blob: 0375982be611ecc2f8baf783f85816519d3541ee [file] [log] [blame]
.. role:: switch(samp)
.. _Implementation_Defined_Pragmas:
******************************
Implementation Defined Pragmas
******************************
Ada defines a set of pragmas that can be used to supply additional
information to the compiler. These language defined pragmas are
implemented in GNAT and work as described in the Ada Reference Manual.
In addition, Ada allows implementations to define additional pragmas
whose meaning is defined by the implementation. GNAT provides a number
of these implementation-defined pragmas, which can be used to extend
and enhance the functionality of the compiler. This section of the GNAT
Reference Manual describes these additional pragmas.
Note that any program using these pragmas might not be portable to other
compilers (although GNAT implements this set of pragmas on all
platforms). Therefore if portability to other compilers is an important
consideration, the use of these pragmas should be minimized.
Pragma Abort_Defer
==================
.. index:: Deferring aborts
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Abort_Defer;
This pragma must appear at the start of the statement sequence of a
handled sequence of statements (right after the ``begin``). It has
the effect of deferring aborts for the sequence of statements (but not
for the declarations or handlers, if any, associated with this statement
sequence). This can also be useful for adding a polling point in Ada code,
where asynchronous abort of tasks is checked when leaving the statement
sequence, and is lighter than, for example, using ``delay 0.0;``, since with
zero-cost exception handling, propagating exceptions (implicitly used to
implement task abort) cannot be done reliably in an asynchronous way.
An example of usage would be:
.. code-block:: ada
-- Add a polling point to check for task aborts
begin
pragma Abort_Defer;
end;
.. _Pragma-Abstract_State:
Pragma Abstract_State
=====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Abstract_State (ABSTRACT_STATE_LIST);
ABSTRACT_STATE_LIST ::=
null
| STATE_NAME_WITH_OPTIONS
| (STATE_NAME_WITH_OPTIONS {, STATE_NAME_WITH_OPTIONS} )
STATE_NAME_WITH_OPTIONS ::=
STATE_NAME
| (STATE_NAME with OPTION_LIST)
OPTION_LIST ::= OPTION {, OPTION}
OPTION ::=
SIMPLE_OPTION
| NAME_VALUE_OPTION
SIMPLE_OPTION ::= Ghost | Synchronous
NAME_VALUE_OPTION ::=
Part_Of => ABSTRACT_STATE
| External [=> EXTERNAL_PROPERTY_LIST]
EXTERNAL_PROPERTY_LIST ::=
EXTERNAL_PROPERTY
| (EXTERNAL_PROPERTY {, EXTERNAL_PROPERTY} )
EXTERNAL_PROPERTY ::=
Async_Readers [=> boolean_EXPRESSION]
| Async_Writers [=> boolean_EXPRESSION]
| Effective_Reads [=> boolean_EXPRESSION]
| Effective_Writes [=> boolean_EXPRESSION]
others => boolean_EXPRESSION
STATE_NAME ::= defining_identifier
ABSTRACT_STATE ::= name
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Abstract_State`` in
the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.4.
Pragma Ada_83
=============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ada_83;
A configuration pragma that establishes Ada 83 mode for the unit to
which it applies, regardless of the mode set by the command line
switches. In Ada 83 mode, GNAT attempts to be as compatible with
the syntax and semantics of Ada 83, as defined in the original Ada
83 Reference Manual as possible. In particular, the keywords added by Ada 95
and Ada 2005 are not recognized, optional package bodies are allowed,
and generics may name types with unknown discriminants without using
the ``(<>)`` notation. In addition, some but not all of the additional
restrictions of Ada 83 are enforced.
Ada 83 mode is intended for two purposes. Firstly, it allows existing
Ada 83 code to be compiled and adapted to GNAT with less effort.
Secondly, it aids in keeping code backwards compatible with Ada 83.
However, there is no guarantee that code that is processed correctly
by GNAT in Ada 83 mode will in fact compile and execute with an Ada
83 compiler, since GNAT does not enforce all the additional checks
required by Ada 83.
Pragma Ada_95
=============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ada_95;
A configuration pragma that establishes Ada 95 mode for the unit to which
it applies, regardless of the mode set by the command line switches.
This mode is set automatically for the ``Ada`` and ``System``
packages and their children, so you need not specify it in these
contexts. This pragma is useful when writing a reusable component that
itself uses Ada 95 features, but which is intended to be usable from
either Ada 83 or Ada 95 programs.
Pragma Ada_05
=============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ada_05;
pragma Ada_05 (local_NAME);
A configuration pragma that establishes Ada 2005 mode for the unit to which
it applies, regardless of the mode set by the command line switches.
This pragma is useful when writing a reusable component that
itself uses Ada 2005 features, but which is intended to be usable from
either Ada 83 or Ada 95 programs.
The one argument form (which is not a configuration pragma)
is used for managing the transition from
Ada 95 to Ada 2005 in the run-time library. If an entity is marked
as Ada_2005 only, then referencing the entity in Ada_83 or Ada_95
mode will generate a warning. In addition, in Ada_83 or Ada_95
mode, a preference rule is established which does not choose
such an entity unless it is unambiguously specified. This avoids
extra subprograms marked this way from generating ambiguities in
otherwise legal pre-Ada_2005 programs. The one argument form is
intended for exclusive use in the GNAT run-time library.
Pragma Ada_2005
===============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ada_2005;
This configuration pragma is a synonym for pragma Ada_05 and has the
same syntax and effect.
Pragma Ada_12
=============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ada_12;
pragma Ada_12 (local_NAME);
A configuration pragma that establishes Ada 2012 mode for the unit to which
it applies, regardless of the mode set by the command line switches.
This mode is set automatically for the ``Ada`` and ``System``
packages and their children, so you need not specify it in these
contexts. This pragma is useful when writing a reusable component that
itself uses Ada 2012 features, but which is intended to be usable from
Ada 83, Ada 95, or Ada 2005 programs.
The one argument form, which is not a configuration pragma,
is used for managing the transition from Ada
2005 to Ada 2012 in the run-time library. If an entity is marked
as Ada_2012 only, then referencing the entity in any pre-Ada_2012
mode will generate a warning. In addition, in any pre-Ada_2012
mode, a preference rule is established which does not choose
such an entity unless it is unambiguously specified. This avoids
extra subprograms marked this way from generating ambiguities in
otherwise legal pre-Ada_2012 programs. The one argument form is
intended for exclusive use in the GNAT run-time library.
Pragma Ada_2012
===============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ada_2012;
This configuration pragma is a synonym for pragma Ada_12 and has the
same syntax and effect.
Pragma Aggregate_Individually_Assign
====================================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Aggregate_Individually_Assign;
Where possible, GNAT will store the binary representation of a record aggregate
in memory for space and performance reasons. This configuration pragma changes
this behavior so that record aggregates are instead always converted into
individual assignment statements.
Pragma Allow_Integer_Address
============================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Allow_Integer_Address;
In almost all versions of GNAT, ``System.Address`` is a private
type in accordance with the implementation advice in the RM. This
means that integer values,
in particular integer literals, are not allowed as address values.
If the configuration pragma
``Allow_Integer_Address`` is given, then integer expressions may
be used anywhere a value of type ``System.Address`` is required.
The effect is to introduce an implicit unchecked conversion from the
integer value to type ``System.Address``. The reverse case of using
an address where an integer type is required is handled analogously.
The following example compiles without errors:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Allow_Integer_Address;
with System; use System;
package AddrAsInt is
X : Integer;
Y : Integer;
for X'Address use 16#1240#;
for Y use at 16#3230#;
m : Address := 16#4000#;
n : constant Address := 4000;
p : constant Address := Address (X + Y);
v : Integer := y'Address;
w : constant Integer := Integer (Y'Address);
type R is new integer;
RR : R := 1000;
Z : Integer;
for Z'Address use RR;
end AddrAsInt;
Note that pragma ``Allow_Integer_Address`` is ignored if ``System.Address``
is not a private type. In implementations of ``GNAT`` where
System.Address is a visible integer type,
this pragma serves no purpose but is ignored
rather than rejected to allow common sets of sources to be used
in the two situations.
.. _Pragma-Annotate:
Pragma Annotate
===============
Syntax::
pragma Annotate (IDENTIFIER [, IDENTIFIER {, ARG}] [, entity => local_NAME]);
ARG ::= NAME | EXPRESSION
This pragma is used to annotate programs. IDENTIFIER identifies
the type of annotation. GNAT verifies that it is an identifier, but does
not otherwise analyze it. The second optional identifier is also left
unanalyzed, and by convention is used to control the action of the tool to
which the annotation is addressed. The remaining ARG arguments
can be either string literals or more generally expressions.
String literals (and concatenations of string literals) are assumed to be
either of type
``Standard.String`` or else ``Wide_String`` or ``Wide_Wide_String``
depending on the character literals they contain.
All other kinds of arguments are analyzed as expressions, and must be
unambiguous. The last argument if present must have the identifier
``Entity`` and GNAT verifies that a local name is given.
The analyzed pragma is retained in the tree, but not otherwise processed
by any part of the GNAT compiler, except to generate corresponding note
lines in the generated ALI file. For the format of these note lines, see
the compiler source file lib-writ.ads. This pragma is intended for use by
external tools, including ASIS. The use of pragma Annotate does not
affect the compilation process in any way. This pragma may be used as
a configuration pragma.
Pragma Assert
=============
Syntax::
pragma Assert (
boolean_EXPRESSION
[, string_EXPRESSION]);
The effect of this pragma depends on whether the corresponding command
line switch is set to activate assertions. The pragma expands into code
equivalent to the following:
.. code-block:: ada
if assertions-enabled then
if not boolean_EXPRESSION then
System.Assertions.Raise_Assert_Failure
(string_EXPRESSION);
end if;
end if;
The string argument, if given, is the message that will be associated
with the exception occurrence if the exception is raised. If no second
argument is given, the default message is ``file``:``nnn``,
where ``file`` is the name of the source file containing the assert,
and ``nnn`` is the line number of the assert.
Note that, as with the ``if`` statement to which it is equivalent, the
type of the expression is either ``Standard.Boolean``, or any type derived
from this standard type.
Assert checks can be either checked or ignored. By default they are ignored.
They will be checked if either the command line switch *-gnata* is
used, or if an ``Assertion_Policy`` or ``Check_Policy`` pragma is used
to enable ``Assert_Checks``.
If assertions are ignored, then there
is no run-time effect (and in particular, any side effects from the
expression will not occur at run time). (The expression is still
analyzed at compile time, and may cause types to be frozen if they are
mentioned here for the first time).
If assertions are checked, then the given expression is tested, and if
it is ``False`` then ``System.Assertions.Raise_Assert_Failure`` is called
which results in the raising of ``Assert_Failure`` with the given message.
You should generally avoid side effects in the expression arguments of
this pragma, because these side effects will turn on and off with the
setting of the assertions mode, resulting in assertions that have an
effect on the program. However, the expressions are analyzed for
semantic correctness whether or not assertions are enabled, so turning
assertions on and off cannot affect the legality of a program.
Note that the implementation defined policy ``DISABLE``, given in a
pragma ``Assertion_Policy``, can be used to suppress this semantic analysis.
Note: this is a standard language-defined pragma in versions
of Ada from 2005 on. In GNAT, it is implemented in all versions
of Ada, and the DISABLE policy is an implementation-defined
addition.
Pragma Assert_And_Cut
=====================
Syntax::
pragma Assert_And_Cut (
boolean_EXPRESSION
[, string_EXPRESSION]);
The effect of this pragma is identical to that of pragma ``Assert``,
except that in an ``Assertion_Policy`` pragma, the identifier
``Assert_And_Cut`` is used to control whether it is ignored or checked
(or disabled).
The intention is that this be used within a subprogram when the
given test expresion sums up all the work done so far in the
subprogram, so that the rest of the subprogram can be verified
(informally or formally) using only the entry preconditions,
and the expression in this pragma. This allows dividing up
a subprogram into sections for the purposes of testing or
formal verification. The pragma also serves as useful
documentation.
Pragma Assertion_Policy
=======================
Syntax::
pragma Assertion_Policy (CHECK | DISABLE | IGNORE | SUPPRESSIBLE);
pragma Assertion_Policy (
ASSERTION_KIND => POLICY_IDENTIFIER
{, ASSERTION_KIND => POLICY_IDENTIFIER});
ASSERTION_KIND ::= RM_ASSERTION_KIND | ID_ASSERTION_KIND
RM_ASSERTION_KIND ::= Assert |
Static_Predicate |
Dynamic_Predicate |
Pre |
Pre'Class |
Post |
Post'Class |
Type_Invariant |
Type_Invariant'Class |
Default_Initial_Condition
ID_ASSERTION_KIND ::= Assertions |
Assert_And_Cut |
Assume |
Contract_Cases |
Debug |
Ghost |
Initial_Condition |
Invariant |
Invariant'Class |
Loop_Invariant |
Loop_Variant |
Postcondition |
Precondition |
Predicate |
Refined_Post |
Statement_Assertions |
Subprogram_Variant
POLICY_IDENTIFIER ::= Check | Disable | Ignore | Suppressible
This is a standard Ada 2012 pragma that is available as an
implementation-defined pragma in earlier versions of Ada.
