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/* Branch Target Identification for AArch64 architecture.
Copyright (C) 2019-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Contributed by Arm Ltd.
This file is part of GCC.
GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option)
any later version.
GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GCC; see the file COPYING3. If not see
<>. */
#define IN_TARGET_CODE 1
#include "config.h"
#include "system.h"
#include "coretypes.h"
#include "backend.h"
#include "target.h"
#include "rtl.h"
#include "tree.h"
#include "memmodel.h"
#include "gimple.h"
#include "tm_p.h"
#include "stringpool.h"
#include "attribs.h"
#include "emit-rtl.h"
#include "gimplify.h"
#include "gimple-iterator.h"
#include "dumpfile.h"
#include "rtl-iter.h"
#include "cfgrtl.h"
#include "tree-pass.h"
#include "cgraph.h"
/* This pass enables the support for Branch Target Identification Mechanism
for AArch64. This is a new security feature introduced in ARMv8.5-A
archtitecture. A BTI instruction is used to guard against the execution
of instructions which are not the intended target of an indirect branch.
Outside of a guarded memory region, a BTI instruction executes as a NOP.
Within a guarded memory region any target of an indirect branch must be
a compatible BTI or BRK, HLT, PACIASP, PACIBASP instruction (even if the
branch is triggered in a non-guarded memory region). An incompatibility
generates a Branch Target Exception.
The compatibility of the BTI instruction is as follows:
BTI j : Can be a target of any indirect jump (BR Xn).
BTI c : Can be a target of any indirect call (BLR Xn and BR X16/X17).
BTI jc: Can be a target of any indirect call or indirect jump.
BTI : Can not be a target of any indirect call or indirect jump.
In order to enable this mechanism, this pass iterates through the
control flow of the code and adds appropriate BTI instructions :
* Add a new "BTI C" at the beginning of a function, unless its already
protected by a "PACIASP/PACIBSP". We exempt the functions that are only
called directly.
* Add a new "BTI J" for every target of an indirect jump, jump table targets,
non-local goto targets or labels that might be referenced by variables,
constant pools, etc (NOTE_INSN_DELETED_LABEL)
Since we have already changed the use of indirect tail calls to only x16
and x17, we do not have to use "BTI JC".
This pass is triggered by the command line option -mbranch-protection=bti or
-mbranch-protection=standard. Since all the BTI instructions are in the HINT
space, this pass does not require any minimum architecture version. */
namespace {
const pass_data pass_data_insert_bti =
RTL_PASS, /* type. */
"bti", /* name. */
OPTGROUP_NONE, /* optinfo_flags. */
TV_MACH_DEP, /* tv_id. */
0, /* properties_required. */
0, /* properties_provided. */
0, /* properties_destroyed. */
0, /* todo_flags_start. */
0, /* todo_flags_finish. */
/* Check if X (or any sub-rtx of X) is a PACIASP/PACIBSP instruction. */
static bool
aarch64_pac_insn_p (rtx x)
if (!INSN_P (x))
return false;
subrtx_var_iterator::array_type array;
rtx sub = *iter;
if (sub && GET_CODE (sub) == UNSPEC)
int unspec_val = XINT (sub, 1);
switch (unspec_val)
/* fall-through. */
return true;
return false;
iter.skip_subrtxes ();
return false;
/* Check if INSN is a BTI J insn. */
static bool
aarch64_bti_j_insn_p (rtx_insn *insn)
if (!insn || !INSN_P (insn))
return false;
rtx pat = PATTERN (insn);
return GET_CODE (pat) == UNSPEC_VOLATILE && XINT (pat, 1) == UNSPECV_BTI_J;
/* Insert the BTI instruction. */
/* This is implemented as a late RTL pass that runs before branch
shortening and does the following. */
static unsigned int
rest_of_insert_bti (void)
timevar_push (TV_MACH_DEP);
rtx bti_insn;
rtx_insn *insn;
basic_block bb;
bb = 0;
FOR_EACH_BB_FN (bb, cfun)
for (insn = BB_HEAD (bb); insn != NEXT_INSN (BB_END (bb));
insn = NEXT_INSN (insn))
/* If a label is marked to be preserved or can be a non-local goto
target, it must be protected with a BTI J. */
if (LABEL_P (insn)
|| bb->flags & BB_NON_LOCAL_GOTO_TARGET))
bti_insn = gen_bti_j ();
emit_insn_after (bti_insn, insn);
/* There could still be more labels that are valid targets of a
BTI J instuction. To find them we start looking through the
JUMP_INSN. If it jumps to a jump table, then we find all labels
of the jump table to protect with a BTI J. */
if (JUMP_P (insn))
rtx_jump_table_data *table;
if (tablejump_p (insn, NULL, &table))
rtvec vec = table->get_labels ();
int j;
rtx_insn *label;
for (j = GET_NUM_ELEM (vec) - 1; j >= 0; --j)
label = as_a <rtx_insn *> (XEXP (RTVEC_ELT (vec, j), 0));
rtx_insn *next = next_nonnote_nondebug_insn (label);
if (aarch64_bti_j_insn_p (next))
bti_insn = gen_bti_j ();
emit_insn_after (bti_insn, label);
/* Also look for calls to setjmp () which would be marked with
REG_SETJMP note and put a BTI J after. This is where longjump ()
will return. */
if (CALL_P (insn) && (find_reg_note (insn, REG_SETJMP, NULL)))
bti_insn = gen_bti_j ();
emit_insn_after (bti_insn, insn);
/* Since a Branch Target Exception can only be triggered by an indirect call,
we exempt function that are only called directly. We also exempt
functions that are already protected by Return Address Signing (PACIASP/
PACIBSP). For all other cases insert a BTI C at the beginning of the
function. */
if (!cgraph_node::get (cfun->decl)->only_called_directly_p ())
bb = ENTRY_BLOCK_PTR_FOR_FN (cfun)->next_bb;
insn = BB_HEAD (bb);
if (!aarch64_pac_insn_p (get_first_nonnote_insn ()))
bti_insn = gen_bti_c ();
emit_insn_before (bti_insn, insn);
timevar_pop (TV_MACH_DEP);
return 0;
class pass_insert_bti : public rtl_opt_pass
pass_insert_bti (gcc::context *ctxt)
: rtl_opt_pass (pass_data_insert_bti, ctxt)
/* opt_pass methods: */
virtual bool gate (function *)
return aarch64_bti_enabled ();
virtual unsigned int execute (function *)
return rest_of_insert_bti ();
}; // class pass_insert_bti
} // anon namespace
rtl_opt_pass *
make_pass_insert_bti (gcc::context *ctxt)
return new pass_insert_bti (ctxt);