:switch:`-pipe`
:switch:`--pipe`
.. index:: -o (gnatpp)
:switch:`-o {output-file}`
:switch:`--output={output-file}`
.. index:: -of (gnatpp)
:switch:`-of {output-file}`
:switch:`--output-force={output-file}`
.. index:: -r (gnatpp)
:switch:`-rnb`
:switch:`--replace`
:switch:`-r`
:switch:`--replace-backup`
.. index:: -rf (gnatpp)
:switch:`-rf`
:switch:`--replace-force-backup`
.. index:: -rnb (gnatpp)
.. index:: --eol (gnatpp)
.. index:: -W (gnatpp)
:switch:`-W{e}`
:switch:`--wide-character-encoding={e}`
.. index:: -files (gnatpp)
:switch:`-files {filename}`
:switch:`--files={filename}`
.. index:: -j (gnatpp)
:switch:`-j{n}`
:switch:`--jobs={n}`
.. index:: -v (gnatpp)
:switch:`-v`
:switch:`--verbose`
.. index:: -q (gnatpp)
:switch:`-q`
:switch:`--quiet`
.. only:: PRO or GPL
.. _The_Body_Stub_Generator_gnatstub:
The Body Stub Generator *gnatstub*
==================================
.. index:: ! gnatstub
``gnatstub`` creates empty but compilable bodies
for library unit declarations, and empty but compilable
subunits for body stubs.
``gnatstub`` is a project-aware tool.
(See :ref:`Using_Project_Files_with_GNAT_Tools` for a description of
the project-related switches but note that ``gnatstub`` does not support
the :switch:`-U`, :switch:`-U {main_unit}`, :switch:`--subdirs={dir}`, or
:switch:`--no-objects-dir` switches.)
The project file package that can specify
``gnatstub`` switches is named ``gnatstub``.
By default, all the program unit bodies generated by ``gnatstub``
raise ``Program_Error``, which will catch accidental calls of
generated stubs. This behavior can be changed with option
``--no-exception`` (see below).
.. _Running_gnatstub:
Running ``gnatstub``
--------------------
``gnatstub`` invocation has the following form:
::
$ gnatstub [ switches ] {filename}
where
* *filename*
is the name of the source file that contains a library unit declaration
for which a body must be created or a library unit body for which subunits
must be created for the body stubs declared in this body.
The file name may contain path information.
If the name does not follow GNAT file naming conventions and the set
of switches does not contain a project file that defines naming
conventions, the name of the body file must
be provided
explicitly as the value of the :switch:`--output={body-name}` option.
If the file name follows the GNAT file naming
conventions and the name of the body file is not provided,
``gnatstub``
takes the naming conventions for the generated source from the
project file provided as a parameter of ``-P`` switch if any,
or creates the name file to generate using the standard GNAT
naming conventions.
Note that it is no longer necessary to specify the Ada language version;
``gnatmetric`` can process Ada source code written in any version from
Ada 83 onward without specifying any language version switch.
* *switches*
is an optional sequence of switches as described in the next section
.. _Switches_for_gnatstub:
Switches for ``gnatstub``
-------------------------
.. index:: --version (gnatstub)
:switch:`--version`
Display copyright and version, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: --help (gnatstub)
:switch:`--help`
Display usage, then exit disregarding all other options.
.. index:: -P (gnatstub)
:switch:`-P {file}`
Indicates the name of the project file that describes the set of sources
to be processed. An aggregate project is allowed as the file parameter only
if it has exactly one non-aggregate project being aggregated.
.. index:: -X (gnatstub)
:switch:`-X{name}={value}`
Indicates that external variable ``name`` in the argument project
has the value ``value``. Has no effect if no project is specified.
.. index:: --RTS (gnatstub)
:switch:`--RTS={rts-path}`
Specifies the default location of the runtime library. Same meaning as the
equivalent ``gnatmake`` flag (:ref:`Switches_for_gnatmake`).
.. index:: --subunits (gnatstub)
:switch:`--subunits`
Generate subunits for body stubs. If this switch is specified,
``gnatstub`` expects a library unit body as an argument file;
otherwise a library unit declaration is expected. If a body stub
already has a corresponding subunit, ``gnatstub`` does not
generate anything for it.