The assertion kinds ``RM_ASSERTION_KIND`` are those defined in
the Ada standard. The assertion kinds ``ID_ASSERTION_KIND``
are implementation defined additions recognized by the GNAT compiler.
The pragma applies in both cases to pragmas and aspects with matching
names, e.g. ``Pre`` applies to the Pre aspect, and ``Precondition``
applies to both the ``Precondition`` pragma
and the aspect ``Precondition``. Note that the identifiers for
pragmas Pre_Class and Post_Class are Pre'Class and Post'Class (not
Pre_Class and Post_Class), since these pragmas are intended to be
identical to the corresponding aspects).
If the policy is ``CHECK``, then assertions are enabled, i.e.
the corresponding pragma or aspect is activated.
If the policy is ``IGNORE``, then assertions are ignored, i.e.
the corresponding pragma or aspect is deactivated.
This pragma overrides the effect of the *-gnata* switch on the
command line.
If the policy is ``SUPPRESSIBLE``, then assertions are enabled by default,
however, if the *-gnatp* switch is specified all assertions are ignored.
The implementation defined policy ``DISABLE`` is like
``IGNORE`` except that it completely disables semantic
checking of the corresponding pragma or aspect. This is
useful when the pragma or aspect argument references subprograms
in a with'ed package which is replaced by a dummy package
for the final build.
The implementation defined assertion kind ``Assertions`` applies to all
assertion kinds. The form with no assertion kind given implies this
choice, so it applies to all assertion kinds (RM defined, and
implementation defined).
The implementation defined assertion kind ``Statement_Assertions``
applies to ``Assert``, ``Assert_And_Cut``,
``Assume``, ``Loop_Invariant``, and ``Loop_Variant``.
Pragma Assume
=============
Syntax:
::
pragma Assume (
boolean_EXPRESSION
[, string_EXPRESSION]);
The effect of this pragma is identical to that of pragma ``Assert``,
except that in an ``Assertion_Policy`` pragma, the identifier
``Assume`` is used to control whether it is ignored or checked
(or disabled).
The intention is that this be used for assumptions about the
external environment. So you cannot expect to verify formally
or informally that the condition is met, this must be
established by examining things outside the program itself.
For example, we may have code that depends on the size of
``Long_Long_Integer`` being at least 64. So we could write:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Assume (Long_Long_Integer'Size >= 64);
This assumption cannot be proved from the program itself,
but it acts as a useful run-time check that the assumption
is met, and documents the need to ensure that it is met by
reference to information outside the program.
Pragma Assume_No_Invalid_Values
===============================
.. index:: Invalid representations
.. index:: Invalid values
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Assume_No_Invalid_Values (On | Off);
This is a configuration pragma that controls the assumptions made by the
compiler about the occurrence of invalid representations (invalid values)
in the code.
The default behavior (corresponding to an Off argument for this pragma), is
to assume that values may in general be invalid unless the compiler can
prove they are valid. Consider the following example:
.. code-block:: ada
V1 : Integer range 1 .. 10;
V2 : Integer range 11 .. 20;
...
for J in V2 .. V1 loop
...
end loop;
if V1 and V2 have valid values, then the loop is known at compile
time not to execute since the lower bound must be greater than the
upper bound. However in default mode, no such assumption is made,
and the loop may execute. If ``Assume_No_Invalid_Values (On)``
is given, the compiler will assume that any occurrence of a variable
other than in an explicit ``'Valid`` test always has a valid
value, and the loop above will be optimized away.
The use of ``Assume_No_Invalid_Values (On)`` is appropriate if
you know your code is free of uninitialized variables and other
possible sources of invalid representations, and may result in
more efficient code. A program that accesses an invalid representation
with this pragma in effect is erroneous, so no guarantees can be made
about its behavior.
It is peculiar though permissible to use this pragma in conjunction
with validity checking (-gnatVa). In such cases, accessing invalid
values will generally give an exception, though formally the program
is erroneous so there are no guarantees that this will always be the
case, and it is recommended that these two options not be used together.
.. _Pragma-Async_Readers:
Pragma Async_Readers
====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Async_Readers [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Async_Readers`` in
the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.2.
.. _Pragma-Async_Writers:
Pragma Async_Writers
====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Async_Writers [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Async_Writers`` in
the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.2.
Pragma Attribute_Definition
===========================
Syntax:
::
pragma Attribute_Definition
([Attribute =>] ATTRIBUTE_DESIGNATOR,
[Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME,
[Expression =>] EXPRESSION | NAME);
If ``Attribute`` is a known attribute name, this pragma is equivalent to
the attribute definition clause:
.. code-block:: ada
for Entity'Attribute use Expression;
If ``Attribute`` is not a recognized attribute name, the pragma is
ignored, and a warning is emitted. This allows source
code to be written that takes advantage of some new attribute, while remaining
compilable with earlier compilers.
Pragma C_Pass_By_Copy
=====================
.. index:: Passing by copy
Syntax:
::
pragma C_Pass_By_Copy
([Max_Size =>] static_integer_EXPRESSION);
Normally the default mechanism for passing C convention records to C
convention subprograms is to pass them by reference, as suggested by RM
B.3(69). Use the configuration pragma ``C_Pass_By_Copy`` to change
this default, by requiring that record formal parameters be passed by
copy if all of the following conditions are met:
*
The size of the record type does not exceed the value specified for
``Max_Size``.
*
The record type has ``Convention C``.
*
The formal parameter has this record type, and the subprogram has a
foreign (non-Ada) convention.
If these conditions are met the argument is passed by copy; i.e., in a
manner consistent with what C expects if the corresponding formal in the
C prototype is a struct (rather than a pointer to a struct).
You can also pass records by copy by specifying the convention
``C_Pass_By_Copy`` for the record type, or by using the extended
``Import`` and ``Export`` pragmas, which allow specification of
passing mechanisms on a parameter by parameter basis.
Pragma Check
============
.. index:: Assertions
.. index:: Named assertions
Syntax:
::
pragma Check (
[Name =>] CHECK_KIND,
[Check =>] Boolean_EXPRESSION
[, [Message =>] string_EXPRESSION] );
CHECK_KIND ::= IDENTIFIER |
Pre'Class |
Post'Class |
Type_Invariant'Class |
Invariant'Class
This pragma is similar to the predefined pragma ``Assert`` except that an
extra identifier argument is present. In conjunction with pragma
``Check_Policy``, this can be used to define groups of assertions that can
be independently controlled. The identifier ``Assertion`` is special, it
refers to the normal set of pragma ``Assert`` statements.
Checks introduced by this pragma are normally deactivated by default. They can
be activated either by the command line option *-gnata*, which turns on
all checks, or individually controlled using pragma ``Check_Policy``.
The identifiers ``Assertions`` and ``Statement_Assertions`` are not
permitted as check kinds, since this would cause confusion with the use
of these identifiers in ``Assertion_Policy`` and ``Check_Policy``
pragmas, where they are used to refer to sets of assertions.
Pragma Check_Float_Overflow
===========================
.. index:: Floating-point overflow
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Check_Float_Overflow;
In Ada, the predefined floating-point types (``Short_Float``,
``Float``, ``Long_Float``, ``Long_Long_Float``) are
defined to be *unconstrained*. This means that even though each
has a well-defined base range, an operation that delivers a result
outside this base range is not required to raise an exception.
This implementation permission accommodates the notion
of infinities in IEEE floating-point, and corresponds to the
efficient execution mode on most machines. GNAT will not raise
overflow exceptions on these machines; instead it will generate
infinities and NaN's as defined in the IEEE standard.
Generating infinities, although efficient, is not always desirable.
Often the preferable approach is to check for overflow, even at the
(perhaps considerable) expense of run-time performance.
This can be accomplished by defining your own constrained floating-point subtypes -- i.e., by supplying explicit
range constraints -- and indeed such a subtype
can have the same base range as its base type. For example:
.. code-block:: ada
subtype My_Float is Float range Float'Range;
Here ``My_Float`` has the same range as
``Float`` but is constrained, so operations on
``My_Float`` values will be checked for overflow
against this range.
This style will achieve the desired goal, but
it is often more convenient to be able to simply use
the standard predefined floating-point types as long
as overflow checking could be guaranteed.
The ``Check_Float_Overflow``
configuration pragma achieves this effect. If a unit is compiled
subject to this configuration pragma, then all operations
on predefined floating-point types including operations on
base types of these floating-point types will be treated as
though those types were constrained, and overflow checks
will be generated. The ``Constraint_Error``
exception is raised if the result is out of range.
This mode can also be set by use of the compiler
switch *-gnateF*.
Pragma Check_Name
=================
.. index:: Defining check names
.. index:: Check names, defining
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Check_Name (check_name_IDENTIFIER);
This is a configuration pragma that defines a new implementation
defined check name (unless IDENTIFIER matches one of the predefined
check names, in which case the pragma has no effect). Check names
are global to a partition, so if two or more configuration pragmas
are present in a partition mentioning the same name, only one new
check name is introduced.
An implementation defined check name introduced with this pragma may
be used in only three contexts: ``pragma Suppress``,
``pragma Unsuppress``,
and as the prefix of a ``Check_Name'Enabled`` attribute reference. For
any of these three cases, the check name must be visible. A check
name is visible if it is in the configuration pragmas applying to
the current unit, or if it appears at the start of any unit that
is part of the dependency set of the current unit (e.g., units that
are mentioned in ``with`` clauses).
Check names introduced by this pragma are subject to control by compiler
switches (in particular -gnatp) in the usual manner.
Pragma Check_Policy
===================
.. index:: Controlling assertions
.. index:: Assertions, control
.. index:: Check pragma control
.. index:: Named assertions
Syntax:
::
pragma Check_Policy
([Name =>] CHECK_KIND,
[Policy =>] POLICY_IDENTIFIER);
pragma Check_Policy (
CHECK_KIND => POLICY_IDENTIFIER
{, CHECK_KIND => POLICY_IDENTIFIER});
ASSERTION_KIND ::= RM_ASSERTION_KIND | ID_ASSERTION_KIND
CHECK_KIND ::= IDENTIFIER |
Pre'Class |
Post'Class |
Type_Invariant'Class |
Invariant'Class
The identifiers Name and Policy are not allowed as CHECK_KIND values. This
avoids confusion between the two possible syntax forms for this pragma.
POLICY_IDENTIFIER ::= ON | OFF | CHECK | DISABLE | IGNORE
This pragma is used to set the checking policy for assertions (specified
by aspects or pragmas), the ``Debug`` pragma, or additional checks
to be checked using the ``Check`` pragma. It may appear either as
a configuration pragma, or within a declarative part of package. In the
latter case, it applies from the point where it appears to the end of
the declarative region (like pragma ``Suppress``).
The ``Check_Policy`` pragma is similar to the
predefined ``Assertion_Policy`` pragma,
and if the check kind corresponds to one of the assertion kinds that
are allowed by ``Assertion_Policy``, then the effect is identical.
If the first argument is Debug, then the policy applies to Debug pragmas,
disabling their effect if the policy is ``OFF``, ``DISABLE``, or
``IGNORE``, and allowing them to execute with normal semantics if
the policy is ``ON`` or ``CHECK``. In addition if the policy is
``DISABLE``, then the procedure call in ``Debug`` pragmas will
be totally ignored and not analyzed semantically.
Finally the first argument may be some other identifier than the above
possibilities, in which case it controls a set of named assertions
that can be checked using pragma ``Check``. For example, if the pragma:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Check_Policy (Critical_Error, OFF);
is given, then subsequent ``Check`` pragmas whose first argument is also
``Critical_Error`` will be disabled.
The check policy is ``OFF`` to turn off corresponding checks, and ``ON``
to turn on corresponding checks. The default for a set of checks for which no
``Check_Policy`` is given is ``OFF`` unless the compiler switch
*-gnata* is given, which turns on all checks by default.
The check policy settings ``CHECK`` and ``IGNORE`` are recognized
as synonyms for ``ON`` and ``OFF``. These synonyms are provided for
compatibility with the standard ``Assertion_Policy`` pragma. The check
policy setting ``DISABLE`` causes the second argument of a corresponding
``Check`` pragma to be completely ignored and not analyzed.
Pragma Comment
==============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Comment (static_string_EXPRESSION);
This is almost identical in effect to pragma ``Ident``. It allows the
placement of a comment into the object file and hence into the
executable file if the operating system permits such usage. The
difference is that ``Comment``, unlike ``Ident``, has
no limitations on placement of the pragma (it can be placed
anywhere in the main source unit), and if more than one pragma
is used, all comments are retained.
