blob: eaee62f241303da99944103542fa46e50e55c325 [file] [log] [blame]
// Written in the D programming language.
/**
A one-stop shop for converting values from one type to another.
$(SCRIPT inhibitQuickIndex = 1;)
$(BOOKTABLE,
$(TR $(TH Category) $(TH Functions))
$(TR $(TD Generic) $(TD
$(LREF asOriginalType)
$(LREF castFrom)
$(LREF emplace)
$(LREF parse)
$(LREF to)
$(LREF toChars)
))
$(TR $(TD Strings) $(TD
$(LREF text)
$(LREF wtext)
$(LREF dtext)
$(LREF hexString)
))
$(TR $(TD Numeric) $(TD
$(LREF octal)
$(LREF roundTo)
$(LREF signed)
$(LREF unsigned)
))
$(TR $(TD Exceptions) $(TD
$(LREF ConvException)
$(LREF ConvOverflowException)
))
)
Copyright: Copyright Digital Mars 2007-.
License: $(HTTP boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt, Boost License 1.0).
Authors: $(HTTP digitalmars.com, Walter Bright),
$(HTTP erdani.org, Andrei Alexandrescu),
Shin Fujishiro,
Adam D. Ruppe,
Kenji Hara
Source: $(PHOBOSSRC std/_conv.d)
*/
module std.conv;
public import std.ascii : LetterCase;
import std.meta;
import std.range.primitives;
import std.traits;
// Same as std.string.format, but "self-importing".
// Helps reduce code and imports, particularly in static asserts.
// Also helps with missing imports errors.
package template convFormat()
{
import std.format : format;
alias convFormat = format;
}
/* ************* Exceptions *************** */
/**
* Thrown on conversion errors.
*/
class ConvException : Exception
{
import std.exception : basicExceptionCtors;
///
mixin basicExceptionCtors;
}
private auto convError(S, T)(S source, string fn = __FILE__, size_t ln = __LINE__)
{
string msg;
if (source.empty)
msg = "Unexpected end of input when converting from type " ~ S.stringof ~ " to type " ~ T.stringof;
else
{
ElementType!S el = source.front;
if (el == '\n')
msg = text("Unexpected '\\n' when converting from type " ~ S.stringof ~ " to type " ~ T.stringof);
else
msg = text("Unexpected '", el,
"' when converting from type " ~ S.stringof ~ " to type " ~ T.stringof);
}
return new ConvException(msg, fn, ln);
}
private auto convError(S, T)(S source, int radix, string fn = __FILE__, size_t ln = __LINE__)
{
string msg;
if (source.empty)
msg = text("Unexpected end of input when converting from type " ~ S.stringof ~ " base ", radix,
" to type " ~ T.stringof);
else
msg = text("Unexpected '", source.front,
"' when converting from type " ~ S.stringof ~ " base ", radix,
" to type " ~ T.stringof);
return new ConvException(msg, fn, ln);
}
@safe pure/* nothrow*/ // lazy parameter bug
private auto parseError(lazy string msg, string fn = __FILE__, size_t ln = __LINE__)
{
return new ConvException(text("Can't parse string: ", msg), fn, ln);
}
private void parseCheck(alias source)(dchar c, string fn = __FILE__, size_t ln = __LINE__)
{
if (source.empty)
throw parseError(text("unexpected end of input when expecting", "\"", c, "\""));
if (source.front != c)
throw parseError(text("\"", c, "\" is missing"), fn, ln);
source.popFront();
}
private
{
T toStr(T, S)(S src)
if (isSomeString!T)
{
// workaround for Bugzilla 14198
static if (is(S == bool) && is(typeof({ T s = "string"; })))
{
return src ? "true" : "false";
}
else
{
import std.array : appender;
import std.format : FormatSpec, formatValue;
auto w = appender!T();
FormatSpec!(ElementEncodingType!T) f;
formatValue(w, src, f);
return w.data;
}
}
template isExactSomeString(T)
{
enum isExactSomeString = isSomeString!T && !is(T == enum);
}
template isEnumStrToStr(S, T)
{
enum isEnumStrToStr = isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
is(S == enum) && isExactSomeString!T;
}
template isNullToStr(S, T)
{
enum isNullToStr = isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
(is(Unqual!S == typeof(null))) && isExactSomeString!T;
}
}
/**
* Thrown on conversion overflow errors.
*/
class ConvOverflowException : ConvException
{
@safe pure nothrow
this(string s, string fn = __FILE__, size_t ln = __LINE__)
{
super(s, fn, ln);
}
}
/**
The `to` template converts a value from one type _to another.
The source type is deduced and the target type must be specified, for example the
expression `to!int(42.0)` converts the number 42 from
`double` _to `int`. The conversion is "safe", i.e.,
it checks for overflow; `to!int(4.2e10)` would throw the
`ConvOverflowException` exception. Overflow checks are only
inserted when necessary, e.g., `to!double(42)` does not do
any checking because any `int` fits in a `double`.
Conversions from string _to numeric types differ from the C equivalents
`atoi()` and `atol()` by checking for overflow and not allowing whitespace.
For conversion of strings _to signed types, the grammar recognized is:
$(PRE $(I Integer): $(I Sign UnsignedInteger)
$(I UnsignedInteger)
$(I Sign):
$(B +)
$(B -))
For conversion _to unsigned types, the grammar recognized is:
$(PRE $(I UnsignedInteger):
$(I DecimalDigit)
$(I DecimalDigit) $(I UnsignedInteger))
*/
template to(T)
{
T to(A...)(A args)
if (A.length > 0)
{
return toImpl!T(args);
}
// Fix issue 6175
T to(S)(ref S arg)
if (isStaticArray!S)
{
return toImpl!T(arg);
}
// Fix issue 16108
T to(S)(ref S arg)
if (isAggregateType!S && !isCopyable!S)
{
return toImpl!T(arg);
}
}
/**
* Converting a value _to its own type (useful mostly for generic code)
* simply returns its argument.
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
int a = 42;
int b = to!int(a);
double c = to!double(3.14); // c is double with value 3.14
}
/**
* Converting among numeric types is a safe way _to cast them around.
*
* Conversions from floating-point types _to integral types allow loss of
* precision (the fractional part of a floating-point number). The
* conversion is truncating towards zero, the same way a cast would
* truncate. (_To round a floating point value when casting _to an
* integral, use `roundTo`.)