.. index:: --force (gnatstub)
:switch:`--force`
If the destination directory already contains a file with the name of the
body file
for the argument spec file, replace it with the generated body stub.
This switch cannot be used together with ``--subunits``.
.. index:: --comment-header-spec (gnatstub)
:switch:`--comment-header-spec`
Put the comment header (i.e., all the comments preceding the
compilation unit) from the source of the library unit declaration
into the body stub.
.. index:: --comment-header-sample (gnatstub)
:switch:`--comment-header-sample`
Put a sample comment header into the body stub.
.. index:: --header-file (gnatstub)
:switch:`--header-file={filename}`
Use the content of the file as the comment header for a generated body stub.
.. index:: --max-line-length (gnatstub)
:switch:`--max-line-length={n}`
(``n`` is a non-negative integer). Set the maximum line length for
the output files. The default is 79. The maximum value that can be
specified is 32767.
.. index:: --indentation (gnatstub)
:switch:`--indentation={n}`
(``n`` is an integer from 1 to 9). Set the indentation level in
the generated files to ``n``.
The default indentation is 3.
.. index:: --alphabetical-order (gnatstub)
:switch:`--alphabetical-order`
Order local bodies alphabetically. (By default local bodies are ordered
in the same way as the corresponding local specs in the argument
spec file.)
.. index:: --no-exception (gnatstub)
:switch:`--no-exception`
Avoid raising Program_Error in the generated bodies of program unit stubs,
except in the case of functions, where we have no value to return.
.. index:: --no-local-header (gnatstub)
:switch:`--no-local-header`
Do not place local comment header with unit name before body stub for a
unit.
.. index:: --files (gnatstub)
:switch:`--files={filename}`
Take as arguments the files listed in text file ``file``.
Text file ``file`` may contain empty lines that are ignored.
Each nonempty line should contain the name of an existing file.
Several such switches may be specified.
.. index:: --output (gnatstub)
:switch:`--output={body-name}`
Body file name. This should be set if the argument file name does
not follow the default GNAT file naming conventions, and the naming
conventions are not specified by a project file. If this switch and
``-P`` are both omitted, the name for the body will be obtained
according to the default GNAT file naming conventions.
.. index:: --output-dir (gnatstub)
:switch:`--output-dir={dir-name}`
The directory in which to place the output files.
If this switch is not set, the generated library unit body is
placed in the current directory, and generated sununits
in the directory where the argument body is located.
.. index:: --wide-character-encoding (gnatstub)
:switch:`--wide-character-encoding={e}`
Specify the wide character encoding method for the input and output
files. ``e`` is one of the following:
* *8* - UTF-8 encoding
* *b* - Brackets encoding (default value)
.. index:: --quiet (gnatstub)
.. index:: -q (gnatstub)
:switch:`--quiet` / :switch:`-q`
Quiet mode.
.. index:: --verbose (gnatstub)
.. index:: -v (gnatstub)
:switch:`--verbose` / :switch:`-v`
Verbose mode.
Legacy Switches
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Some switches have a short form, mostly for legacy reasons,
as shown below.
.. index:: -M (gnatstub)
:switch:`-gnatyM{nnn}`
:switch:`--max-line-length={nnn}`
.. index:: -i (gnatstub)
:switch:`-i{nnn}`
:switch:`--indentation={nnn}`
.. index:: -gnaty (gnatstub)
:switch:`-gnaty{nnn}`
:switch:`--indentation={nnn}`
.. index:: -f (gnatstub)
:switch:`-f`
:switch:`--force`
.. index:: -gnatyo (gnatstub)
:switch:`-gnatyo`
:switch:`--alphabetical-order`
.. index:: -hg (gnatstub)
:switch:`-hg`
:switch:`--comment-header-sample`
.. index:: -hs (gnatstub)
:switch:`-hs`
:switch:`--comment-header-spec`
.. index:: -o (gnatstub)
:switch:`-o {output-file}`
:switch:`--output={output-file}`
.. index:: -dir (gnatstub)
:switch:`-dir {dir-name}`
:switch:`--output-dir={dir-name}`
.. index:: -W (gnatstub)
:switch:`-W{e}`
:switch:`--wide-character-encoding={e}`
.. index:: -files (gnatstub)
:switch:`-files {filename}`
:switch:`--files={filename}`
.. only:: PRO or GPL
.. _The_Unit_Test_Generator_gnattest:
The Unit Test Generator ``gnattest``
====================================
.. index:: ! gnattest
``gnattest`` is an ASIS-based utility that creates unit-test skeletons
as well as a test driver infrastructure (harness). ``gnattest`` creates
a skeleton for each visible subprogram in the packages under consideration when
they do not exist already.