Pragma Common_Object
====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Common_Object (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Size =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL] );
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
This pragma enables the shared use of variables stored in overlaid
linker areas corresponding to the use of ``COMMON``
in Fortran. The single
object ``LOCAL_NAME`` is assigned to the area designated by
the ``External`` argument.
You may define a record to correspond to a series
of fields. The ``Size`` argument
is syntax checked in GNAT, but otherwise ignored.
``Common_Object`` is not supported on all platforms. If no
support is available, then the code generator will issue a message
indicating that the necessary attribute for implementation of this
pragma is not available.
.. _Compile_Time_Error:
Pragma Compile_Time_Error
=========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Compile_Time_Error
(boolean_EXPRESSION, static_string_EXPRESSION);
This pragma can be used to generate additional compile time
error messages. It
is particularly useful in generics, where errors can be issued for
specific problematic instantiations. The first parameter is a boolean
expression. The pragma ensures that the value of an expression
is known at compile time, and has the value False. The set of expressions
whose values are known at compile time includes all static boolean
expressions, and also other values which the compiler can determine
at compile time (e.g., the size of a record type set by an explicit
size representation clause, or the value of a variable which was
initialized to a constant and is known not to have been modified).
If these conditions are not met, an error message is generated using
the value given as the second argument. This string value may contain
embedded ASCII.LF characters to break the message into multiple lines.
Pragma Compile_Time_Warning
===========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Compile_Time_Warning
(boolean_EXPRESSION, static_string_EXPRESSION);
Same as pragma Compile_Time_Error, except a warning is issued instead
of an error message. If switch *-gnatw_C* is used, a warning is only issued
if the value of the expression is known to be True at compile time, not when
the value of the expression is not known at compile time.
Note that if this pragma is used in a package that
is with'ed by a client, the client will get the warning even though it
is issued by a with'ed package (normally warnings in with'ed units are
suppressed, but this is a special exception to that rule).
One typical use is within a generic where compile time known characteristics
of formal parameters are tested, and warnings given appropriately. Another use
with a first parameter of True is to warn a client about use of a package,
for example that it is not fully implemented.
In previous versions of the compiler, combining *-gnatwe* with
Compile_Time_Warning resulted in a fatal error. Now the compiler always emits
a warning. You can use :ref:`Compile_Time_Error` to force the generation of
an error.
Pragma Compiler_Unit
====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Compiler_Unit;
This pragma is obsolete. It is equivalent to Compiler_Unit_Warning. It is
retained so that old versions of the GNAT run-time that use this pragma can
be compiled with newer versions of the compiler.
Pragma Compiler_Unit_Warning
============================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Compiler_Unit_Warning;
This pragma is intended only for internal use in the GNAT run-time library.
It indicates that the unit is used as part of the compiler build. The effect
is to generate warnings for the use of constructs (for example, conditional
expressions) that would cause trouble when bootstrapping using an older
version of GNAT. For the exact list of restrictions, see the compiler sources
and references to Check_Compiler_Unit.
Pragma Complete_Representation
==============================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Complete_Representation;
This pragma must appear immediately within a record representation
clause. Typical placements are before the first component clause
or after the last component clause. The effect is to give an error
message if any component is missing a component clause. This pragma
may be used to ensure that a record representation clause is
complete, and that this invariant is maintained if fields are
added to the record in the future.
Pragma Complex_Representation
=============================
Syntax:
::
pragma Complex_Representation
([Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME);
The ``Entity`` argument must be the name of a record type which has
two fields of the same floating-point type. The effect of this pragma is
to force gcc to use the special internal complex representation form for
this record, which may be more efficient. Note that this may result in
the code for this type not conforming to standard ABI (application
binary interface) requirements for the handling of record types. For
example, in some environments, there is a requirement for passing
records by pointer, and the use of this pragma may result in passing
this type in floating-point registers.
Pragma Component_Alignment
==========================
.. index:: Alignments of components
.. index:: Pragma Component_Alignment
Syntax:
::
pragma Component_Alignment (
[Form =>] ALIGNMENT_CHOICE
[, [Name =>] type_LOCAL_NAME]);
ALIGNMENT_CHOICE ::=
Component_Size
| Component_Size_4
| Storage_Unit
| Default
Specifies the alignment of components in array or record types.
The meaning of the ``Form`` argument is as follows:
.. index:: Component_Size (in pragma Component_Alignment)
*Component_Size*
Aligns scalar components and subcomponents of the array or record type
on boundaries appropriate to their inherent size (naturally
aligned). For example, 1-byte components are aligned on byte boundaries,
2-byte integer components are aligned on 2-byte boundaries, 4-byte
integer components are aligned on 4-byte boundaries and so on. These
alignment rules correspond to the normal rules for C compilers on all
machines except the VAX.
.. index:: Component_Size_4 (in pragma Component_Alignment)
*Component_Size_4*
Naturally aligns components with a size of four or fewer
bytes. Components that are larger than 4 bytes are placed on the next
4-byte boundary.
.. index:: Storage_Unit (in pragma Component_Alignment)
*Storage_Unit*
Specifies that array or record components are byte aligned, i.e.,
aligned on boundaries determined by the value of the constant
``System.Storage_Unit``.
.. index:: Default (in pragma Component_Alignment)
*Default*
Specifies that array or record components are aligned on default
boundaries, appropriate to the underlying hardware or operating system or
both. The ``Default`` choice is the same as ``Component_Size`` (natural
alignment).
If the ``Name`` parameter is present, ``type_LOCAL_NAME`` must
refer to a local record or array type, and the specified alignment
choice applies to the specified type. The use of
``Component_Alignment`` together with a pragma ``Pack`` causes the
``Component_Alignment`` pragma to be ignored. The use of
``Component_Alignment`` together with a record representation clause
is only effective for fields not specified by the representation clause.
If the ``Name`` parameter is absent, the pragma can be used as either
a configuration pragma, in which case it applies to one or more units in
accordance with the normal rules for configuration pragmas, or it can be
used within a declarative part, in which case it applies to types that
are declared within this declarative part, or within any nested scope
within this declarative part. In either case it specifies the alignment
to be applied to any record or array type which has otherwise standard
representation.
If the alignment for a record or array type is not specified (using
pragma ``Pack``, pragma ``Component_Alignment``, or a record rep
clause), the GNAT uses the default alignment as described previously.
.. _Pragma-Constant_After_Elaboration:
Pragma Constant_After_Elaboration
=================================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Constant_After_Elaboration [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect
``Constant_After_Elaboration`` in the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 3.3.1.
.. _Pragma-Contract_Cases:
Pragma Contract_Cases
=====================
.. index:: Contract cases
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Contract_Cases ((CONTRACT_CASE {, CONTRACT_CASE));
CONTRACT_CASE ::= CASE_GUARD => CONSEQUENCE
CASE_GUARD ::= boolean_EXPRESSION | others
CONSEQUENCE ::= boolean_EXPRESSION
The ``Contract_Cases`` pragma allows defining fine-grain specifications
that can complement or replace the contract given by a precondition and a
postcondition. Additionally, the ``Contract_Cases`` pragma can be used
by testing and formal verification tools. The compiler checks its validity and,
depending on the assertion policy at the point of declaration of the pragma,
it may insert a check in the executable. For code generation, the contract
cases
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Contract_Cases (
Cond1 => Pred1,
Cond2 => Pred2);
are equivalent to
.. code-block:: ada
C1 : constant Boolean := Cond1; -- evaluated at subprogram entry
C2 : constant Boolean := Cond2; -- evaluated at subprogram entry
pragma Precondition ((C1 and not C2) or (C2 and not C1));
pragma Postcondition (if C1 then Pred1);
pragma Postcondition (if C2 then Pred2);
The precondition ensures that one and only one of the case guards is
satisfied on entry to the subprogram.
The postcondition ensures that for the case guard that was True on entry,
the corresponding consequence is True on exit. Other consequence expressions
are not evaluated.
A precondition ``P`` and postcondition ``Q`` can also be
expressed as contract cases:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Contract_Cases (P => Q);
The placement and visibility rules for ``Contract_Cases`` pragmas are
identical to those described for preconditions and postconditions.
The compiler checks that boolean expressions given in case guards and
consequences are valid, where the rules for case guards are the same as
the rule for an expression in ``Precondition`` and the rules for
consequences are the same as the rule for an expression in
``Postcondition``. In particular, attributes ``'Old`` and
``'Result`` can only be used within consequence expressions.
The case guard for the last contract case may be ``others``, to denote
any case not captured by the previous cases. The
following is an example of use within a package spec:
.. code-block:: ada
package Math_Functions is
...
function Sqrt (Arg : Float) return Float;
pragma Contract_Cases (((Arg in 0.0 .. 99.0) => Sqrt'Result < 10.0,
Arg >= 100.0 => Sqrt'Result >= 10.0,
others => Sqrt'Result = 0.0));
...
end Math_Functions;
The meaning of contract cases is that only one case should apply at each
call, as determined by the corresponding case guard evaluating to True,
and that the consequence for this case should hold when the subprogram
returns.
Pragma Convention_Identifier
============================
.. index:: Conventions, synonyms
Syntax:
::
pragma Convention_Identifier (
[Name =>] IDENTIFIER,
[Convention =>] convention_IDENTIFIER);
This pragma provides a mechanism for supplying synonyms for existing
convention identifiers. The ``Name`` identifier can subsequently
be used as a synonym for the given convention in other pragmas (including
for example pragma ``Import`` or another ``Convention_Identifier``
pragma). As an example of the use of this, suppose you had legacy code
which used Fortran77 as the identifier for Fortran. Then the pragma:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Convention_Identifier (Fortran77, Fortran);
would allow the use of the convention identifier ``Fortran77`` in
subsequent code, avoiding the need to modify the sources. As another
example, you could use this to parameterize convention requirements
according to systems. Suppose you needed to use ``Stdcall`` on
windows systems, and ``C`` on some other system, then you could
define a convention identifier ``Library`` and use a single
``Convention_Identifier`` pragma to specify which convention
would be used system-wide.
Pragma CPP_Class
================
.. index:: Interfacing with C++
Syntax:
::
pragma CPP_Class ([Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME);
The argument denotes an entity in the current declarative region that is
declared as a record type. It indicates that the type corresponds to an
externally declared C++ class type, and is to be laid out the same way
that C++ would lay out the type. If the C++ class has virtual primitives
then the record must be declared as a tagged record type.
Types for which ``CPP_Class`` is specified do not have assignment or
equality operators defined (such operations can be imported or declared
as subprograms as required). Initialization is allowed only by constructor
functions (see pragma ``CPP_Constructor``). Such types are implicitly
limited if not explicitly declared as limited or derived from a limited
type, and an error is issued in that case.
See :ref:`Interfacing_to_C++` for related information.
Note: Pragma ``CPP_Class`` is currently obsolete. It is supported
for backward compatibility but its functionality is available
using pragma ``Import`` with ``Convention`` = ``CPP``.
Pragma CPP_Constructor
======================
.. index:: Interfacing with C++
Syntax:
::
pragma CPP_Constructor ([Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External_Name =>] static_string_EXPRESSION ]
[, [Link_Name =>] static_string_EXPRESSION ]);
This pragma identifies an imported function (imported in the usual way
with pragma ``Import``) as corresponding to a C++ constructor. If
``External_Name`` and ``Link_Name`` are not specified then the
``Entity`` argument is a name that must have been previously mentioned
in a pragma ``Import`` with ``Convention`` = ``CPP``. Such name
must be of one of the following forms:
*
**function** ``Fname`` **return** T`
*
**function** ``Fname`` **return** T'Class
*
**function** ``Fname`` (...) **return** T`
*
**function** ``Fname`` (...) **return** T'Class
where ``T`` is a limited record type imported from C++ with pragma
``Import`` and ``Convention`` = ``CPP``.
The first two forms import the default constructor, used when an object
of type ``T`` is created on the Ada side with no explicit constructor.
The latter two forms cover all the non-default constructors of the type.
See the GNAT User's Guide for details.
If no constructors are imported, it is impossible to create any objects
on the Ada side and the type is implicitly declared abstract.
Pragma ``CPP_Constructor`` is intended primarily for automatic generation
using an automatic binding generator tool (such as the :switch:`-fdump-ada-spec`
GCC switch).
See :ref:`Interfacing_to_C++` for more related information.
Note: The use of functions returning class-wide types for constructors is
currently obsolete. They are supported for backward compatibility. The
use of functions returning the type T leave the Ada sources more clear
because the imported C++ constructors always return an object of type T;
that is, they never return an object whose type is a descendant of type T.
Pragma CPP_Virtual
==================
.. index:: Interfacing to C++
This pragma is now obsolete and, other than generating a warning if warnings
on obsolescent features are enabled, is completely ignored.
It is retained for compatibility
purposes. It used to be required to ensure compoatibility with C++, but
is no longer required for that purpose because GNAT generates
the same object layout as the G++ compiler by default.