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception : assertThrown;
int a = 420;
assert(to!long(a) == a);
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!byte(a));
assert(to!int(4.2e6) == 4200000);
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!uint(-3.14));
assert(to!uint(3.14) == 3);
assert(to!uint(3.99) == 3);
assert(to!int(-3.99) == -3);
}
/**
* When converting strings _to numeric types, note that the D hexadecimal and binary
* literals are not handled. Neither the prefixes that indicate the base, nor the
* horizontal bar used _to separate groups of digits are recognized. This also
* applies to the suffixes that indicate the type.
*
* _To work around this, you can specify a radix for conversions involving numbers.
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
auto str = to!string(42, 16);
assert(str == "2A");
auto i = to!int(str, 16);
assert(i == 42);
}
/**
* Conversions from integral types _to floating-point types always
* succeed, but might lose accuracy. The largest integers with a
* predecessor representable in floating-point format are `2^24-1` for
* `float`, `2^53-1` for `double`, and `2^64-1` for `real` (when
* `real` is 80-bit, e.g. on Intel machines).
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
// 2^24 - 1, largest proper integer representable as float
int a = 16_777_215;
assert(to!int(to!float(a)) == a);
assert(to!int(to!float(-a)) == -a);
}
/**
* Converting an array _to another array type works by converting each
* element in turn. Associative arrays can be converted _to associative
* arrays as long as keys and values can in turn be converted.
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.string : split;
int[] a = [1, 2, 3];
auto b = to!(float[])(a);
assert(b == [1.0f, 2, 3]);
string str = "1 2 3 4 5 6";
auto numbers = to!(double[])(split(str));
assert(numbers == [1.0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
int[string] c;
c["a"] = 1;
c["b"] = 2;
auto d = to!(double[wstring])(c);
assert(d["a"w] == 1 && d["b"w] == 2);
}
/**
* Conversions operate transitively, meaning that they work on arrays and
* associative arrays of any complexity.
*
* This conversion works because `to!short` applies _to an `int`, `to!wstring`
* applies _to a `string`, `to!string` applies _to a `double`, and
* `to!(double[])` applies _to an `int[]`. The conversion might throw an
* exception because `to!short` might fail the range check.
*/
@safe unittest
{
int[string][double[int[]]] a;
auto b = to!(short[wstring][string[double[]]])(a);
}
/**
* Object-to-object conversions by dynamic casting throw exception when
* the source is non-null and the target is null.
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception : assertThrown;
// Testing object conversions
class A {}
class B : A {}
class C : A {}
A a1 = new A, a2 = new B, a3 = new C;
assert(to!B(a2) is a2);
assert(to!C(a3) is a3);
assertThrown!ConvException(to!B(a3));
}
/**
* Stringize conversion from all types is supported.
* $(UL
* $(LI String _to string conversion works for any two string types having
* ($(D char), $(D wchar), $(D dchar)) character widths and any
* combination of qualifiers (mutable, $(D const), or $(D immutable)).)
* $(LI Converts array (other than strings) _to string.
* Each element is converted by calling $(D to!T).)
* $(LI Associative array _to string conversion.
* Each element is printed by calling $(D to!T).)
* $(LI Object _to string conversion calls $(D toString) against the object or
* returns $(D "null") if the object is null.)
* $(LI Struct _to string conversion calls $(D toString) against the struct if
* it is defined.)
* $(LI For structs that do not define $(D toString), the conversion _to string
* produces the list of fields.)
* $(LI Enumerated types are converted _to strings as their symbolic names.)
* $(LI Boolean values are printed as $(D "true") or $(D "false").)
* $(LI $(D char), $(D wchar), $(D dchar) _to a string type.)
* $(LI Unsigned or signed integers _to strings.
* $(DL $(DT [special case])
* $(DD Convert integral value _to string in $(D_PARAM radix) radix.
* radix must be a value from 2 to 36.
* value is treated as a signed value only if radix is 10.
* The characters A through Z are used to represent values 10 through 36
* and their case is determined by the $(D_PARAM letterCase) parameter.)))
* $(LI All floating point types _to all string types.)
* $(LI Pointer to string conversions prints the pointer as a $(D size_t) value.
* If pointer is $(D char*), treat it as C-style strings.
* In that case, this function is $(D @system).))
*/
@system pure unittest // @system due to cast and ptr
{
// Conversion representing dynamic/static array with string
long[] a = [ 1, 3, 5 ];
assert(to!string(a) == "[1, 3, 5]");
// Conversion representing associative array with string
int[string] associativeArray = ["0":1, "1":2];
assert(to!string(associativeArray) == `["0":1, "1":2]` ||
to!string(associativeArray) == `["1":2, "0":1]`);
// char* to string conversion
assert(to!string(cast(char*) null) == "");
assert(to!string("foo\0".ptr) == "foo");
// Conversion reinterpreting void array to string
auto w = "abcx"w;
const(void)[] b = w;
assert(b.length == 8);
auto c = to!(wchar[])(b);
assert(c == "abcx");
}
// Tests for issue 6175
@safe pure nothrow unittest
{
char[9] sarr = "blablabla";
auto darr = to!(char[])(sarr);
assert(sarr.ptr == darr.ptr);
assert(sarr.length == darr.length);
}
// Tests for issue 7348
@safe pure /+nothrow+/ unittest
{
assert(to!string(null) == "null");
assert(text(null) == "null");
}
// Tests for issue 11390
@safe pure /+nothrow+/ unittest
{
const(typeof(null)) ctn;
immutable(typeof(null)) itn;
assert(to!string(ctn) == "null");
assert(to!string(itn) == "null");
}
// Tests for issue 8729: do NOT skip leading WS
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
foreach (T; AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong))
{
assertThrown!ConvException(to!T(" 0"));
assertThrown!ConvException(to!T(" 0", 8));
}
foreach (T; AliasSeq!(float, double, real))
{
assertThrown!ConvException(to!T(" 0"));
}
assertThrown!ConvException(to!bool(" true"));
alias NullType = typeof(null);
assertThrown!ConvException(to!NullType(" null"));
alias ARR = int[];
assertThrown!ConvException(to!ARR(" [1]"));
alias AA = int[int];
assertThrown!ConvException(to!AA(" [1:1]"));
}
/**
If the source type is implicitly convertible to the target type, $(D
to) simply performs the implicit conversion.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
!isEnumStrToStr!(S, T) && !isNullToStr!(S, T))
{
template isSignedInt(T)
{
enum isSignedInt = isIntegral!T && isSigned!T;
}
alias isUnsignedInt = isUnsigned;
// Conversion from integer to integer, and changing its sign
static if (isUnsignedInt!S && isSignedInt!T && S.sizeof == T.sizeof)
{ // unsigned to signed & same size
import std.exception : enforce;
enforce(value <= cast(S) T.max,
new ConvOverflowException("Conversion positive overflow"));
}
else static if (isSignedInt!S && isUnsignedInt!T)
{ // signed to unsigned
import std.exception : enforce;
enforce(0 <= value,
new ConvOverflowException("Conversion negative overflow"));
}
return value;
}
@safe pure nothrow unittest