``gnattest`` is a project-aware tool.
(See :ref:`Using_Project_Files_with_GNAT_Tools` for a description of
the project-related switches but note that ``gnattest`` does not support
the :switch:`-U`, :switch:`-eL`, :switch:`--subdirs={dir}`, or
:switch:`--no-objects-dir` switches.)
The project file package that can specify
``gnattest`` switches is named ``gnattest``.
The user can choose to generate a single test driver
that will run all individual tests, or separate test drivers for each test. The
second option allows much greater flexibility in test execution environment,
allows to benefit from parallel tests execution to increase performance, and
provides stubbing support.
``gnattest`` also has a mode of operation where it acts as the test
aggregator when multiple test executables must be run, in particular when
the separate test drivers were generated. In this mode it handles individual
tests execution and upon completion reports the summary results of the test
run.
In order to process source files from a project, ``gnattest`` has to
semantically analyze the sources. Therefore, test skeletons can only be
generated for legal Ada units. If a unit is dependent on other units,
those units should be among the source files of the project or of other projects
imported by this one.
Generated skeletons and harnesses are based on the AUnit testing framework.
AUnit is an Ada adaptation of the xxxUnit testing frameworks, similar to JUnit
for Java or CppUnit for C++. While it is advised that gnattest users read
the AUnit manual, deep knowledge of AUnit is not necessary for using ``gnattest``.
For correct operation of ``gnattest``, AUnit should be installed and
aunit.gpr must be on the project path. Except for some special circumstances
(e.g. a custom run-time is used), this should normally be the case out of the box.
.. _Running_gnattest:
Running ``gnattest``
--------------------
There are two ways of running ``gnattest``.
.. _Framework_Generation_Mode:
Framework Generation Mode
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
In this mode ``gnattest`` has the following command-line interface:
::
$ gnattest -Pprojname [ switches ] [ filename ] [ -cargs gcc_switches ]
where
* :switch:`-P{projname}`
specifies the project defining the location of source files. When no
file names are provided on the command line, all sources in the project
are used as input. This switch is required.
* :switch:`{filename}`
is the name of the source file containing the library unit package *declaration*
(the package "spec") for which a test package will be created. The file name
may be given with a path.
* :samp:`{switches}`
is an optional sequence of switches as described below.
* :samp:`{gcc_switches}`
is a list of additional switches for
``gcc`` that will be passed to all compiler invocations
made by ``gnattest`` to generate a set of ASIS trees.
``gnattest`` results can be found in two different places.
* *automatic harness*:
This is the harness code, which is located by default in
"gnattest/harness" directory created in the object directory of
the main project file. All of this code is generated completely
automatically and can be destroyed and regenerated at will, with the
exception of the file *gnattest_common.gpr*, which is created if absent,
but never overwritten. It is not recommended to modify other files
manually, since these modifications will be lost if ``gnattest`` is re-run.
The entry point in the harness code is
the project file named *test_driver.gpr*. Tests can be compiled and run
using a command such as:
::
$ gprbuild -P<harness-dir>/test_driver
Note that if you need to adjust any options used to compile the harness,
you can do so by editing the file *gnattest_common.gpr*.
* *actual unit test skeletons*:
A test skeleton for each visible subprogram is created in a separate file, if it
doesn't exist already. By default, those separate test files are located in a
"gnattest/tests" directory that is created in the object directory of
corresponding project file. For example, if a source file my_unit.ads in
directory src contains a visible subprogram Proc, then the corresponding unit
test will be found in file src/tests/my_unit-test_data-tests.adb and will be
called Test_Proc_<code>. <code> is a signature encoding used to differentiate
test names in case of overloading.
Note that if the project already has both my_unit.ads and my_unit-test_data.ads,
this will cause a name conflict with the generated test package.