See :ref:`Interfacing_to_C++` for related information.
Pragma CPP_Vtable
=================
.. index:: Interfacing with C++
This pragma is now obsolete and, other than generating a warning if warnings
on obsolescent features are enabled, is completely ignored.
It used to be required to ensure compatibility with C++, but
is no longer required for that purpose because GNAT generates
the same object layout as the G++ compiler by default.
See :ref:`Interfacing_to_C++` for related information.
Pragma CPU
==========
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma CPU (EXPRESSION);
This pragma is standard in Ada 2012, but is available in all earlier
versions of Ada as an implementation-defined pragma.
See Ada 2012 Reference Manual for details.
Pragma Deadline_Floor
=====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Deadline_Floor (time_span_EXPRESSION);
This pragma applies only to protected types and specifies the floor
deadline inherited by a task when the task enters a protected object.
It is effective only when the EDF scheduling policy is used.
.. _Pragma-Default_Initial_Condition:
Pragma Default_Initial_Condition
================================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Default_Initial_Condition [ (null | boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect
``Default_Initial_Condition`` in the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.3.3.
Pragma Debug
============
Syntax:
::
pragma Debug ([CONDITION, ]PROCEDURE_CALL_WITHOUT_SEMICOLON);
PROCEDURE_CALL_WITHOUT_SEMICOLON ::=
PROCEDURE_NAME
| PROCEDURE_PREFIX ACTUAL_PARAMETER_PART
The procedure call argument has the syntactic form of an expression, meeting
the syntactic requirements for pragmas.
If debug pragmas are not enabled or if the condition is present and evaluates
to False, this pragma has no effect. If debug pragmas are enabled, the
semantics of the pragma is exactly equivalent to the procedure call statement
corresponding to the argument with a terminating semicolon. Pragmas are
permitted in sequences of declarations, so you can use pragma ``Debug`` to
intersperse calls to debug procedures in the middle of declarations. Debug
pragmas can be enabled either by use of the command line switch *-gnata*
or by use of the pragma ``Check_Policy`` with a first argument of
``Debug``.
Pragma Debug_Policy
===================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Debug_Policy (CHECK | DISABLE | IGNORE | ON | OFF);
This pragma is equivalent to a corresponding ``Check_Policy`` pragma
with a first argument of ``Debug``. It is retained for historical
compatibility reasons.
Pragma Default_Scalar_Storage_Order
===================================
.. index:: Default_Scalar_Storage_Order
.. index:: Scalar_Storage_Order
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Default_Scalar_Storage_Order (High_Order_First | Low_Order_First);
Normally if no explicit ``Scalar_Storage_Order`` is given for a record
type or array type, then the scalar storage order defaults to the ordinary
default for the target. But this default may be overridden using this pragma.
The pragma may appear as a configuration pragma, or locally within a package
spec or declarative part. In the latter case, it applies to all subsequent
types declared within that package spec or declarative part.
The following example shows the use of this pragma:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Default_Scalar_Storage_Order (High_Order_First);
with System; use System;
package DSSO1 is
type H1 is record
a : Integer;
end record;
type L2 is record
a : Integer;
end record;
for L2'Scalar_Storage_Order use Low_Order_First;
type L2a is new L2;
package Inner is
type H3 is record
a : Integer;
end record;
pragma Default_Scalar_Storage_Order (Low_Order_First);
type L4 is record
a : Integer;
end record;
end Inner;
type H4a is new Inner.L4;
type H5 is record
a : Integer;
end record;
end DSSO1;
In this example record types with names starting with *L* have `Low_Order_First` scalar
storage order, and record types with names starting with *H* have ``High_Order_First``.
Note that in the case of ``H4a``, the order is not inherited
from the parent type. Only an explicitly set ``Scalar_Storage_Order``
gets inherited on type derivation.
If this pragma is used as a configuration pragma which appears within a
configuration pragma file (as opposed to appearing explicitly at the start
of a single unit), then the binder will require that all units in a partition
be compiled in a similar manner, other than run-time units, which are not
affected by this pragma. Note that the use of this form is discouraged because
it may significantly degrade the run-time performance of the software, instead
the default scalar storage order ought to be changed only on a local basis.
Pragma Default_Storage_Pool
===========================
.. index:: Default_Storage_Pool
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Default_Storage_Pool (storage_pool_NAME | null);
This pragma is standard in Ada 2012, but is available in all earlier
versions of Ada as an implementation-defined pragma.
See Ada 2012 Reference Manual for details.
.. _Pragma-Depends:
Pragma Depends
==============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Depends (DEPENDENCY_RELATION);
DEPENDENCY_RELATION ::=
null
| (DEPENDENCY_CLAUSE {, DEPENDENCY_CLAUSE})
DEPENDENCY_CLAUSE ::=
OUTPUT_LIST =>[+] INPUT_LIST
| NULL_DEPENDENCY_CLAUSE
NULL_DEPENDENCY_CLAUSE ::= null => INPUT_LIST
OUTPUT_LIST ::= OUTPUT | (OUTPUT {, OUTPUT})
INPUT_LIST ::= null | INPUT | (INPUT {, INPUT})
OUTPUT ::= NAME | FUNCTION_RESULT
INPUT ::= NAME
where FUNCTION_RESULT is a function Result attribute_reference
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Depends`` in the
SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 6.1.5.
Pragma Detect_Blocking
======================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Detect_Blocking;
This is a standard pragma in Ada 2005, that is available in all earlier
versions of Ada as an implementation-defined pragma.
This is a configuration pragma that forces the detection of potentially
blocking operations within a protected operation, and to raise Program_Error
if that happens.
Pragma Disable_Atomic_Synchronization
=====================================
.. index:: Atomic Synchronization
Syntax:
::
pragma Disable_Atomic_Synchronization [(Entity)];
Ada requires that accesses (reads or writes) of an atomic variable be
regarded as synchronization points in the case of multiple tasks.
Particularly in the case of multi-processors this may require special
handling, e.g. the generation of memory barriers. This capability may
be turned off using this pragma in cases where it is known not to be
required.
The placement and scope rules for this pragma are the same as those
for ``pragma Suppress``. In particular it can be used as a
configuration pragma, or in a declaration sequence where it applies
till the end of the scope. If an ``Entity`` argument is present,
the action applies only to that entity.
Pragma Dispatching_Domain
=========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Dispatching_Domain (EXPRESSION);
This pragma is standard in Ada 2012, but is available in all earlier
versions of Ada as an implementation-defined pragma.
See Ada 2012 Reference Manual for details.
.. _Pragma-Effective_Reads:
Pragma Effective_Reads
======================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Effective_Reads [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Effective_Reads`` in
the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.2.
.. _Pragma-Effective_Writes:
Pragma Effective_Writes
=======================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Effective_Writes [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Effective_Writes``
in the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.2.
Pragma Elaboration_Checks
=========================
.. index:: Elaboration control
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Elaboration_Checks (Dynamic | Static);
This is a configuration pragma which specifies the elaboration model to be
used during compilation. For more information on the elaboration models of
GNAT, consult the chapter on elaboration order handling in the *GNAT User's
Guide*.
The pragma may appear in the following contexts:
* Configuration pragmas file
* Prior to the context clauses of a compilation unit's initial declaration
Any other placement of the pragma will result in a warning and the effects of
the offending pragma will be ignored.
If the pragma argument is ``Dynamic``, then the dynamic elaboration model is in
effect. If the pragma argument is ``Static``, then the static elaboration model
is in effect.
Pragma Eliminate
================
.. index:: Elimination of unused subprograms
Syntax:
::
pragma Eliminate (
[ Unit_Name => ] IDENTIFIER | SELECTED_COMPONENT ,
[ Entity => ] IDENTIFIER |
SELECTED_COMPONENT |
STRING_LITERAL
[, Source_Location => SOURCE_TRACE ] );
SOURCE_TRACE ::= STRING_LITERAL
This pragma indicates that the given entity is not used in the program to be
compiled and built, thus allowing the compiler to
eliminate the code or data associated with the named entity. Any reference to
an eliminated entity causes a compile-time or link-time error.
The pragma has the following semantics, where ``U`` is the unit specified by
the ``Unit_Name`` argument and ``E`` is the entity specified by the ``Entity``
argument:
* ``E`` must be a subprogram that is explicitly declared either:
o Within ``U``, or
o Within a generic package that is instantiated in ``U``, or
o As an instance of generic subprogram instantiated in ``U``.
Otherwise the pragma is ignored.
* If ``E`` is overloaded within ``U`` then, in the absence of a
``Source_Location`` argument, all overloadings are eliminated.
* If ``E`` is overloaded within ``U`` and only some overloadings
are to be eliminated, then each overloading to be eliminated
must be specified in a corresponding pragma ``Eliminate``
with a ``Source_Location`` argument identifying the line where the
declaration appears, as described below.
* If ``E`` is declared as the result of a generic instantiation, then
a ``Source_Location`` argument is needed, as described below
Pragma ``Eliminate`` allows a program to be compiled in a system-independent
manner, so that unused entities are eliminated but without
needing to modify the source text. Normally the required set of
``Eliminate`` pragmas is constructed automatically using the ``gnatelim`` tool.
Any source file change that removes, splits, or
adds lines may make the set of ``Eliminate`` pragmas invalid because their
``Source_Location`` argument values may get out of date.
Pragma ``Eliminate`` may be used where the referenced entity is a dispatching
operation. In this case all the subprograms to which the given operation can
dispatch are considered to be unused (are never called as a result of a direct
or a dispatching call).
The string literal given for the source location specifies the line number
of the declaration of the entity, using the following syntax for ``SOURCE_TRACE``:
::
SOURCE_TRACE ::= SOURCE_REFERENCE [ LBRACKET SOURCE_TRACE RBRACKET ]
LBRACKET ::= '['
RBRACKET ::= ']'
SOURCE_REFERENCE ::= FILE_NAME : LINE_NUMBER
LINE_NUMBER ::= DIGIT {DIGIT}
Spaces around the colon in a ``SOURCE_REFERENCE`` are optional.
The source trace that is given as the ``Source_Location`` must obey the
following rules (or else the pragma is ignored), where ``U`` is
the unit ``U`` specified by the ``Unit_Name`` argument and ``E`` is the
subprogram specified by the ``Entity`` argument:
* ``FILE_NAME`` is the short name (with no directory
information) of the Ada source file for ``U``, using the required syntax
for the underlying file system (e.g. case is significant if the underlying
operating system is case sensitive).
If ``U`` is a package and ``E`` is a subprogram declared in the package
specification and its full declaration appears in the package body,
then the relevant source file is the one for the package specification;
analogously if ``U`` is a generic package.
* If ``E`` is not declared in a generic instantiation (this includes
generic subprogram instances), the source trace includes only one source
line reference. ``LINE_NUMBER`` gives the line number of the occurrence
of the declaration of ``E`` within the source file (as a decimal literal
without an exponent or point).
* If ``E`` is declared by a generic instantiation, its source trace
(from left to right) starts with the source location of the
declaration of ``E`` in the generic unit and ends with the source
location of the instantiation, given in square brackets. This approach is
applied recursively with nested instantiations: the rightmost (nested
most deeply in square brackets) element of the source trace is the location
of the outermost instantiation, and the leftmost element (that is, outside
of any square brackets) is the location of the declaration of ``E`` in
the generic unit.
Examples:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Eliminate (Pkg0, Proc);
-- Eliminate (all overloadings of) Proc in Pkg0
pragma Eliminate (Pkg1, Proc,
Source_Location => "pkg1.ads:8");
-- Eliminate overloading of Proc at line 8 in pkg1.ads
-- Assume the following file contents:
-- gen_pkg.ads
-- 1: generic
-- 2: type T is private;
-- 3: package Gen_Pkg is
-- 4: procedure Proc(N : T);
-- ... ...
-- ... end Gen_Pkg;
--
-- q.adb
-- 1: with Gen_Pkg;
-- 2: procedure Q is
-- 3: package Inst_Pkg is new Gen_Pkg(Integer);
-- ... -- No calls on Inst_Pkg.Proc
-- ... end Q;
-- The following pragma eliminates Inst_Pkg.Proc from Q
pragma Eliminate (Q, Proc,
Source_Location => "gen_pkg.ads:4[q.adb:3]");
Pragma Enable_Atomic_Synchronization
====================================
.. index:: Atomic Synchronization
Syntax:
::
pragma Enable_Atomic_Synchronization [(Entity)];
Ada requires that accesses (reads or writes) of an atomic variable be
regarded as synchronization points in the case of multiple tasks.
Particularly in the case of multi-processors this may require special
handling, e.g. the generation of memory barriers. This synchronization
is performed by default, but can be turned off using
``pragma Disable_Atomic_Synchronization``. The
``Enable_Atomic_Synchronization`` pragma can be used to turn
it back on.