{
enum E { a } // Issue 9523 - Allow identity enum conversion
auto e = to!E(E.a);
assert(e == E.a);
}
@safe pure nothrow unittest
{
int a = 42;
auto b = to!long(a);
assert(a == b);
}
// Tests for issue 6377
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
// Conversion between same size
foreach (S; AliasSeq!(byte, short, int, long))
(){ // avoid slow optimizations for large functions @@@BUG@@@ 2396
alias U = Unsigned!S;
foreach (Sint; AliasSeq!(S, const S, immutable S))
foreach (Uint; AliasSeq!(U, const U, immutable U))
{
// positive overflow
Uint un = Uint.max;
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!Sint(un),
text(Sint.stringof, ' ', Uint.stringof, ' ', un));
// negative overflow
Sint sn = -1;
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!Uint(sn),
text(Sint.stringof, ' ', Uint.stringof, ' ', un));
}
}();
// Conversion between different size
foreach (i, S1; AliasSeq!(byte, short, int, long))
foreach ( S2; AliasSeq!(byte, short, int, long)[i+1..$])
(){ // avoid slow optimizations for large functions @@@BUG@@@ 2396
alias U1 = Unsigned!S1;
alias U2 = Unsigned!S2;
static assert(U1.sizeof < S2.sizeof);
// small unsigned to big signed
foreach (Uint; AliasSeq!(U1, const U1, immutable U1))
foreach (Sint; AliasSeq!(S2, const S2, immutable S2))
{
Uint un = Uint.max;
assertNotThrown(to!Sint(un));
assert(to!Sint(un) == un);
}
// big unsigned to small signed
foreach (Uint; AliasSeq!(U2, const U2, immutable U2))
foreach (Sint; AliasSeq!(S1, const S1, immutable S1))
{
Uint un = Uint.max;
assertThrown(to!Sint(un));
}
static assert(S1.sizeof < U2.sizeof);
// small signed to big unsigned
foreach (Sint; AliasSeq!(S1, const S1, immutable S1))
foreach (Uint; AliasSeq!(U2, const U2, immutable U2))
{
Sint sn = -1;
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!Uint(sn));
}
// big signed to small unsigned
foreach (Sint; AliasSeq!(S2, const S2, immutable S2))
foreach (Uint; AliasSeq!(U1, const U1, immutable U1))
{
Sint sn = -1;
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!Uint(sn));
}
}();
}
/*
Converting static arrays forwards to their dynamic counterparts.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(ref S s)
if (isStaticArray!S)
{
return toImpl!(T, typeof(s[0])[])(s);
}
@safe pure nothrow unittest
{
char[4] test = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'];
static assert(!isInputRange!(Unqual!(char[4])));
assert(to!string(test) == test);
}
/**
When source type supports member template function opCast, it is used.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
is(typeof(S.init.opCast!T()) : T) &&
!isExactSomeString!T &&
!is(typeof(T(value))))
{
return value.opCast!T();
}
@safe pure unittest
{
static struct Test
{
struct T
{
this(S s) @safe pure { }
}
struct S
{
T opCast(U)() @safe pure { assert(false); }
}
}
cast(void) to!(Test.T)(Test.S());
// make sure std.conv.to is doing the same thing as initialization
Test.S s;
Test.T t = s;
}
@safe pure unittest
{
class B
{
T opCast(T)() { return 43; }
}
auto b = new B;
assert(to!int(b) == 43);
struct S
{
T opCast(T)() { return 43; }
}
auto s = S();
assert(to!int(s) == 43);
}
/**
When target type supports 'converting construction', it is used.
$(UL $(LI If target type is struct, $(D T(value)) is used.)
$(LI If target type is class, $(D new T(value)) is used.))
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
is(T == struct) && is(typeof(T(value))))
{
return T(value);
}
// Bugzilla 3961
@safe pure unittest
{
struct Int
{
int x;
}
Int i = to!Int(1);
static struct Int2
{
int x;
this(int x) @safe pure { this.x = x; }
}
Int2 i2 = to!Int2(1);
static struct Int3
{
int x;
static Int3 opCall(int x) @safe pure
{
Int3 i;
i.x = x;
return i;
}
}
Int3 i3 = to!Int3(1);
}
// Bugzilla 6808
@safe pure unittest
{
static struct FakeBigInt
{
this(string s) @safe pure {}
}
string s = "101";
auto i3 = to!FakeBigInt(s);
}
/// ditto
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
is(T == class) && is(typeof(new T(value))))
{
return new T(value);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
static struct S
{
int x;
}
static class C
{
int x;
this(int x) @safe pure { this.x = x; }
}
static class B
{
int value;
this(S src) @safe pure { value = src.x; }
this(C src) @safe pure { value = src.x; }
}
S s = S(1);
auto b1 = to!B(s); // == new B(s)
assert(b1.value == 1);
C c = new C(2);
auto b2 = to!B(c); // == new B(c)
assert(b2.value == 2);
auto c2 = to!C(3); // == new C(3)
assert(c2.x == 3);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
struct S
{
class A
{
this(B b) @safe pure {}
}
class B : A
{
this() @safe pure { super(this); }
}
}
S.B b = new S.B();
S.A a = to!(S.A)(b); // == cast(S.A) b
// (do not run construction conversion like new S.A(b))
assert(b is a);
static class C : Object
{
this() @safe pure {}
this(Object o) @safe pure {}
}
Object oc = new C();
C a2 = to!C(oc); // == new C(a)
// Construction conversion overrides down-casting conversion
assert(a2 !is a); //
}
/**
Object-to-object conversions by dynamic casting throw exception when the source is
non-null and the target is null.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
(is(S == class) || is(S == interface)) && !is(typeof(value.opCast!T()) : T) &&
(is(T == class) || is(T == interface)) && !is(typeof(new T(value))))
{
static if (is(T == immutable))
{
// immutable <- immutable
enum isModConvertible = is(S == immutable);
}
else static if (is(T == const))
{
static if (is(T == shared))
{
// shared const <- shared
// shared const <- shared const
// shared const <- immutable
enum isModConvertible = is(S == shared) || is(S == immutable);
}
else
{
// const <- mutable
// const <- immutable
enum isModConvertible = !is(S == shared);
}
}
else
{
static if (is(T == shared))
{
// shared <- shared mutable
enum isModConvertible = is(S == shared) && !is(S == const);
}
else
{
// (mutable) <- (mutable)
enum isModConvertible = is(Unqual!S == S);
}
}
static assert(isModConvertible, "Bad modifier conversion: "~S.stringof~" to "~T.stringof);
auto result = ()@trusted{ return cast(T) value; }();
if (!result && value)
{
throw new ConvException("Cannot convert object of static type "
~S.classinfo.name~" and dynamic type "~value.classinfo.name
~" to type "~T.classinfo.name);
}
return result;
}
// Unittest for 6288
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
alias Identity(T) = T;
alias toConst(T) = const T;
alias toShared(T) = shared T;
alias toSharedConst(T) = shared const T;
alias toImmutable(T) = immutable T;
template AddModifier(int n)
if (0 <= n && n < 5)
{
static if (n == 0) alias AddModifier = Identity;
else static if (n == 1) alias AddModifier = toConst;
else static if (n == 2) alias AddModifier = toShared;
else static if (n == 3) alias AddModifier = toSharedConst;
else static if (n == 4) alias AddModifier = toImmutable;
}
interface I {}
interface J {}
class A {}
class B : A {}
class C : B, I, J {}
class D : I {}
foreach (m1; AliasSeq!(0,1,2,3,4)) // enumerate modifiers
foreach (m2; AliasSeq!(0,1,2,3,4)) // ditto
(){ // avoid slow optimizations for large functions @@@BUG@@@ 2396
alias srcmod = AddModifier!m1;
alias tgtmod = AddModifier!m2;
// Compile time convertible equals to modifier convertible.