.. _Test_Execution_Mode:
Test Execution Mode
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
In this mode ``gnattest`` has a the following command-line interface:
::
$ gnattest test_drivers.list [ switches ]
where
* :samp:`{test_drivers.list}`
is the name of the text file containing the list of executables to treat as
test drivers. This file is automatically generated by gnattest, but can be
hand-edited to add or remove tests. This switch is required.
* :samp:`{switches}`
is an optional sequence of switches as described below.
.. _Switches_for_gnattest_in_framework_generation_mode:
Switches for ``gnattest`` in framework generation mode
------------------------------------------------------
.. index:: --strict (gnattest)
:switch:`--strict`
Return error exit code if there are any compilation errors.
.. index:: -q (gnattest)
:switch:`-q`
Quiet mode: suppresses noncritical output messages.
.. index:: -v (gnattest)
:switch:`-v`
Verbose mode: produces additional output about the execution of the tool.
When specified alone on the command line, prints tool version and exits.
.. index:: -r (gnattest)
:switch:`-r`
Recursively considers all sources from all projects.
.. index:: -files (gnattest)
:switch:`-files={filename}`
Take as arguments the files listed in text file ``file``.
Text file ``file`` may contain empty lines that are ignored.
Each nonempty line should contain the name of an existing file.
Several such switches may be specified simultaneously.
.. index:: --ignore (gnattest)
:switch:`--ignore={filename}`
Do not process the sources listed in a specified file.
.. index:: --RTS (gnattest)
:switch:`--RTS={rts-path}`
Specifies the default location of the runtime library. Same meaning as the
equivalent ``gnatmake`` flag (:ref:`Switches_for_gnatmake`). For restricted
profiles, ``gnattest`` takes into account the run-time limitations when
generating the harness.
.. index:: --additional-tests (gnattest)
:switch:`--additional-tests={projname}`
Sources described in ``projname`` are considered potential additional
manual tests to be added to the test suite.
.. index:: --harness-only (gnattest)
:switch:`--harness-only`
When this option is given, ``gnattest`` creates a harness for all
sources, treating them as test packages. This option is not compatible with
closure computation done by -U main.
.. index:: --separate-drivers (gnattest)
:switch:`--separate-drivers[={val}]`
Generates a separate test driver for each test or unit under test, rather
than a single executable incorporating all tests. ``val`` can be "unit" or
"test", or may be omitted, which defaults to "unit".
.. index:: --stub (gnattest)
:switch:`--stub`
Generates the testing framework that uses subsystem stubbing to isolate the
code under test.
.. index:: --harness-dir (gnattest)
:switch:`--harness-dir={dirname}`
Specifies the directory that will hold the harness packages and project file
for the test driver. If the ``dirname`` is a relative path, it is considered
relative to the object directory of the project file.
.. index:: --tests-dir (gnattest)
:switch:`--tests-dir={dirname}`
All test packages are placed in the ``dirname`` directory.
If the ``dirname`` is a relative path, it is considered relative to the object
directory of the project file. When all sources from all projects are taken
recursively from all projects, ``dirname`` directories are created for each
project in their object directories and test packages are placed accordingly.
.. index:: --subdir (gnattest)
:switch:`--subdir={dirname}`
Test packages are placed in a subdirectory of the corresponding source
directory, with the name ``dirname``. Thus, each set of unit tests is located
in a subdirectory of the code under test. If the sources are in separate
directories, each source directory has a test subdirectory named ``dirname``.
.. index:: --tests-root (gnattest)
:switch:`--tests-root={dirname}`
The hierarchy of source directories, if any, is recreated in the ``dirname``
directory, with test packages placed in directories corresponding to those
of the sources.
If the ``dirname`` is a relative path, it is considered relative to the object
directory of the project file. When projects are considered recursively,
directory hierarchies of tested sources are
recreated for each project in their object directories and test packages are
placed accordingly.
.. index:: --stubs-dir (gnattest)
:switch:`--stubs-dir={dirname}`
The hierarchy of directories containing stubbed units is recreated in
the ``dirname`` directory, with stubs placed in directories corresponding to
projects they are derived from.
If the ``dirname`` is a relative path, it is considered relative to the object
directory of the project file. When projects are considered recursively,
directory hierarchies of stubs are
recreated for each project in their object directories and test packages are
placed accordingly.