The placement and scope rules for this pragma are the same as those
for ``pragma Unsuppress``. In particular it can be used as a
configuration pragma, or in a declaration sequence where it applies
till the end of the scope. If an ``Entity`` argument is present,
the action applies only to that entity.
Pragma Export_Function
======================
.. index:: Argument passing mechanisms
Syntax:
::
pragma Export_Function (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Parameter_Types =>] PARAMETER_TYPES]
[, [Result_Type =>] result_SUBTYPE_MARK]
[, [Mechanism =>] MECHANISM]
[, [Result_Mechanism =>] MECHANISM_NAME]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
| ""
PARAMETER_TYPES ::=
null
| TYPE_DESIGNATOR {, TYPE_DESIGNATOR}
TYPE_DESIGNATOR ::=
subtype_NAME
| subtype_Name ' Access
MECHANISM ::=
MECHANISM_NAME
| (MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION {, MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION})
MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION ::=
[formal_parameter_NAME =>] MECHANISM_NAME
MECHANISM_NAME ::= Value | Reference
Use this pragma to make a function externally callable and optionally
provide information on mechanisms to be used for passing parameter and
result values. We recommend, for the purposes of improving portability,
this pragma always be used in conjunction with a separate pragma
``Export``, which must precede the pragma ``Export_Function``.
GNAT does not require a separate pragma ``Export``, but if none is
present, ``Convention Ada`` is assumed, which is usually
not what is wanted, so it is usually appropriate to use this
pragma in conjunction with a ``Export`` or ``Convention``
pragma that specifies the desired foreign convention.
Pragma ``Export_Function``
(and ``Export``, if present) must appear in the same declarative
region as the function to which they apply.
The ``internal_name`` must uniquely designate the function to which the
pragma applies. If more than one function name exists of this name in
the declarative part you must use the ``Parameter_Types`` and
``Result_Type`` parameters to achieve the required
unique designation. The `subtype_mark`\ s in these parameters must
exactly match the subtypes in the corresponding function specification,
using positional notation to match parameters with subtype marks.
The form with an ``'Access`` attribute can be used to match an
anonymous access parameter.
.. index:: Suppressing external name
Special treatment is given if the EXTERNAL is an explicit null
string or a static string expressions that evaluates to the null
string. In this case, no external name is generated. This form
still allows the specification of parameter mechanisms.
Pragma Export_Object
====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Export_Object
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Size =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
This pragma designates an object as exported, and apart from the
extended rules for external symbols, is identical in effect to the use of
the normal ``Export`` pragma applied to an object. You may use a
separate Export pragma (and you probably should from the point of view
of portability), but it is not required. ``Size`` is syntax checked,
but otherwise ignored by GNAT.
Pragma Export_Procedure
=======================
Syntax:
::
pragma Export_Procedure (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Parameter_Types =>] PARAMETER_TYPES]
[, [Mechanism =>] MECHANISM]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
| ""
PARAMETER_TYPES ::=
null
| TYPE_DESIGNATOR {, TYPE_DESIGNATOR}
TYPE_DESIGNATOR ::=
subtype_NAME
| subtype_Name ' Access
MECHANISM ::=
MECHANISM_NAME
| (MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION {, MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION})
MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION ::=
[formal_parameter_NAME =>] MECHANISM_NAME
MECHANISM_NAME ::= Value | Reference
This pragma is identical to ``Export_Function`` except that it
applies to a procedure rather than a function and the parameters
``Result_Type`` and ``Result_Mechanism`` are not permitted.
GNAT does not require a separate pragma ``Export``, but if none is
present, ``Convention Ada`` is assumed, which is usually
not what is wanted, so it is usually appropriate to use this
pragma in conjunction with a ``Export`` or ``Convention``
pragma that specifies the desired foreign convention.
.. index:: Suppressing external name
Special treatment is given if the EXTERNAL is an explicit null
string or a static string expressions that evaluates to the null
string. In this case, no external name is generated. This form
still allows the specification of parameter mechanisms.
Pragma Export_Valued_Procedure
==============================
Syntax:
::
pragma Export_Valued_Procedure (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Parameter_Types =>] PARAMETER_TYPES]
[, [Mechanism =>] MECHANISM]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
| ""
PARAMETER_TYPES ::=
null
| TYPE_DESIGNATOR {, TYPE_DESIGNATOR}
TYPE_DESIGNATOR ::=
subtype_NAME
| subtype_Name ' Access
MECHANISM ::=
MECHANISM_NAME
| (MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION {, MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION})
MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION ::=
[formal_parameter_NAME =>] MECHANISM_NAME
MECHANISM_NAME ::= Value | Reference
This pragma is identical to ``Export_Procedure`` except that the
first parameter of ``LOCAL_NAME``, which must be present, must be of
mode ``out``, and externally the subprogram is treated as a function
with this parameter as the result of the function. GNAT provides for
this capability to allow the use of ``out`` and ``in out``
parameters in interfacing to external functions (which are not permitted
in Ada functions).
GNAT does not require a separate pragma ``Export``, but if none is
present, ``Convention Ada`` is assumed, which is almost certainly
not what is wanted since the whole point of this pragma is to interface
with foreign language functions, so it is usually appropriate to use this
pragma in conjunction with a ``Export`` or ``Convention``
pragma that specifies the desired foreign convention.
.. index:: Suppressing external name
Special treatment is given if the EXTERNAL is an explicit null
string or a static string expressions that evaluates to the null
string. In this case, no external name is generated. This form
still allows the specification of parameter mechanisms.
Pragma Extend_System
====================
.. index:: System, extending
.. index:: DEC Ada 83
Syntax:
::
pragma Extend_System ([Name =>] IDENTIFIER);
This pragma is used to provide backwards compatibility with other
implementations that extend the facilities of package ``System``. In
GNAT, ``System`` contains only the definitions that are present in
the Ada RM. However, other implementations, notably the DEC Ada 83
implementation, provide many extensions to package ``System``.
For each such implementation accommodated by this pragma, GNAT provides a
package :samp:`Aux_{xxx}`, e.g., ``Aux_DEC`` for the DEC Ada 83
implementation, which provides the required additional definitions. You
can use this package in two ways. You can ``with`` it in the normal
way and access entities either by selection or using a ``use``
clause. In this case no special processing is required.
However, if existing code contains references such as
:samp:`System.{xxx}` where *xxx* is an entity in the extended
definitions provided in package ``System``, you may use this pragma
to extend visibility in ``System`` in a non-standard way that
provides greater compatibility with the existing code. Pragma
``Extend_System`` is a configuration pragma whose single argument is
the name of the package containing the extended definition
(e.g., ``Aux_DEC`` for the DEC Ada case). A unit compiled under
control of this pragma will be processed using special visibility
processing that looks in package :samp:`System.Aux_{xxx}` where
:samp:`Aux_{xxx}` is the pragma argument for any entity referenced in
package ``System``, but not found in package ``System``.
You can use this pragma either to access a predefined ``System``
extension supplied with the compiler, for example ``Aux_DEC`` or
you can construct your own extension unit following the above
definition. Note that such a package is a child of ``System``
and thus is considered part of the implementation.
To compile it you will have to use the *-gnatg* switch
for compiling System units, as explained in the
GNAT User's Guide.
Pragma Extensions_Allowed
=========================
.. index:: Ada Extensions
.. index:: GNAT Extensions
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Extensions_Allowed (On | Off);
This configuration pragma enables or disables the implementation
extension mode (the use of Off as a parameter cancels the effect
of the *-gnatX* command switch).
In extension mode, the latest version of the Ada language is
implemented (currently Ada 2022), and in addition a number
of GNAT specific extensions are recognized as follows:
* Constrained attribute for generic objects
The ``Constrained`` attribute is permitted for objects of
generic types. The result indicates if the corresponding actual
is constrained.
* ``Static`` aspect on intrinsic functions
The Ada 202x ``Static`` aspect can be specified on Intrinsic imported
functions and the compiler will evaluate some of these intrinsic statically,
in particular the ``Shift_Left`` and ``Shift_Right`` intrinsics.
* ``'Reduce`` attribute
This attribute part of the Ada 202x language definition is provided for
now under -gnatX to confirm and potentially refine its usage and syntax.
* ``[]`` aggregates
This new aggregate syntax for arrays and containers is provided under -gnatX
to experiment and confirm this new language syntax.
* Additional ``when`` constructs
In addition to the ``exit when CONDITION`` control structure, several
additional constructs are allowed following this format. Including
``return when CONDITION``, ``goto when CONDITION``, and
``raise [with EXCEPTION_MESSAGE] when CONDITION.``
Some examples:
.. code-block:: ada
return Result when Variable > 10;
raise Program_Error with "Element is null" when Element = null;
goto End_Of_Subprogram when Variable = -1;
* Casing on composite values (aka pattern matching)
The selector for a case statement may be of a composite type, subject to
some restrictions (described below). Aggregate syntax is used for choices
of such a case statement; however, in cases where a "normal" aggregate would
require a discrete value, a discrete subtype may be used instead; box
notation can also be used to match all values.
Consider this example:
.. code-block:: ada
type Rec is record
F1, F2 : Integer;
end record;
procedure Caser_1 (X : Rec) is
begin
case X is
when (F1 => Positive, F2 => Positive) =>
Do_This;
when (F1 => Natural, F2 => <>) | (F1 => <>, F2 => Natural) =>
Do_That;
when others =>
Do_The_Other_Thing;
end case;
end Caser_1;
If Caser_1 is called and both components of X are positive, then
Do_This will be called; otherwise, if either component is nonnegative
then Do_That will be called; otherwise, Do_The_Other_Thing will be called.
If the set of values that match the choice(s) of an earlier alternative
overlaps the corresponding set of a later alternative, then the first
set shall be a proper subset of the second (and the later alternative
will not be executed if the earlier alternative "matches"). All possible
values of the composite type shall be covered. The composite type of the
selector shall be a nonlimited untagged (but possibly discriminated)
record type, all of whose subcomponent subtypes are either static discrete
subtypes or record types that meet the same restrictions.
Support for casing on arrays (and on records that contain arrays) is
currently subject to some restrictions. Non-positional
array aggregates are not supported as (or within) case choices. Likewise
for array type and subtype names. The current implementation exceeds
compile-time capacity limits in some annoyingly common scenarios; the
message generated in such cases is usually "Capacity exceeded in compiling
case statement with composite selector type".
In addition, pattern bindings are supported. This is a mechanism
for binding a name to a component of a matching value for use within
an alternative of a case statement. For a component association
that occurs within a case choice, the expression may be followed by
"is <identifier>". In the special case of a "box" component association,
the identifier may instead be provided within the box. Either of these
indicates that the given identifer denotes (a constant view of) the matching
subcomponent of the case selector. Binding is not yet supported for arrays
or subcomponents thereof.
Consider this example (which uses type Rec from the previous example):
.. code-block:: ada
procedure Caser_2 (X : Rec) is
begin
case X is
when (F1 => Positive is Abc, F2 => Positive) =>
Do_This (Abc)
when (F1 => Natural is N1, F2 => <N2>) |
(F1 => <N2>, F2 => Natural is N1) =>
Do_That (Param_1 => N1, Param_2 => N2);
when others =>
Do_The_Other_Thing;
end case;
end Caser_2;
This example is the same as the previous one with respect to
determining whether Do_This, Do_That, or Do_The_Other_Thing will
be called. But for this version, Do_This takes a parameter and Do_That
takes two parameters. If Do_This is called, the actual parameter in the
call will be X.F1.
If Do_That is called, the situation is more complex because there are two
choices for that alternative. If Do_That is called because the first choice
matched (i.e., because X.F1 is nonnegative and either X.F1 or X.F2 is zero
or negative), then the actual parameters of the call will be (in order)
X.F1 and X.F2. If Do_That is called because the second choice matched (and
the first one did not), then the actual parameters will be reversed.
Within the choice list for single alternative, each choice must
define the same set of bindings and the component subtypes for
for a given identifer must all statically match. Currently, the case
of a binding for a nondiscrete component is not implemented.
* Fixed lower bounds for array types and subtypes
Unconstrained array types and subtypes can be specified with a lower bound
that is fixed to a certain value, by writing an index range that uses the
syntax "<lower-bound-expression> .. <>". This guarantees that all objects
of the type or subtype will have the specified lower bound.
For example, a matrix type with fixed lower bounds of zero for each
dimension can be declared by the following:
.. code-block:: ada
type Matrix is
array (Natural range 0 .. <>, Natural range 0 .. <>) of Integer;
Objects of type Matrix declared with an index constraint must have index
ranges starting at zero:
.. code-block:: ada
M1 : Matrix (0 .. 9, 0 .. 19);
M2 : Matrix (2 .. 11, 3 .. 22); -- Warning about bounds; will raise CE
Similarly, a subtype of String can be declared that specifies the lower
bound of objects of that subtype to be 1:
.. code-block:: ada
subtype String_1 is String (1 .. <>);
If a string slice is passed to a formal of subtype String_1 in a call to
a subprogram S, the slice's bounds will "slide" so that the lower bound
is 1. Within S, the lower bound of the formal is known to be 1, so, unlike
a normal unconstrained String formal, there is no need to worry about
accounting for other possible lower-bound values. Sliding of bounds also
occurs in other contexts, such as for object declarations with an
unconstrained subtype with fixed lower bound, as well as in subtype
conversions.