static if (isImplicitlyConvertible!(srcmod!Object, tgtmod!Object))
{
// Test runtime conversions: class to class, class to interface,
// interface to class, and interface to interface
// Check that the runtime conversion to succeed
srcmod!A ac = new srcmod!C();
srcmod!I ic = new srcmod!C();
assert(to!(tgtmod!C)(ac) !is null); // A(c) to C
assert(to!(tgtmod!I)(ac) !is null); // A(c) to I
assert(to!(tgtmod!C)(ic) !is null); // I(c) to C
assert(to!(tgtmod!J)(ic) !is null); // I(c) to J
// Check that the runtime conversion fails
srcmod!A ab = new srcmod!B();
srcmod!I id = new srcmod!D();
assertThrown(to!(tgtmod!C)(ab)); // A(b) to C
assertThrown(to!(tgtmod!I)(ab)); // A(b) to I
assertThrown(to!(tgtmod!C)(id)); // I(d) to C
assertThrown(to!(tgtmod!J)(id)); // I(d) to J
}
else
{
// Check that the conversion is rejected statically
static assert(!is(typeof(to!(tgtmod!C)(srcmod!A.init)))); // A to C
static assert(!is(typeof(to!(tgtmod!I)(srcmod!A.init)))); // A to I
static assert(!is(typeof(to!(tgtmod!C)(srcmod!I.init)))); // I to C
static assert(!is(typeof(to!(tgtmod!J)(srcmod!I.init)))); // I to J
}
}();
}
/**
Handles type _to string conversions
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!(isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
!isEnumStrToStr!(S, T) && !isNullToStr!(S, T)) &&
!isInfinite!S && isExactSomeString!T)
{
static if (isExactSomeString!S && value[0].sizeof == ElementEncodingType!T.sizeof)
{
// string-to-string with incompatible qualifier conversion
static if (is(ElementEncodingType!T == immutable))
{
// conversion (mutable|const) -> immutable
return value.idup;
}
else
{
// conversion (immutable|const) -> mutable
return value.dup;
}
}
else static if (isExactSomeString!S)
{
import std.array : appender;
// other string-to-string
//Use Appender directly instead of toStr, which also uses a formatedWrite
auto w = appender!T();
w.put(value);
return w.data;
}
else static if (isIntegral!S && !is(S == enum))
{
// other integral-to-string conversions with default radix
return toImpl!(T, S)(value, 10);
}
else static if (is(S == void[]) || is(S == const(void)[]) || is(S == immutable(void)[]))
{
import core.stdc.string : memcpy;
import std.exception : enforce;
// Converting void array to string
alias Char = Unqual!(ElementEncodingType!T);
auto raw = cast(const(ubyte)[]) value;
enforce(raw.length % Char.sizeof == 0,
new ConvException("Alignment mismatch in converting a "
~ S.stringof ~ " to a "
~ T.stringof));
auto result = new Char[raw.length / Char.sizeof];
()@trusted{ memcpy(result.ptr, value.ptr, value.length); }();
return cast(T) result;
}
else static if (isPointer!S && isSomeChar!(PointerTarget!S))
{
// This is unsafe because we cannot guarantee that the pointer is null terminated.
return () @system {
static if (is(S : const(char)*))
import core.stdc.string : strlen;
else
size_t strlen(S s) nothrow
{
S p = s;
while (*p++) {}
return p-s-1;
}
return toImpl!T(value ? value[0 .. strlen(value)].dup : null);
}();
}
else static if (isSomeString!T && is(S == enum))
{
static if (isSwitchable!(OriginalType!S) && EnumMembers!S.length <= 50)
{
switch (value)
{
foreach (member; NoDuplicates!(EnumMembers!S))
{
case member:
return to!T(enumRep!(immutable(T), S, member));
}
default:
}
}
else
{
foreach (member; EnumMembers!S)
{
if (value == member)
return to!T(enumRep!(immutable(T), S, member));
}
}
import std.array : appender;
import std.format : FormatSpec, formatValue;
//Default case, delegate to format
//Note: we don't call toStr directly, to avoid duplicate work.