.. index:: --exclude-from-stubbing (gnattest)
:switch:`--exclude-from-stubbing={filename}`
Disables stubbing of units listed in ``filename``. The file should contain
corresponding spec files, one per line.
:switch:`--exclude-from-stubbing:{unit}={filename}`
Same as above, but corresponding units will not be stubbed only when testing
specified ``unit``.
.. index:: --validate-type-extensions (gnattest)
:switch:`--validate-type-extensions`
Enables substitution check: run all tests from all parents in order
to check substitutability in accordance with the Liskov substitution principle (LSP).
.. index:: --inheritance-check (gnattest)
:switch:`--inheritance-check`
Enables inheritance check: run inherited tests against descendants.
.. index:: --no-inheritance-check (gnattest)
:switch:`--no-inheritance-check`
Disables inheritance check.
.. index:: --no-inheritance-check (gnattest)
:switch:`--test-case-only`
Generates test skeletons only for subprograms that have at least one
associated pragma or aspect Test_Case.
.. index:: --skeleton-default (gnattest)
:switch:`--skeleton-default={val}`
Specifies the default behavior of generated skeletons. ``val`` can be either
"fail" or "pass", "fail" being the default.
.. index:: --passed-tests (gnattest)
:switch:`--passed-tests={val}`
Specifies whether or not passed tests should be shown. ``val`` can be either
"show" or "hide", "show" being the default.
.. index:: --exit-status (gnattest)
:switch:`--exit-status={val}`
Specifies whether or not generated test driver should return failure exit
status if at least one test fails or crashes. ``val`` can be either
"on" or "off", "off" being the default.
.. index:: --omit-sloc (gnattest)
:switch:`--omit-sloc`
Suppresses comment line containing file name and line number of corresponding
subprograms in test skeletons.
.. index:: --no-command-line (gnattest)
:switch:`--no-command-line`
Don't add command line support to test driver. Note that regardless of this
switch, ``gnattest`` will automatically refrain from adding command
line support if it detects that the selected run-time doesn't provide
this capability.
.. index:: --separates (gnattest)
:switch:`--separates`
Bodies of all test routines are generated as separates. Note that this mode is
kept for compatibility reasons only and it is not advised to use it due to
possible problems with hash in names of test skeletons when using an
inconsistent casing. Separate test skeletons can be incorporated to monolith
test package with improved hash being used by using ``--transition``
switch.
.. index:: --transition (gnattest)
:switch:`--transition`
This allows transition from separate test routines to monolith test packages.
All matching test routines are overwritten with contents of corresponding
separates. Note that if separate test routines had any manually added with
clauses they will be moved to the test package body as is and have to be moved
by hand.
.. index:: --test-duration (gnattest)
:switch:`--test-duration`
Adds time measurements for each test in generated test driver.
:switch:`--tests_root`, :switch:`--subdir` and :switch:`--tests-dir` switches are mutually exclusive.
.. _Switches_for_gnattest_in_test_execution_mode:
Switches for ``gnattest`` in test execution mode
------------------------------------------------
.. index:: --passed-tests (gnattest)
:switch:`--passed-tests={val}`
Specifies whether or not passed tests should be shown. ``val`` can be either
"show" or "hide", "show" being the default.
.. index:: --queues (gnattest)
.. index:: -j (gnattest)
:switch:`--queues={n}`, :switch:`-j{n}`
Runs ``n`` tests in parallel (default is 1).
.. index:: --copy-environment (gnattest)
:switch:`--copy-environment={dir}`
Contents of ``dir`` directory will be copied to temporary directories
created by gnattest in which individual test drivers are spawned.
.. _Project_Attributes_for_gnattest:
Project Attributes for ``gnattest``
-----------------------------------
Most of the command-line options can also be passed to the tool by adding
special attributes to the project file. Those attributes should be put in
package ``Gnattest``. Here is the list of attributes:
* ``Tests_Root``
is used to select the same output mode as with the ``--tests-root`` option.
This attribute cannot be used together with ``Subdir`` or ``Tests_Dir``.
* ``Subdir``
is used to select the same output mode as with the ``--subdir`` option.
This attribute cannot be used together with ``Tests_Root`` or ``Tests_Dir``.