Use of this feature increases safety by simplifying code, and can also
improve the efficiency of indexing operations, since the compiler statically
knows the lower bound of unconstrained array formals when the formal's
subtype has index ranges with static fixed lower bounds.
* Prefixed-view notation for calls to primitive subprograms of untagged types
Since Ada 2005, calls to primitive subprograms of a tagged type that
have a "prefixed view" (see RM 4.1.3(9.2)) have been allowed to be
written using the form of a selected_component, with the first actual
parameter given as the prefix and the name of the subprogram as a
selector. This prefixed-view notation for calls is extended so as to
also allow such syntax for calls to primitive subprograms of untagged
types. The primitives of an untagged type T that have a prefixed view
are those where the first formal parameter of the subprogram either
is of type T or is an anonymous access parameter whose designated type
is T. For a type that has a component that happens to have the same
simple name as one of the type's primitive subprograms, where the
component is visible at the point of a selected_component using that
name, preference is given to the component in a selected_component
(as is currently the case for tagged types with such component names).
.. _Pragma-Extensions_Visible:
Pragma Extensions_Visible
=========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Extensions_Visible [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Extensions_Visible``
in the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 6.1.7.
Pragma External
===============
Syntax:
::
pragma External (
[ Convention =>] convention_IDENTIFIER,
[ Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External_Name =>] static_string_EXPRESSION ]
[, [Link_Name =>] static_string_EXPRESSION ]);
This pragma is identical in syntax and semantics to pragma
``Export`` as defined in the Ada Reference Manual. It is
provided for compatibility with some Ada 83 compilers that
used this pragma for exactly the same purposes as pragma
``Export`` before the latter was standardized.
Pragma External_Name_Casing
===========================
.. index:: Dec Ada 83 casing compatibility
.. index:: External Names, casing
.. index:: Casing of External names
Syntax:
::
pragma External_Name_Casing (
Uppercase | Lowercase
[, Uppercase | Lowercase | As_Is]);
This pragma provides control over the casing of external names associated
with Import and Export pragmas. There are two cases to consider:
* Implicit external names
Implicit external names are derived from identifiers. The most common case
arises when a standard Ada Import or Export pragma is used with only two
arguments, as in:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Import (C, C_Routine);
Since Ada is a case-insensitive language, the spelling of the identifier in
the Ada source program does not provide any information on the desired
casing of the external name, and so a convention is needed. In GNAT the
default treatment is that such names are converted to all lower case
letters. This corresponds to the normal C style in many environments.
The first argument of pragma ``External_Name_Casing`` can be used to
control this treatment. If ``Uppercase`` is specified, then the name
will be forced to all uppercase letters. If ``Lowercase`` is specified,
then the normal default of all lower case letters will be used.
This same implicit treatment is also used in the case of extended DEC Ada 83
compatible Import and Export pragmas where an external name is explicitly
specified using an identifier rather than a string.
* Explicit external names
Explicit external names are given as string literals. The most common case
arises when a standard Ada Import or Export pragma is used with three
arguments, as in:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Import (C, C_Routine, "C_routine");
In this case, the string literal normally provides the exact casing required
for the external name. The second argument of pragma
``External_Name_Casing`` may be used to modify this behavior.
If ``Uppercase`` is specified, then the name
will be forced to all uppercase letters. If ``Lowercase`` is specified,
then the name will be forced to all lowercase letters. A specification of
``As_Is`` provides the normal default behavior in which the casing is
taken from the string provided.
This pragma may appear anywhere that a pragma is valid. In particular, it
can be used as a configuration pragma in the :file:`gnat.adc` file, in which
case it applies to all subsequent compilations, or it can be used as a program
unit pragma, in which case it only applies to the current unit, or it can
be used more locally to control individual Import/Export pragmas.
It was primarily intended for use with OpenVMS systems, where many
compilers convert all symbols to upper case by default. For interfacing to
such compilers (e.g., the DEC C compiler), it may be convenient to use
the pragma:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma External_Name_Casing (Uppercase, Uppercase);
to enforce the upper casing of all external symbols.
Pragma Fast_Math
================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Fast_Math;
This is a configuration pragma which activates a mode in which speed is
considered more important for floating-point operations than absolutely
accurate adherence to the requirements of the standard. Currently the
following operations are affected:
*Complex Multiplication*
The normal simple formula for complex multiplication can result in intermediate
overflows for numbers near the end of the range. The Ada standard requires that
this situation be detected and corrected by scaling, but in Fast_Math mode such
cases will simply result in overflow. Note that to take advantage of this you
must instantiate your own version of ``Ada.Numerics.Generic_Complex_Types``
under control of the pragma, rather than use the preinstantiated versions.
.. _Pragma-Favor_Top_Level:
Pragma Favor_Top_Level
======================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Favor_Top_Level (type_NAME);
The argument of pragma ``Favor_Top_Level`` must be a named access-to-subprogram
type. This pragma is an efficiency hint to the compiler, regarding the use of
``'Access`` or ``'Unrestricted_Access`` on nested (non-library-level) subprograms.
The pragma means that nested subprograms are not used with this type, or are
rare, so that the generated code should be efficient in the top-level case.
When this pragma is used, dynamically generated trampolines may be used on some
targets for nested subprograms. See restriction ``No_Implicit_Dynamic_Code``.
Pragma Finalize_Storage_Only
============================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Finalize_Storage_Only (first_subtype_LOCAL_NAME);
The argument of pragma ``Finalize_Storage_Only`` must denote a local type which
is derived from ``Ada.Finalization.Controlled`` or ``Limited_Controlled``. The
pragma suppresses the call to ``Finalize`` for declared library-level objects
of the argument type. This is mostly useful for types where finalization is
only used to deal with storage reclamation since in most environments it is
not necessary to reclaim memory just before terminating execution, hence the
name. Note that this pragma does not suppress Finalize calls for library-level
heap-allocated objects (see pragma ``No_Heap_Finalization``).
Pragma Float_Representation
===========================
Syntax::
pragma Float_Representation (FLOAT_REP[, float_type_LOCAL_NAME]);
FLOAT_REP ::= VAX_Float | IEEE_Float
In the one argument form, this pragma is a configuration pragma which
allows control over the internal representation chosen for the predefined
floating point types declared in the packages ``Standard`` and
``System``. This pragma is only provided for compatibility and has no effect.
The two argument form specifies the representation to be used for
the specified floating-point type. The argument must
be ``IEEE_Float`` to specify the use of IEEE format, as follows:
*
For a digits value of 6, 32-bit IEEE short format will be used.
*
For a digits value of 15, 64-bit IEEE long format will be used.
*
No other value of digits is permitted.
.. _Pragma-Ghost:
Pragma Ghost
============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ghost [ (boolean_EXPRESSION) ];
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Ghost`` in the SPARK
2014 Reference Manual, section 6.9.
.. _Pragma-Global:
Pragma Global
=============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Global (GLOBAL_SPECIFICATION);
GLOBAL_SPECIFICATION ::=
null
| (GLOBAL_LIST)
| (MODED_GLOBAL_LIST {, MODED_GLOBAL_LIST})
MODED_GLOBAL_LIST ::= MODE_SELECTOR => GLOBAL_LIST
MODE_SELECTOR ::= In_Out | Input | Output | Proof_In
GLOBAL_LIST ::= GLOBAL_ITEM | (GLOBAL_ITEM {, GLOBAL_ITEM})
GLOBAL_ITEM ::= NAME
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Global`` in the
SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 6.1.4.
Pragma Ident
============
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ident (static_string_EXPRESSION);
This pragma is identical in effect to pragma ``Comment``. It is provided
for compatibility with other Ada compilers providing this pragma.
Pragma Ignore_Pragma
====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Ignore_Pragma (pragma_IDENTIFIER);
This is a configuration pragma
that takes a single argument that is a simple identifier. Any subsequent
use of a pragma whose pragma identifier matches this argument will be
silently ignored. This may be useful when legacy code or code intended
for compilation with some other compiler contains pragmas that match the
name, but not the exact implementation, of a GNAT pragma. The use of this
pragma allows such pragmas to be ignored, which may be useful in CodePeer
mode, or during porting of legacy code.
Pragma Implementation_Defined
=============================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Implementation_Defined (local_NAME);
This pragma marks a previously declared entity as implementation-defined.
For an overloaded entity, applies to the most recent homonym.
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Implementation_Defined;
The form with no arguments appears anywhere within a scope, most
typically a package spec, and indicates that all entities that are
defined within the package spec are Implementation_Defined.
This pragma is used within the GNAT runtime library to identify
implementation-defined entities introduced in language-defined units,
for the purpose of implementing the No_Implementation_Identifiers
restriction.
Pragma Implemented
==================
Syntax:
::
pragma Implemented (procedure_LOCAL_NAME, implementation_kind);
implementation_kind ::= By_Entry | By_Protected_Procedure | By_Any
This is an Ada 2012 representation pragma which applies to protected, task
and synchronized interface primitives. The use of pragma Implemented provides
a way to impose a static requirement on the overriding operation by adhering
to one of the three implementation kinds: entry, protected procedure or any of
the above. This pragma is available in all earlier versions of Ada as an
implementation-defined pragma.
.. code-block:: ada
type Synch_Iface is synchronized interface;
procedure Prim_Op (Obj : in out Iface) is abstract;
pragma Implemented (Prim_Op, By_Protected_Procedure);
protected type Prot_1 is new Synch_Iface with
procedure Prim_Op; -- Legal
end Prot_1;
protected type Prot_2 is new Synch_Iface with
entry Prim_Op; -- Illegal
end Prot_2;
task type Task_Typ is new Synch_Iface with
entry Prim_Op; -- Illegal
end Task_Typ;
When applied to the procedure_or_entry_NAME of a requeue statement, pragma
Implemented determines the runtime behavior of the requeue. Implementation kind
By_Entry guarantees that the action of requeueing will proceed from an entry to
another entry. Implementation kind By_Protected_Procedure transforms the
requeue into a dispatching call, thus eliminating the chance of blocking. Kind
By_Any shares the behavior of By_Entry and By_Protected_Procedure depending on
the target's overriding subprogram kind.
Pragma Implicit_Packing
=======================
.. index:: Rational Profile
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Implicit_Packing;
This is a configuration pragma that requests implicit packing for packed
arrays for which a size clause is given but no explicit pragma Pack or
specification of Component_Size is present. It also applies to records
where no record representation clause is present. Consider this example:
.. code-block:: ada
type R is array (0 .. 7) of Boolean;
for R'Size use 8;
In accordance with the recommendation in the RM (RM 13.3(53)), a Size clause
does not change the layout of a composite object. So the Size clause in the
above example is normally rejected, since the default layout of the array uses
8-bit components, and thus the array requires a minimum of 64 bits.
If this declaration is compiled in a region of code covered by an occurrence
of the configuration pragma Implicit_Packing, then the Size clause in this
and similar examples will cause implicit packing and thus be accepted. For
this implicit packing to occur, the type in question must be an array of small
components whose size is known at compile time, and the Size clause must
specify the exact size that corresponds to the number of elements in the array
multiplied by the size in bits of the component type (both single and
multi-dimensioned arrays can be controlled with this pragma).
.. index:: Array packing
Similarly, the following example shows the use in the record case
.. code-block:: ada
type r is record
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h : boolean;
chr : character;
end record;
for r'size use 16;
Without a pragma Pack, each Boolean field requires 8 bits, so the
minimum size is 72 bits, but with a pragma Pack, 16 bits would be
sufficient. The use of pragma Implicit_Packing allows this record
declaration to compile without an explicit pragma Pack.
Pragma Import_Function
======================
Syntax:
::
pragma Import_Function (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME,
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Parameter_Types =>] PARAMETER_TYPES]
[, [Result_Type =>] SUBTYPE_MARK]
[, [Mechanism =>] MECHANISM]
[, [Result_Mechanism =>] MECHANISM_NAME]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
PARAMETER_TYPES ::=
null
| TYPE_DESIGNATOR {, TYPE_DESIGNATOR}
TYPE_DESIGNATOR ::=
subtype_NAME
| subtype_Name ' Access
MECHANISM ::=
MECHANISM_NAME
| (MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION {, MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION})
MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION ::=
[formal_parameter_NAME =>] MECHANISM_NAME
MECHANISM_NAME ::=
Value
| Reference
This pragma is used in conjunction with a pragma ``Import`` to
specify additional information for an imported function. The pragma
``Import`` (or equivalent pragma ``Interface``) must precede the
``Import_Function`` pragma and both must appear in the same
declarative part as the function specification.