auto app = appender!T();
app.put("cast(" ~ S.stringof ~ ")");
FormatSpec!char f;
formatValue(app, cast(OriginalType!S) value, f);
return app.data;
}
else
{
// other non-string values runs formatting
return toStr!T(value);
}
}
// Bugzilla 14042
@system unittest
{
immutable(char)* ptr = "hello".ptr;
auto result = ptr.to!(char[]);
}
// Bugzilla 8384
@system unittest
{
void test1(T)(T lp, string cmp)
{
foreach (e; AliasSeq!(char, wchar, dchar))
{
test2!(e[])(lp, cmp);
test2!(const(e)[])(lp, cmp);
test2!(immutable(e)[])(lp, cmp);
}
}
void test2(D, S)(S lp, string cmp)
{
assert(to!string(to!D(lp)) == cmp);
}
foreach (e; AliasSeq!("Hello, world!", "Hello, world!"w, "Hello, world!"d))
{
test1(e, "Hello, world!");
test1(e.ptr, "Hello, world!");
}
foreach (e; AliasSeq!("", ""w, ""d))
{
test1(e, "");
test1(e.ptr, "");
}
}
/*
To string conversion for non copy-able structs
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(ref S value)
if (!(isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
!isEnumStrToStr!(S, T) && !isNullToStr!(S, T)) &&
!isInfinite!S && isExactSomeString!T && !isCopyable!S)
{
import std.array : appender;
import std.format : FormatSpec, formatValue;
auto w = appender!T();
FormatSpec!(ElementEncodingType!T) f;
formatValue(w, value, f);
return w.data;
}
// Bugzilla 16108
@system unittest
{
static struct A
{
int val;
bool flag;
string toString() { return text(val, ":", flag); }
@disable this(this);
}
auto a = A();
assert(to!string(a) == "0:false");
static struct B
{
int val;
bool flag;
@disable this(this);
}
auto b = B();
assert(to!string(b) == "B(0, false)");
}
/*
Check whether type $(D T) can be used in a switch statement.
This is useful for compile-time generation of switch case statements.
*/
private template isSwitchable(E)
{
enum bool isSwitchable = is(typeof({
switch (E.init) { default: }
}));
}
//
@safe unittest
{
static assert(isSwitchable!int);
static assert(!isSwitchable!double);
static assert(!isSwitchable!real);
}
//Static representation of the index I of the enum S,
//In representation T.
//T must be an immutable string (avoids un-necessary initializations).
private template enumRep(T, S, S value)
if (is (T == immutable) && isExactSomeString!T && is(S == enum))
{
static T enumRep = toStr!T(value);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
void dg()
{
// string to string conversion
alias Chars = AliasSeq!(char, wchar, dchar);
foreach (LhsC; Chars)
{
alias LhStrings = AliasSeq!(LhsC[], const(LhsC)[], immutable(LhsC)[]);
foreach (Lhs; LhStrings)
{
foreach (RhsC; Chars)
{
alias RhStrings = AliasSeq!(RhsC[], const(RhsC)[], immutable(RhsC)[]);
foreach (Rhs; RhStrings)
{
Lhs s1 = to!Lhs("wyda");
Rhs s2 = to!Rhs(s1);
//writeln(Lhs.stringof, " -> ", Rhs.stringof);
assert(s1 == to!Lhs(s2));
}
}
}
}
foreach (T; Chars)
{
foreach (U; Chars)
{
T[] s1 = to!(T[])("Hello, world!");
auto s2 = to!(U[])(s1);
assert(s1 == to!(T[])(s2));
auto s3 = to!(const(U)[])(s1);
assert(s1 == to!(T[])(s3));
auto s4 = to!(immutable(U)[])(s1);
assert(s1 == to!(T[])(s4));
}
}
}
dg();
assertCTFEable!dg;
}
@safe pure unittest
{
// Conversion representing bool value with string
bool b;
assert(to!string(b) == "false");
b = true;
assert(to!string(b) == "true");
}
@safe pure unittest
{
// Conversion representing character value with string
alias AllChars =
AliasSeq!( char, const( char), immutable( char),
wchar, const(wchar), immutable(wchar),
dchar, const(dchar), immutable(dchar));
foreach (Char1; AllChars)
{
foreach (Char2; AllChars)
{
Char1 c = 'a';
assert(to!(Char2[])(c)[0] == c);
}
uint x = 4;
assert(to!(Char1[])(x) == "4");
}
string s = "foo";
string s2;
foreach (char c; s)
{
s2 ~= to!string(c);
}
assert(s2 == "foo");
}
@safe pure nothrow unittest
{
import std.exception;
// Conversion representing integer values with string
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(ubyte, ushort, uint, ulong))
{
assert(to!string(Int(0)) == "0");
assert(to!string(Int(9)) == "9");
assert(to!string(Int(123)) == "123");
}
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(byte, short, int, long))
{
assert(to!string(Int(0)) == "0");
assert(to!string(Int(9)) == "9");
assert(to!string(Int(123)) == "123");
assert(to!string(Int(-0)) == "0");
assert(to!string(Int(-9)) == "-9");
assert(to!string(Int(-123)) == "-123");
assert(to!string(const(Int)(6)) == "6");
}
assert(wtext(int.max) == "2147483647"w);
assert(wtext(int.min) == "-2147483648"w);
assert(to!string(0L) == "0");
assertCTFEable!(
{
assert(to!string(1uL << 62) == "4611686018427387904");
assert(to!string(0x100000000) == "4294967296");
assert(to!string(-138L) == "-138");
});
}
@safe unittest // sprintf issue
{
double[2] a = [ 1.5, 2.5 ];
assert(to!string(a) == "[1.5, 2.5]");
}
@system unittest
{
// Conversion representing class object with string
class A
{
override string toString() const { return "an A"; }
}
A a;
assert(to!string(a) == "null");
a = new A;
assert(to!string(a) == "an A");
// Bug 7660
class C { override string toString() const { return "C"; } }
struct S { C c; alias c this; }
S s; s.c = new C();
assert(to!string(s) == "C");
}
@safe unittest
{
// Conversion representing struct object with string
struct S1
{
string toString() { return "wyda"; }
}
assert(to!string(S1()) == "wyda");
struct S2
{
int a = 42;
float b = 43.5;
}
S2 s2;
assert(to!string(s2) == "S2(42, 43.5)");
// Test for issue 8080
struct S8080
{
short[4] data;
alias data this;
string toString() { return "<S>"; }
}
S8080 s8080;
assert(to!string(s8080) == "<S>");
}
@safe unittest
{
// Conversion representing enum value with string
enum EB : bool { a = true }
enum EU : uint { a = 0, b = 1, c = 2 } // base type is unsigned
enum EI : int { a = -1, b = 0, c = 1 } // base type is signed (bug 7909)
enum EF : real { a = 1.414, b = 1.732, c = 2.236 }
enum EC : char { a = 'x', b = 'y' }
enum ES : string { a = "aaa", b = "bbb" }
foreach (E; AliasSeq!(EB, EU, EI, EF, EC, ES))
{
assert(to! string(E.a) == "a"c);
assert(to!wstring(E.a) == "a"w);
assert(to!dstring(E.a) == "a"d);
}
// Test an value not corresponding to an enum member.
