blob: 7a49908d61be879696f1fd3aa7d37ba25a682393 [file] [log] [blame]
IQ2000 ABI
Sizes and alignments
Type Size (bytes) Alignment (bytes)
char 1 1
short 2 2
int 4 4
unsigned 4 4
long 4 4
long long 8 8
float 4 4
double 8 8
pointers 4 4
* alignment within aggregates (structs and unions) is as above, with
padding added if needed
* aggregates have alignment equal to that of their most aligned
* aggregates have sizes which are a multiple of their alignment
Floating point
All emulated using IEEE floating point conventions.
%0 always zero
%1 call clobbered
%2 return value
%3 return value
%4 argument register 1
%5 argument register 2
%6 argument register 3
%7 argument register 4
%8 argument register 5
%9 argument register 6
%10 argument register 7
%11 argument register 8
%12 call clobbered
%13 call clobbered
%14 call clobbered
%15 call clobbered
%16 call saved
%17 call saved
%18 call saved
%19 call saved
%20 call saved
%21 call saved
%22 call saved
%23 call saved
%24 call clobbered
%25 call clobbered
%26 reserved
%27 frame ptr
%28 global ptr
%29 stack ptr
%30 reserved
%31 return address
Stack alignment 8 bytes
Structures passed <= 32 bits as values, else as pointers
The IQ2000 Stack
Space is allocated as needed in the stack frame for the following at compile
* Outgoing parameters beyond the eighth
* All automatic arrays, automatic data aggregates, automatic
scalars which must be addressable, and automatic scalars for
which there is no room in registers
* Compiler-generated temporary values (typically when there are
too many for the compiler to keep them all in registers)
Space can be allocated dynamically (at runtime) in the stack frame for the
* Memory allocated using the alloca() function of the C library
Addressable automatic variables on the stack are addressed with positive
offsets relative to %27; dynamically allocated space is addressed with positive
offsets from the pointer returned by alloca().
Stack Frame
| Caller memory args |
+-----------------------+ <-sp
| Return address |
| Previous FP |
| Saved Registers |
| ... |
| Local Variables |
+-----------------------+ <-fp
| Alloca |
| ... |
| Parameter Word 2 |
| Parameter Word 1 |
+-----------------------+ <-sp
Parameter Assignment to Registers
Consider the parameters in a function call as ordered from left (first
parameter) to right. GR contains the number of the next available
general-purpose register. STARG is the address of the next available stack
parameter word.
Set GR=r4 and STARG to point to parameter word 1.
If there are no more parameters, terminate.
Otherwise, select one of the following depending on the type
of the next parameter:
A SIMPLE ARG is one of the following:
* One of the simple integer types which will fit into a
general-purpose register,
* A pointer to an object of any type,
* A struct or union small enough to fit in a register (<= 32 bits)
* A larger struct or union, which shall be treated as a
pointer to the object or to a copy of the object.
(See below for when copies are made.)
If GR > r11, go to STACK. Otherwise, load the parameter value into
general-purpose register GR and advance GR to the next general-purpose
register. Values shorter than the register size are sign-extended or
zero-extended depending on whether they are signed or unsigned. Then
go to SCAN.
If GR > r10, go to STACK. Otherwise, if GR is odd, advance GR to the
next register. Load the 64-bit long long or double value into register
pair GR and GR+1. Advance GR to GR+2 and go to SCAN.
Parameters not otherwise handled above are passed in the parameter
words of the caller's stack frame. SIMPLE ARGs, as defined above, are
considered to have size and alignment equal to the size of a
general-purpose register, with simple argument types shorter than this
sign- or zero-extended to this width. Round STARG up to a multiple of
the alignment requirement of the parameter and copy the argument
byte-for-byte into STARG, STARG+1, ... STARG+size-1. Set STARG to
STARG+size and go to SCAN.
Structure passing
As noted above, code which passes structures and unions by value is implemented
specially. (In this section, "struct" will refer to structs and unions
inclusively.) Structs small enough to fit in a register are passed by value in
a single register or in a stack frame slot the size of a register. Structs
containing a single double or long long component are passed by value in two
registers or in a stack frame slot the size of two registers. Other structs
are handled by passing the address of the structure. In this case, a copy of
the structure will be made if necessary in order to preserve the pass-by-value
Copies of large structs are made under the following rules:
ANSI mode K&R Mode
--------- --------
Normal param Callee copies if needed Caller copies
Varargs (...) param Caller copies Caller copies
In the case of normal (non-varargs) large-struct parameters in ANSI mode, the
callee is responsible for producing the same effect as if a copy of the
structure were passed, preserving the pass-by-value semantics. This may be
accomplished by having the callee make a copy, but in some cases the callee may
be able to determine that a copy is not necessary in order to produce the same
results. In such cases, the callee may choose to avoid making a copy of the
Varargs handling
No special changes are needed for handling varargs parameters other than the
caller knowing that a copy is needed on struct parameters larger than a
register (see above).
The varargs macros set up a register save area for the general-purpose
registers to be saved. Because the save area lies between the caller and
callee stack frames, the saved register parameters are contiguous with
parameters passed on the stack. A pointer advances from the register save area
into the caller's stack frame.
Function return values
Type Register
---- --------
int r2
short r2
long r2
long long r2-r3
float r2
double r2-r3
struct/union see below
Structs/unions which will fit into two general-purpose registers are returned
in r2, or in r2-r3 if necessary. Larger structs/unions are handled by the
caller passing as a "hidden" first argument a pointer to space allocated to
receive the return value.
Copyright (C) 2003-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
notice and this notice are preserved.