The ``Internal`` argument must uniquely designate
the function to which the
pragma applies. If more than one function name exists of this name in
the declarative part you must use the ``Parameter_Types`` and
``Result_Type`` parameters to achieve the required unique
designation. Subtype marks in these parameters must exactly match the
subtypes in the corresponding function specification, using positional
notation to match parameters with subtype marks.
The form with an ``'Access`` attribute can be used to match an
anonymous access parameter.
You may optionally use the ``Mechanism`` and ``Result_Mechanism``
parameters to specify passing mechanisms for the
parameters and result. If you specify a single mechanism name, it
applies to all parameters. Otherwise you may specify a mechanism on a
parameter by parameter basis using either positional or named
notation. If the mechanism is not specified, the default mechanism
is used.
Pragma Import_Object
====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Import_Object
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Size =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
This pragma designates an object as imported, and apart from the
extended rules for external symbols, is identical in effect to the use of
the normal ``Import`` pragma applied to an object. Unlike the
subprogram case, you need not use a separate ``Import`` pragma,
although you may do so (and probably should do so from a portability
point of view). ``size`` is syntax checked, but otherwise ignored by
GNAT.
Pragma Import_Procedure
=======================
Syntax:
::
pragma Import_Procedure (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Parameter_Types =>] PARAMETER_TYPES]
[, [Mechanism =>] MECHANISM]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
PARAMETER_TYPES ::=
null
| TYPE_DESIGNATOR {, TYPE_DESIGNATOR}
TYPE_DESIGNATOR ::=
subtype_NAME
| subtype_Name ' Access
MECHANISM ::=
MECHANISM_NAME
| (MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION {, MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION})
MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION ::=
[formal_parameter_NAME =>] MECHANISM_NAME
MECHANISM_NAME ::= Value | Reference
This pragma is identical to ``Import_Function`` except that it
applies to a procedure rather than a function and the parameters
``Result_Type`` and ``Result_Mechanism`` are not permitted.
Pragma Import_Valued_Procedure
==============================
Syntax:
::
pragma Import_Valued_Procedure (
[Internal =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External =>] EXTERNAL_SYMBOL]
[, [Parameter_Types =>] PARAMETER_TYPES]
[, [Mechanism =>] MECHANISM]);
EXTERNAL_SYMBOL ::=
IDENTIFIER
| static_string_EXPRESSION
PARAMETER_TYPES ::=
null
| TYPE_DESIGNATOR {, TYPE_DESIGNATOR}
TYPE_DESIGNATOR ::=
subtype_NAME
| subtype_Name ' Access
MECHANISM ::=
MECHANISM_NAME
| (MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION {, MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION})
MECHANISM_ASSOCIATION ::=
[formal_parameter_NAME =>] MECHANISM_NAME
MECHANISM_NAME ::= Value | Reference
This pragma is identical to ``Import_Procedure`` except that the
first parameter of ``LOCAL_NAME``, which must be present, must be of
mode ``out``, and externally the subprogram is treated as a function
with this parameter as the result of the function. The purpose of this
capability is to allow the use of ``out`` and ``in out``
parameters in interfacing to external functions (which are not permitted
in Ada functions). You may optionally use the ``Mechanism``
parameters to specify passing mechanisms for the parameters.
If you specify a single mechanism name, it applies to all parameters.
Otherwise you may specify a mechanism on a parameter by parameter
basis using either positional or named notation. If the mechanism is not
specified, the default mechanism is used.
Note that it is important to use this pragma in conjunction with a separate
pragma Import that specifies the desired convention, since otherwise the
default convention is Ada, which is almost certainly not what is required.
Pragma Independent
==================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Independent (Local_NAME);
This pragma is standard in Ada 2012 mode (which also provides an aspect
of the same name). It is also available as an implementation-defined
pragma in all earlier versions. It specifies that the
designated object or all objects of the designated type must be
independently addressable. This means that separate tasks can safely
manipulate such objects. For example, if two components of a record are
independent, then two separate tasks may access these two components.
This may place
constraints on the representation of the object (for instance prohibiting
tight packing).
Pragma Independent_Components
=============================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Independent_Components (Local_NAME);
This pragma is standard in Ada 2012 mode (which also provides an aspect
of the same name). It is also available as an implementation-defined
pragma in all earlier versions. It specifies that the components of the
designated object, or the components of each object of the designated
type, must be
independently addressable. This means that separate tasks can safely
manipulate separate components in the composite object. This may place
constraints on the representation of the object (for instance prohibiting
tight packing).
.. _Pragma-Initial_Condition:
Pragma Initial_Condition
========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Initial_Condition (boolean_EXPRESSION);
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Initial_Condition``
in the SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.6.
Pragma Initialize_Scalars
=========================
.. index:: debugging with Initialize_Scalars
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Initialize_Scalars
[ ( TYPE_VALUE_PAIR {, TYPE_VALUE_PAIR} ) ];
TYPE_VALUE_PAIR ::=
SCALAR_TYPE => static_EXPRESSION
SCALAR_TYPE :=
Short_Float
| Float
| Long_Float
| Long_Long_Flat
| Signed_8
| Signed_16
| Signed_32
| Signed_64
| Unsigned_8
| Unsigned_16
| Unsigned_32
| Unsigned_64
This pragma is similar to ``Normalize_Scalars`` conceptually but has two
important differences.
First, there is no requirement for the pragma to be used uniformly in all units
of a partition. In particular, it is fine to use this just for some or all of
the application units of a partition, without needing to recompile the run-time
library. In the case where some units are compiled with the pragma, and some
without, then a declaration of a variable where the type is defined in package
Standard or is locally declared will always be subject to initialization, as
will any declaration of a scalar variable. For composite variables, whether the
variable is initialized may also depend on whether the package in which the
type of the variable is declared is compiled with the pragma.
The other important difference is that the programmer can control the value
used for initializing scalar objects. This effect can be achieved in several
different ways:
* At compile time, the programmer can specify the invalid value for a
particular family of scalar types using the optional arguments of the pragma.
The compile-time approach is intended to optimize the generated code for the
pragma, by possibly using fast operations such as ``memset``. Note that such
optimizations require using values where the bytes all have the same binary
representation.
* At bind time, the programmer has several options:
* Initialization with invalid values (similar to Normalize_Scalars, though
for Initialize_Scalars it is not always possible to determine the invalid
values in complex cases like signed component fields with nonstandard
sizes).
* Initialization with high values.
* Initialization with low values.
* Initialization with a specific bit pattern.
See the GNAT User's Guide for binder options for specifying these cases.
The bind-time approach is intended to provide fast turnaround for testing
with different values, without having to recompile the program.
* At execution time, the programmer can specify the invalid values using an
environment variable. See the GNAT User's Guide for details.
The execution-time approach is intended to provide fast turnaround for
testing with different values, without having to recompile and rebind the
program.
Note that pragma ``Initialize_Scalars`` is particularly useful in conjunction
with the enhanced validity checking that is now provided in GNAT, which checks
for invalid values under more conditions. Using this feature (see description
of the *-gnatV* flag in the GNAT User's Guide) in conjunction with pragma
``Initialize_Scalars`` provides a powerful new tool to assist in the detection
of problems caused by uninitialized variables.
Note: the use of ``Initialize_Scalars`` has a fairly extensive effect on the
generated code. This may cause your code to be substantially larger. It may
also cause an increase in the amount of stack required, so it is probably a
good idea to turn on stack checking (see description of stack checking in the
GNAT User's Guide) when using this pragma.
.. _Pragma-Initializes:
Pragma Initializes
==================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Initializes (INITIALIZATION_LIST);
INITIALIZATION_LIST ::=
null
| (INITIALIZATION_ITEM {, INITIALIZATION_ITEM})
INITIALIZATION_ITEM ::= name [=> INPUT_LIST]
INPUT_LIST ::=
null
| INPUT
| (INPUT {, INPUT})
INPUT ::= name
For the semantics of this pragma, see the entry for aspect ``Initializes`` in the
SPARK 2014 Reference Manual, section 7.1.5.
.. _Pragma-Inline_Always:
Pragma Inline_Always
====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Inline_Always (NAME [, NAME]);
Similar to pragma ``Inline`` except that inlining is unconditional.
Inline_Always instructs the compiler to inline every direct call to the
subprogram or else to emit a compilation error, independently of any
option, in particular *-gnatn* or *-gnatN* or the optimization level.
It is an error to take the address or access of ``NAME``. It is also an error to
apply this pragma to a primitive operation of a tagged type. Thanks to such
restrictions, the compiler is allowed to remove the out-of-line body of ``NAME``.
Pragma Inline_Generic
=====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Inline_Generic (GNAME {, GNAME});
GNAME ::= generic_unit_NAME | generic_instance_NAME
This pragma is provided for compatibility with Dec Ada 83. It has
no effect in GNAT (which always inlines generics), other
than to check that the given names are all names of generic units or
generic instances.
Pragma Interface
================
Syntax:
::
pragma Interface (
[Convention =>] convention_identifier,
[Entity =>] local_NAME
[, [External_Name =>] static_string_expression]
[, [Link_Name =>] static_string_expression]);
This pragma is identical in syntax and semantics to
the standard Ada pragma ``Import``. It is provided for compatibility
with Ada 83. The definition is upwards compatible both with pragma
``Interface`` as defined in the Ada 83 Reference Manual, and also
with some extended implementations of this pragma in certain Ada 83
implementations. The only difference between pragma ``Interface``
and pragma ``Import`` is that there is special circuitry to allow
both pragmas to appear for the same subprogram entity (normally it
is illegal to have multiple ``Import`` pragmas. This is useful in
maintaining Ada 83/Ada 95 compatibility and is compatible with other
Ada 83 compilers.
Pragma Interface_Name
=====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Interface_Name (
[Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME
[, [External_Name =>] static_string_EXPRESSION]
[, [Link_Name =>] static_string_EXPRESSION]);
This pragma provides an alternative way of specifying the interface name
for an interfaced subprogram, and is provided for compatibility with Ada
83 compilers that use the pragma for this purpose. You must provide at
least one of ``External_Name`` or ``Link_Name``.
Pragma Interrupt_Handler
========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Interrupt_Handler (procedure_LOCAL_NAME);
This program unit pragma is supported for parameterless protected procedures
as described in Annex C of the Ada Reference Manual.
Pragma Interrupt_State
======================
Syntax:
::
pragma Interrupt_State
([Name =>] value,
[State =>] SYSTEM | RUNTIME | USER);
Normally certain interrupts are reserved to the implementation. Any attempt
to attach an interrupt causes Program_Error to be raised, as described in
RM C.3.2(22). A typical example is the ``SIGINT`` interrupt used in
many systems for an :kbd:`Ctrl-C` interrupt. Normally this interrupt is
reserved to the implementation, so that :kbd:`Ctrl-C` can be used to
interrupt execution. Additionally, signals such as ``SIGSEGV``,
``SIGABRT``, ``SIGFPE`` and ``SIGILL`` are often mapped to specific
Ada exceptions, or used to implement run-time functions such as the
``abort`` statement and stack overflow checking.
Pragma ``Interrupt_State`` provides a general mechanism for overriding
such uses of interrupts. It subsumes the functionality of pragma
``Unreserve_All_Interrupts``. Pragma ``Interrupt_State`` is not
available on Windows. On all other platforms than VxWorks,
it applies to signals; on VxWorks, it applies to vectored hardware interrupts
and may be used to mark interrupts required by the board support package
as reserved.
Interrupts can be in one of three states:
* System
The interrupt is reserved (no Ada handler can be installed), and the
Ada run-time may not install a handler. As a result you are guaranteed
standard system default action if this interrupt is raised. This also allows
installing a low level handler via C APIs such as sigaction(), outside
of Ada control.
* Runtime
The interrupt is reserved (no Ada handler can be installed). The run time
is allowed to install a handler for internal control purposes, but is
not required to do so.
* User
The interrupt is unreserved. The user may install an Ada handler via
Ada.Interrupts and pragma Interrupt_Handler or Attach_Handler to provide
some other action.
These states are the allowed values of the ``State`` parameter of the
pragma. The ``Name`` parameter is a value of the type
``Ada.Interrupts.Interrupt_ID``. Typically, it is a name declared in
``Ada.Interrupts.Names``.
This is a configuration pragma, and the binder will check that there
are no inconsistencies between different units in a partition in how a
given interrupt is specified. It may appear anywhere a pragma is legal.
The effect is to move the interrupt to the specified state.
By declaring interrupts to be SYSTEM, you guarantee the standard system
action, such as a core dump.
By declaring interrupts to be USER, you guarantee that you can install
a handler.
Note that certain signals on many operating systems cannot be caught and
handled by applications. In such cases, the pragma is ignored. See the
operating system documentation, or the value of the array ``Reserved``
declared in the spec of package ``System.OS_Interface``.