auto o = cast(EU) 5;
assert(to! string(o) == "cast(EU)5"c);
assert(to!wstring(o) == "cast(EU)5"w);
assert(to!dstring(o) == "cast(EU)5"d);
}
@safe unittest
{
enum E
{
foo,
doo = foo, // check duplicate switch statements
bar,
}
//Test regression 12494
assert(to!string(E.foo) == "foo");
assert(to!string(E.doo) == "foo");
assert(to!string(E.bar) == "bar");
foreach (S; AliasSeq!(string, wstring, dstring, const(char[]), const(wchar[]), const(dchar[])))
{
auto s1 = to!S(E.foo);
auto s2 = to!S(E.foo);
assert(s1 == s2);
// ensure we don't allocate when it's unnecessary
assert(s1 is s2);
}
foreach (S; AliasSeq!(char[], wchar[], dchar[]))
{
auto s1 = to!S(E.foo);
auto s2 = to!S(E.foo);
assert(s1 == s2);
// ensure each mutable array is unique
assert(s1 !is s2);
}
}
// ditto
@trusted pure private T toImpl(T, S)(S value, uint radix, LetterCase letterCase = LetterCase.upper)
if (isIntegral!S &&
isExactSomeString!T)
in
{
assert(radix >= 2 && radix <= 36);
}
body
{
alias EEType = Unqual!(ElementEncodingType!T);
T toStringRadixConvert(size_t bufLen)(uint runtimeRadix = 0)
{
Unsigned!(Unqual!S) div = void, mValue = unsigned(value);
size_t index = bufLen;
EEType[bufLen] buffer = void;
char baseChar = letterCase == LetterCase.lower ? 'a' : 'A';
char mod = void;
do
{
div = cast(S)(mValue / runtimeRadix );
mod = cast(ubyte)(mValue % runtimeRadix);
mod += mod < 10 ? '0' : baseChar - 10;
buffer[--index] = cast(char) mod;
mValue = div;
} while (mValue);
return cast(T) buffer[index .. $].dup;
}
import std.array : array;
switch (radix)
{
case 10:
// The (value+0) is so integral promotions happen to the type
return toChars!(10, EEType)(value + 0).array;
case 16:
// The unsigned(unsigned(value)+0) is so unsigned integral promotions happen to the type
if (letterCase == letterCase.upper)
return toChars!(16, EEType, LetterCase.upper)(unsigned(unsigned(value) + 0)).array;
else
return toChars!(16, EEType, LetterCase.lower)(unsigned(unsigned(value) + 0)).array;
case 2:
return toChars!(2, EEType)(unsigned(unsigned(value) + 0)).array;
case 8:
return toChars!(8, EEType)(unsigned(unsigned(value) + 0)).array;
default:
return toStringRadixConvert!(S.sizeof * 6)(radix);
}
}
@safe pure nothrow unittest
{
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(uint, ulong))
{
assert(to!string(Int(16), 16) == "10");
assert(to!string(Int(15), 2u) == "1111");
assert(to!string(Int(1), 2u) == "1");
assert(to!string(Int(0x1234AF), 16u) == "1234AF");
assert(to!string(Int(0x1234BCD), 16u, LetterCase.upper) == "1234BCD");
assert(to!string(Int(0x1234AF), 16u, LetterCase.lower) == "1234af");
}
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(int, long))
{
assert(to!string(Int(-10), 10u) == "-10");
}
assert(to!string(byte(-10), 16) == "F6");
assert(to!string(long.min) == "-9223372036854775808");
assert(to!string(long.max) == "9223372036854775807");
}
/**
Narrowing numeric-numeric conversions throw when the value does not
fit in the narrower type.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
(isNumeric!S || isSomeChar!S || isBoolean!S) &&
(isNumeric!T || isSomeChar!T || isBoolean!T) && !is(T == enum))
{
enum sSmallest = mostNegative!S;
enum tSmallest = mostNegative!T;
static if (sSmallest < 0)
{
// possible underflow converting from a signed
static if (tSmallest == 0)
{
immutable good = value >= 0;
}
else
{
static assert(tSmallest < 0);
immutable good = value >= tSmallest;
}
if (!good)
throw new ConvOverflowException("Conversion negative overflow");
}
static if (S.max > T.max)
{
// possible overflow
if (value > T.max)
throw new ConvOverflowException("Conversion positive overflow");
}
return (ref value)@trusted{ return cast(T) value; }(value);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
dchar a = ' ';
assert(to!char(a) == ' ');
a = 300;
assert(collectException(to!char(a)));
dchar from0 = 'A';
char to0 = to!char(from0);
wchar from1 = 'A';
char to1 = to!char(from1);
char from2 = 'A';
char to2 = to!char(from2);
char from3 = 'A';
wchar to3 = to!wchar(from3);
char from4 = 'A';
dchar to4 = to!dchar(from4);
}
@safe unittest
{
import std.exception;
// Narrowing conversions from enum -> integral should be allowed, but they
// should throw at runtime if the enum value doesn't fit in the target
// type.
enum E1 : ulong { A = 1, B = 1UL << 48, C = 0 }
assert(to!int(E1.A) == 1);
assert(to!bool(E1.A) == true);
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!int(E1.B)); // E1.B overflows int
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!bool(E1.B)); // E1.B overflows bool
assert(to!bool(E1.C) == false);
enum E2 : long { A = -1L << 48, B = -1 << 31, C = 1 << 31 }
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!int(E2.A)); // E2.A overflows int
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!uint(E2.B)); // E2.B overflows uint
assert(to!int(E2.B) == -1 << 31); // but does not overflow int
assert(to!int(E2.C) == 1 << 31); // E2.C does not overflow int
enum E3 : int { A = -1, B = 1, C = 255, D = 0 }
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!ubyte(E3.A));
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!bool(E3.A));
assert(to!byte(E3.A) == -1);
assert(to!byte(E3.B) == 1);
assert(to!ubyte(E3.C) == 255);
assert(to!bool(E3.B) == true);
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!byte(E3.C));
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!bool(E3.C));
assert(to!bool(E3.D) == false);
}
/**
Array-to-array conversion (except when target is a string type)
converts each element in turn by using $(D to).