* ``Tests_Dir``
is used to select the same output mode as with the ``--tests-dir`` option.
This attribute cannot be used together with ``Subdir`` or ``Tests_Root``.
* ``Stubs_Dir``
is used to select the same output mode as with the ``--stubs-dir`` option.
* ``Harness_Dir``
is used to specify the directory in which to place harness packages and project
file for the test driver, otherwise specified by ``--harness-dir``.
* ``Additional_Tests``
is used to specify the project file, otherwise given by
``--additional-tests`` switch.
* ``Skeletons_Default``
is used to specify the default behaviour of test skeletons, otherwise
specified by ``--skeleton-default`` option. The value of this attribute
should be either ``pass`` or ``fail``.
* ``Default_Stub_Exclusion_List``
is used to specify the file with list of units whose bodies should not
be stubbed, otherwise specified by ``--exclude-from-stubbing=filename``.
* ``Stub_Exclusion_List ("unit")``
is used to specify the file with list of units whose bodies should not
be stubbed when testing "unit", otherwise specified by
``--exclude-from-stubbing:unit=filename``.
Each of those attributes can be overridden from the command line if needed.
Other ``gnattest`` switches can also be passed via the project
file as an attribute list called ``Gnattest_Switches``.
.. _Simple_gnattest_Example:
Simple Example
--------------
Let's take a very simple example using the first ``gnattest`` example
located in:
::
<install_prefix>/share/examples/gnattest/simple
This project contains a simple package containing one subprogram. By running ``gnattest``:
::
$ gnattest --harness-dir=driver -Psimple.gpr
a test driver is created in directory ``driver``. It can be compiled and run:
::
$ cd obj/driver
$ gprbuild -Ptest_driver
$ test_runner
One failed test with the diagnosis "test not implemented" is reported.
Since no special output option was specified, the test package ``Simple.Tests``
is located in:
::
<install_prefix>/share/examples/gnattest/simple/obj/gnattest/tests
For each package containing visible subprograms, a child test package is
generated. It contains one test routine per tested subprogram. Each
declaration of a test subprogram has a comment specifying which tested
subprogram it corresponds to. Bodies of test routines are placed in test package
bodies and are surrounded by special comment sections. Those comment sections
should not be removed or modified in order for gnattest to be able to regenerate
test packages and keep already written tests in place.
The test routine ``Test_Inc_5eaee3`` located at :file:`simple-test_data-tests.adb` contains
a single statement: a call to procedure ``Assert``. It has two arguments:
the Boolean expression we want to check and the diagnosis message to display if
the condition is false.
That is where actual testing code should be written after a proper setup.
An actual check can be performed by replacing the ``Assert`` call with:
::
Assert (Inc (1) = 2, "wrong incrementation");
After recompiling and running the test driver, one successfully passed test
is reported.
.. _Setting_Up_and_Tearing_Down_the_Testing_Environment:
Setting Up and Tearing Down the Testing Environment
---------------------------------------------------
Besides test routines themselves, each test package has a parent package
``Test_Data`` that has two procedures: ``Set_Up`` and ``Tear_Down``. This package is never
overwritten by the tool. ``Set_Up`` is called before each test routine of the
package, and ``Tear_Down`` is called after each test routine. Those two procedures
can be used to perform necessary initialization and finalization,
memory allocation, etc. Test type declared in ``Test_Data`` package is parent type
for the test type of test package and can have user-defined components whose
values can be set by ``Set_Up`` routine and used in test routines afterwards.
.. _Regenerating_Tests:
Regenerating Tests
------------------
Bodies of test routines and ``Test_Data`` packages are never overridden after they
have been created once. As long as the name of the subprogram, full expanded Ada
names and order of its parameters are the same, and comment sections are
intact, the old test routine will fit in its place and no test skeleton will be
generated for the subprogram.
This can be demonstrated with the previous example. By uncommenting declaration
and body of function Dec in ``simple.ads`` and ``simple.adb``, running
``gnattest`` on the project, and then running the test driver:
::
$ gnattest --harness-dir=driver -Psimple.gpr
$ cd obj/driver
$ gprbuild -Ptest_driver
$ test_runner
The old test is not replaced with a stub, nor is it lost, but a new test
skeleton is created for function ``Dec``.