Overriding the default state of signals used by the Ada runtime may interfere
with an application's runtime behavior in the cases of the synchronous signals,
and in the case of the signal used to implement the ``abort`` statement.
.. _Pragma-Invariant:
Pragma Invariant
================
Syntax:
::
pragma Invariant
([Entity =>] private_type_LOCAL_NAME,
[Check =>] EXPRESSION
[,[Message =>] String_Expression]);
This pragma provides exactly the same capabilities as the Type_Invariant aspect
defined in AI05-0146-1, and in the Ada 2012 Reference Manual. The
Type_Invariant aspect is fully implemented in Ada 2012 mode, but since it
requires the use of the aspect syntax, which is not available except in 2012
mode, it is not possible to use the Type_Invariant aspect in earlier versions
of Ada. However the Invariant pragma may be used in any version of Ada. Also
note that the aspect Invariant is a synonym in GNAT for the aspect
Type_Invariant, but there is no pragma Type_Invariant.
The pragma must appear within the visible part of the package specification,
after the type to which its Entity argument appears. As with the Invariant
aspect, the Check expression is not analyzed until the end of the visible
part of the package, so it may contain forward references. The Message
argument, if present, provides the exception message used if the invariant
is violated. If no Message parameter is provided, a default message that
identifies the line on which the pragma appears is used.
It is permissible to have multiple Invariants for the same type entity, in
which case they are and'ed together. It is permissible to use this pragma
in Ada 2012 mode, but you cannot have both an invariant aspect and an
invariant pragma for the same entity.
For further details on the use of this pragma, see the Ada 2012 documentation
of the Type_Invariant aspect.
Pragma Keep_Names
=================
Syntax:
::
pragma Keep_Names ([On =>] enumeration_first_subtype_LOCAL_NAME);
The ``LOCAL_NAME`` argument
must refer to an enumeration first subtype
in the current declarative part. The effect is to retain the enumeration
literal names for use by ``Image`` and ``Value`` even if a global
``Discard_Names`` pragma applies. This is useful when you want to
generally suppress enumeration literal names and for example you therefore
use a ``Discard_Names`` pragma in the :file:`gnat.adc` file, but you
want to retain the names for specific enumeration types.
Pragma License
==============
.. index:: License checking
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma License (Unrestricted | GPL | Modified_GPL | Restricted);
This pragma is provided to allow automated checking for appropriate license
conditions with respect to the standard and modified GPL. A pragma
``License``, which is a configuration pragma that typically appears at
the start of a source file or in a separate :file:`gnat.adc` file, specifies
the licensing conditions of a unit as follows:
* Unrestricted
This is used for a unit that can be freely used with no license restrictions.
Examples of such units are public domain units, and units from the Ada
Reference Manual.
* GPL
This is used for a unit that is licensed under the unmodified GPL, and which
therefore cannot be ``with``\ ed by a restricted unit.
* Modified_GPL
This is used for a unit licensed under the GNAT modified GPL that includes
a special exception paragraph that specifically permits the inclusion of
the unit in programs without requiring the entire program to be released
under the GPL.
* Restricted
This is used for a unit that is restricted in that it is not permitted to
depend on units that are licensed under the GPL. Typical examples are
proprietary code that is to be released under more restrictive license
conditions. Note that restricted units are permitted to ``with`` units
which are licensed under the modified GPL (this is the whole point of the
modified GPL).
Normally a unit with no ``License`` pragma is considered to have an
unknown license, and no checking is done. However, standard GNAT headers
are recognized, and license information is derived from them as follows.
A GNAT license header starts with a line containing 78 hyphens. The following
comment text is searched for the appearance of any of the following strings.
If the string 'GNU General Public License' is found, then the unit is assumed
to have GPL license, unless the string 'As a special exception' follows, in
which case the license is assumed to be modified GPL.
If one of the strings
'This specification is adapted from the Ada Semantic Interface' or
'This specification is derived from the Ada Reference Manual' is found
then the unit is assumed to be unrestricted.
These default actions means that a program with a restricted license pragma
will automatically get warnings if a GPL unit is inappropriately
``with``\ ed. For example, the program:
.. code-block:: ada
with Sem_Ch3;
with GNAT.Sockets;
procedure Secret_Stuff is
...
end Secret_Stuff
if compiled with pragma ``License`` (``Restricted``) in a
:file:`gnat.adc` file will generate the warning::
1. with Sem_Ch3;
|
>>> license of withed unit "Sem_Ch3" is incompatible
2. with GNAT.Sockets;
3. procedure Secret_Stuff is
Here we get a warning on ``Sem_Ch3`` since it is part of the GNAT
compiler and is licensed under the
GPL, but no warning for ``GNAT.Sockets`` which is part of the GNAT
run time, and is therefore licensed under the modified GPL.
Pragma Link_With
================
Syntax:
::
pragma Link_With (static_string_EXPRESSION {,static_string_EXPRESSION});
This pragma is provided for compatibility with certain Ada 83 compilers.
It has exactly the same effect as pragma ``Linker_Options`` except
that spaces occurring within one of the string expressions are treated
as separators. For example, in the following case:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Link_With ("-labc -ldef");
results in passing the strings ``-labc`` and ``-ldef`` as two
separate arguments to the linker. In addition pragma Link_With allows
multiple arguments, with the same effect as successive pragmas.
Pragma Linker_Alias
===================
Syntax:
::
pragma Linker_Alias (
[Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME,
[Target =>] static_string_EXPRESSION);
``LOCAL_NAME`` must refer to an object that is declared at the library
level. This pragma establishes the given entity as a linker alias for the
given target. It is equivalent to ``__attribute__((alias))`` in GNU C
and causes ``LOCAL_NAME`` to be emitted as an alias for the symbol
``static_string_EXPRESSION`` in the object file, that is to say no space
is reserved for ``LOCAL_NAME`` by the assembler and it will be resolved
to the same address as ``static_string_EXPRESSION`` by the linker.
The actual linker name for the target must be used (e.g., the fully
encoded name with qualification in Ada, or the mangled name in C++),
or it must be declared using the C convention with ``pragma Import``
or ``pragma Export``.
Not all target machines support this pragma. On some of them it is accepted
only if ``pragma Weak_External`` has been applied to ``LOCAL_NAME``.
.. code-block:: ada
-- Example of the use of pragma Linker_Alias
package p is
i : Integer := 1;
pragma Export (C, i);
new_name_for_i : Integer;
pragma Linker_Alias (new_name_for_i, "i");
end p;
Pragma Linker_Constructor
=========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Linker_Constructor (procedure_LOCAL_NAME);
``procedure_LOCAL_NAME`` must refer to a parameterless procedure that
is declared at the library level. A procedure to which this pragma is
applied will be treated as an initialization routine by the linker.
It is equivalent to ``__attribute__((constructor))`` in GNU C and
causes ``procedure_LOCAL_NAME`` to be invoked before the entry point
of the executable is called (or immediately after the shared library is
loaded if the procedure is linked in a shared library), in particular
before the Ada run-time environment is set up.
Because of these specific contexts, the set of operations such a procedure
can perform is very limited and the type of objects it can manipulate is
essentially restricted to the elementary types. In particular, it must only
contain code to which pragma Restrictions (No_Elaboration_Code) applies.
This pragma is used by GNAT to implement auto-initialization of shared Stand
Alone Libraries, which provides a related capability without the restrictions
listed above. Where possible, the use of Stand Alone Libraries is preferable
to the use of this pragma.
Pragma Linker_Destructor
========================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Linker_Destructor (procedure_LOCAL_NAME);
``procedure_LOCAL_NAME`` must refer to a parameterless procedure that
is declared at the library level. A procedure to which this pragma is
applied will be treated as a finalization routine by the linker.
It is equivalent to ``__attribute__((destructor))`` in GNU C and
causes ``procedure_LOCAL_NAME`` to be invoked after the entry point
of the executable has exited (or immediately before the shared library
is unloaded if the procedure is linked in a shared library), in particular
after the Ada run-time environment is shut down.
See ``pragma Linker_Constructor`` for the set of restrictions that apply
because of these specific contexts.
.. _Pragma-Linker_Section:
Pragma Linker_Section
=====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Linker_Section (
[Entity =>] LOCAL_NAME,
[Section =>] static_string_EXPRESSION);
``LOCAL_NAME`` must refer to an object, type, or subprogram that is
declared at the library level. This pragma specifies the name of the
linker section for the given entity. It is equivalent to
``__attribute__((section))`` in GNU C and causes ``LOCAL_NAME`` to
be placed in the ``static_string_EXPRESSION`` section of the
executable (assuming the linker doesn't rename the section).
GNAT also provides an implementation defined aspect of the same name.
In the case of specifying this aspect for a type, the effect is to
specify the corresponding section for all library-level objects of
the type that do not have an explicit linker section set. Note that
this only applies to whole objects, not to components of composite objects.
In the case of a subprogram, the linker section applies to all previously
declared matching overloaded subprograms in the current declarative part
which do not already have a linker section assigned. The linker section
aspect is useful in this case for specifying different linker sections
for different elements of such an overloaded set.
Note that an empty string specifies that no linker section is specified.
This is not quite the same as omitting the pragma or aspect, since it
can be used to specify that one element of an overloaded set of subprograms
has the default linker section, or that one object of a type for which a
linker section is specified should has the default linker section.
The compiler normally places library-level entities in standard sections
depending on the class: procedures and functions generally go in the
``.text`` section, initialized variables in the ``.data`` section
and uninitialized variables in the ``.bss`` section.
Other, special sections may exist on given target machines to map special
hardware, for example I/O ports or flash memory. This pragma is a means to
defer the final layout of the executable to the linker, thus fully working
at the symbolic level with the compiler.
Some file formats do not support arbitrary sections so not all target
machines support this pragma. The use of this pragma may cause a program
execution to be erroneous if it is used to place an entity into an
inappropriate section (e.g., a modified variable into the ``.text``
section). See also ``pragma Persistent_BSS``.
.. code-block:: ada
-- Example of the use of pragma Linker_Section
package IO_Card is
Port_A : Integer;
pragma Volatile (Port_A);
pragma Linker_Section (Port_A, ".bss.port_a");
Port_B : Integer;
pragma Volatile (Port_B);
pragma Linker_Section (Port_B, ".bss.port_b");
type Port_Type is new Integer with Linker_Section => ".bss";
PA : Port_Type with Linker_Section => ".bss.PA";
PB : Port_Type; -- ends up in linker section ".bss"
procedure Q with Linker_Section => "Qsection";
end IO_Card;
.. _Pragma-Lock_Free:
Pragma Lock_Free
================
Syntax:
This pragma may be specified for protected types or objects. It specifies that
the implementation of protected operations must be implemented without locks.
Compilation fails if the compiler cannot generate lock-free code for the
operations.
The current conditions required to support this pragma are:
* Protected type declarations may not contain entries
* Protected subprogram declarations may not have nonelementary parameters
In addition, each protected subprogram body must satisfy:
* May reference only one protected component
* May not reference nonconstant entities outside the protected subprogram
scope.
* May not contain address representation items, allocators, or quantified
expressions.
* May not contain delay, goto, loop, or procedure-call statements.
* May not contain exported and imported entities
* May not dereferenced access values
* Function calls and attribute references must be static
Pragma Loop_Invariant
=====================
Syntax:
.. code-block:: ada
pragma Loop_Invariant ( boolean_EXPRESSION );
The effect of this pragma is similar to that of pragma ``Assert``,
except that in an ``Assertion_Policy`` pragma, the identifier
``Loop_Invariant`` is used to control whether it is ignored or checked
(or disabled).
``Loop_Invariant`` can only appear as one of the items in the sequence
of statements of a loop body, or nested inside block statements that
appear in the sequence of statements of a loop body.
The intention is that it be used to
represent a "loop invariant" assertion, i.e. something that is true each
time through the loop, and which can be used to show that the loop is
achieving its purpose.
Multiple ``Loop_Invariant`` and ``Loop_Variant`` pragmas that
apply to the same loop should be grouped in the same sequence of
statements.
To aid in writing such invariants, the special attribute ``Loop_Entry``
may be used to refer to the value of an expression on entry to the loop. This
attribute can only be used within the expression of a ``Loop_Invariant``
pragma. For full details, see documentation of attribute ``Loop_Entry``.
Pragma Loop_Optimize
====================
Syntax:
::
pragma Loop_Optimize (OPTIMIZATION_HINT {, OPTIMIZATION_HINT});
OPTIMIZATION_HINT ::= Ivdep | No_Unroll | Unroll | No_Vector | Vector
This pragma must appear immediately within a loop statement. It allows the
programmer to specify optimization hints for the enclosing loop. The hints
are not mutually exclusive and can be freely mixed, but not all combinations
will yield a sensible outcome.
There are five supported optimization hints for a loop:
* Ivdep
The programmer asserts that there are no loop-carried dependencies
which would prevent consecutive iterations of the loop from being
executed simultaneously.
* No_Unroll