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) &&
!isSomeString!S && isDynamicArray!S &&
!isExactSomeString!T && isArray!T)
{
alias E = typeof(T.init[0]);
static if (isStaticArray!T)
{
import std.exception : enforce;
auto res = to!(E[])(value);
enforce!ConvException(T.length == res.length,
convFormat("Length mismatch when converting to static array: %s vs %s", T.length, res.length));
return res[0 .. T.length];
}
else
{
import std.array : appender;
auto w = appender!(E[])();
w.reserve(value.length);
foreach (i, ref e; value)
{
w.put(to!E(e));
}
return w.data;
}
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
// array to array conversions
uint[] a = [ 1u, 2, 3 ];
auto b = to!(float[])(a);
assert(b == [ 1.0f, 2, 3 ]);
immutable(int)[3] d = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
b = to!(float[])(d);
assert(b == [ 1.0f, 2, 3 ]);
uint[][] e = [ a, a ];
auto f = to!(float[][])(e);
assert(f[0] == b && f[1] == b);
// Test for bug 8264
struct Wrap
{
string wrap;
alias wrap this;
}
Wrap[] warr = to!(Wrap[])(["foo", "bar"]); // should work
// Issue 12633
import std.conv : to;
const s2 = ["10", "20"];
immutable int[2] a3 = s2.to!(int[2]);
assert(a3 == [10, 20]);
// verify length mismatches are caught
immutable s4 = [1, 2, 3, 4];
foreach (i; [1, 4])
{
auto ex = collectException(s4[0 .. i].to!(int[2]));
assert(ex && ex.msg == "Length mismatch when converting to static array: 2 vs " ~ [cast(char)(i + '0')],
ex ? ex.msg : "Exception was not thrown!");
}
}
@safe unittest
{
auto b = [ 1.0f, 2, 3 ];
auto c = to!(string[])(b);
assert(c[0] == "1" && c[1] == "2" && c[2] == "3");
}
/**
Associative array to associative array conversion converts each key
and each value in turn.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (isAssociativeArray!S &&
isAssociativeArray!T && !is(T == enum))
{
/* This code is potentially unsafe.
*/
alias K2 = KeyType!T;
alias V2 = ValueType!T;
// While we are "building" the AA, we need to unqualify its values, and only re-qualify at the end
Unqual!V2[K2] result;
foreach (k1, v1; value)
{
// Cast values temporarily to Unqual!V2 to store them to result variable
result[to!K2(k1)] = cast(Unqual!V2) to!V2(v1);
}
// Cast back to original type
return cast(T) result;
}
@safe unittest
{
// hash to hash conversions
int[string] a;
a["0"] = 1;
a["1"] = 2;
auto b = to!(double[dstring])(a);
assert(b["0"d] == 1 && b["1"d] == 2);
}
@safe unittest // Bugzilla 8705, from doc
{
import std.exception;
int[string][double[int[]]] a;
auto b = to!(short[wstring][string[double[]]])(a);
a = [null:["hello":int.max]];
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!(short[wstring][string[double[]]])(a));
}
@system unittest // Extra cases for AA with qualifiers conversion
{
int[][int[]] a;// = [[], []];
auto b = to!(immutable(short[])[immutable short[]])(a);
double[dstring][int[long[]]] c;
auto d = to!(immutable(short[immutable wstring])[immutable string[double[]]])(c);
}
private void testIntegralToFloating(Integral, Floating)()
{
Integral a = 42;
auto b = to!Floating(a);
assert(a == b);
assert(a == to!Integral(b));
}
private void testFloatingToIntegral(Floating, Integral)()
{
bool convFails(Source, Target, E)(Source src)
{
try
auto t = to!Target(src);
catch (E)
return true;
return false;
}
// convert some value
Floating a = 4.2e1;
auto b = to!Integral(a);
assert(is(typeof(b) == Integral) && b == 42);
// convert some negative value (if applicable)
a = -4.2e1;
static if (Integral.min < 0)
{
b = to!Integral(a);
assert(is(typeof(b) == Integral) && b == -42);
}
else
{
// no go for unsigned types
assert(convFails!(Floating, Integral, ConvOverflowException)(a));
}
// convert to the smallest integral value
a = 0.0 + Integral.min;
static if (Integral.min < 0)
{
a = -a; // -Integral.min not representable as an Integral
assert(convFails!(Floating, Integral, ConvOverflowException)(a)
|| Floating.sizeof <= Integral.sizeof);
}
a = 0.0 + Integral.min;
assert(to!Integral(a) == Integral.min);
--a; // no more representable as an Integral
assert(convFails!(Floating, Integral, ConvOverflowException)(a)
|| Floating.sizeof <= Integral.sizeof);
a = 0.0 + Integral.max;
assert(to!Integral(a) == Integral.max || Floating.sizeof <= Integral.sizeof);
++a; // no more representable as an Integral
assert(convFails!(Floating, Integral, ConvOverflowException)(a)
|| Floating.sizeof <= Integral.sizeof);
// convert a value with a fractional part
a = 3.14;
assert(to!Integral(a) == 3);
a = 3.99;
assert(to!Integral(a) == 3);
static if (Integral.min < 0)
{
a = -3.14;
assert(to!Integral(a) == -3);
a = -3.99;
assert(to!Integral(a) == -3);
}
}
@safe pure unittest
{
alias AllInts = AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong);
alias AllFloats = AliasSeq!(float, double, real);
alias AllNumerics = AliasSeq!(AllInts, AllFloats);
// test with same type
{
foreach (T; AllNumerics)
{
T a = 42;
auto b = to!T(a);
assert(is(typeof(a) == typeof(b)) && a == b);
}
}
// test that floating-point numbers convert properly to largest ints
// see http://oregonstate.edu/~peterseb/mth351/docs/351s2001_fp80x87.html
// look for "largest fp integer with a predecessor"
{
// float
int a = 16_777_215; // 2^24 - 1
assert(to!int(to!float(a)) == a);
assert(to!int(to!float(-a)) == -a);
// double
long b = 9_007_199_254_740_991; // 2^53 - 1
assert(to!long(to!double(b)) == b);
assert(to!long(to!double(-b)) == -b);
// real
static if (real.mant_dig >= 64)
{
ulong c = 18_446_744_073_709_551_615UL; // 2^64 - 1
assert(to!ulong(to!real(c)) == c);
}
}
// test conversions floating => integral
{
// AllInts[0 .. $ - 1] should be AllInts
// @@@ BUG IN COMPILER @@@
foreach (Integral; AllInts[0 .. $ - 1])
{
foreach (Floating; AllFloats)
{
testFloatingToIntegral!(Floating, Integral)();
}
}
}
// test conversion integral => floating
{
foreach (Integral; AllInts[0 .. $ - 1])
{
foreach (Floating; AllFloats)
{
testIntegralToFloating!(Integral, Floating)();
}
}
}
// test parsing
{
foreach (T; AllNumerics)
{
// from type immutable(char)[2]
auto a = to!T("42");
assert(a == 42);
// from type char[]
char[] s1 = "42".dup;
a = to!T(s1);
assert(a == 42);
// from type char[2]
char[2] s2;
s2[] = "42";
a = to!T(s2);
assert(a == 42);
// from type immutable(wchar)[2]
a = to!T("42"w);
assert(a == 42);
}
}
}
@safe unittest
{
alias AllInts = AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong);
alias AllFloats = AliasSeq!(float, double, real);
alias AllNumerics = AliasSeq!(AllInts, AllFloats);
// test conversions to string
{
foreach (T; AllNumerics)
{
T a = 42;
assert(to!string(a) == "42");
assert(to!wstring(a) == "42"w);
assert(to!dstring(a) == "42"d);
// array test
T[] b = new T[2];
b[0] = 42;
b[1] = 33;
assert(to!string(b) == "[42, 33]");
}
}
// test array to string conversion
foreach (T ; AllNumerics)
{
auto a = [to!T(1), 2, 3];
assert(to!string(a) == "[1, 2, 3]");
}
// test enum to int conversion
enum Testing { Test1, Test2 }
Testing t;
auto a = to!string(t);
assert(a == "Test1");
}
/**
String, or string-like input range, to non-string conversion runs parsing.
$(UL
$(LI When the source is a wide string, it is first converted to a narrow
string and then parsed.)
$(LI When the source is a narrow string, normal text parsing occurs.))
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (isInputRange!S && isSomeChar!(ElementEncodingType!S) &&
!isExactSomeString!T && is(typeof(parse!T(value))))
{
scope(success)
{
if (!value.empty)
{
throw convError!(S, T)(value);
}
}
return parse!T(value);
}
/// ditto
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value, uint radix)
if (isInputRange!S && !isInfinite!S && isSomeChar!(ElementEncodingType!S) &&
isIntegral!T && is(typeof(parse!T(value, radix))))
{
scope(success)
{
if (!value.empty)
{
throw convError!(S, T)(value);
}
}
return parse!T(value, radix);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
// Issue 6668 - ensure no collaterals thrown
try { to!uint("-1"); }
catch (ConvException e) { assert(e.next is null); }
}
@safe pure unittest
{
foreach (Str; AliasSeq!(string, wstring, dstring))
{
Str a = "123";
assert(to!int(a) == 123);
assert(to!double(a) == 123);
}
// 6255
auto n = to!int("FF", 16);
assert(n == 255);
}
// bugzilla 15800
@safe unittest
{
import std.utf : byCodeUnit, byChar, byWchar, byDchar;
assert(to!int(byCodeUnit("10")) == 10);
assert(to!int(byCodeUnit("10"), 10) == 10);
assert(to!int(byCodeUnit("10"w)) == 10);
assert(to!int(byCodeUnit("10"w), 10) == 10);
assert(to!int(byChar("10")) == 10);
assert(to!int(byChar("10"), 10) == 10);
assert(to!int(byWchar("10")) == 10);
assert(to!int(byWchar("10"), 10) == 10);
assert(to!int(byDchar("10")) == 10);
assert(to!int(byDchar("10"), 10) == 10);
}
/**
Convert a value that is implicitly convertible to the enum base type
into an Enum value. If the value does not match any enum member values
a ConvException is thrown.
Enums with floating-point or string base types are not supported.
*/
private T toImpl(T, S)(S value)
if (is(T == enum) && !is(S == enum)
&& is(typeof(value == OriginalType!T.init))
&& !isFloatingPoint!(OriginalType!T) && !isSomeString!(OriginalType!T))
{
foreach (Member; EnumMembers!T)
{
if (Member == value)
return Member;
}
throw new ConvException(convFormat("Value (%s) does not match any member value of enum '%s'", value, T.stringof));
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
enum En8143 : int { A = 10, B = 20, C = 30, D = 20 }
enum En8143[][] m3 = to!(En8143[][])([[10, 30], [30, 10]]);
static assert(m3 == [[En8143.A, En8143.C], [En8143.C, En8143.A]]);
En8143 en1 = to!En8143(10);
assert(en1 == En8143.A);
assertThrown!ConvException(to!En8143(5)); // matches none
En8143[][] m1 = to!(En8143[][])([[10, 30], [30, 10]]);
assert(m1 == [[En8143.A, En8143.C], [En8143.C, En8143.A]]);
}
/***************************************************************
Rounded conversion from floating point to integral.
Rounded conversions do not work with non-integral target types.
*/
template roundTo(Target)
{
Target roundTo(Source)(Source value)
{
import std.math : trunc;
static assert(isFloatingPoint!Source);
static assert(isIntegral!Target);
return to!Target(trunc(value + (value < 0 ? -0.5L : 0.5L)));
}
}
///
@safe unittest
{
assert(roundTo!int(3.14) == 3);
assert(roundTo!int(3.49) == 3);
assert(roundTo!int(3.5) == 4);
assert(roundTo!int(3.999) == 4);
assert(roundTo!int(-3.14) == -3);
assert(roundTo!int(-3.49) == -3);
assert(roundTo!int(-3.5) == -4);
assert(roundTo!int(-3.999) == -4);
assert(roundTo!(const int)(to!(const double)(-3.999)) == -4);
}
@safe unittest
{
import std.exception;
// boundary values
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint))
{
assert(roundTo!Int(Int.min - 0.4L) == Int.min);
assert(roundTo!Int(Int.max + 0.4L) == Int.max);
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(roundTo!Int(Int.min - 0.5L));
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(roundTo!Int(Int.max + 0.5L));
}
}
/**
The $(D parse) family of functions works quite like the $(D to)
family, except that:
$(OL
$(LI It only works with character ranges as input.)
$(LI It takes the input by reference. (This means that rvalues - such
as string literals - are not accepted: use $(D to) instead.))
$(LI It advances the input to the position following the conversion.)
$(LI It does not throw if it could not convert the entire input.))
This overload converts an character input range to a `bool`.
Params:
Target = the type to convert to
source = the lvalue of an $(REF_ALTTEXT input range, isInputRange, std,range,primitives)
Returns:
A `bool`
Throws:
A $(LREF ConvException) if the range does not represent a `bool`.
Note:
All character input range conversions using $(LREF to) are forwarded
to `parse` and do not require lvalues.
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source source)
if (isInputRange!Source &&
isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) &&
is(Unqual!Target == bool))
{
import std.ascii : toLower;
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
{
import std.string : representation;
auto s = source.representation;
}
else
{
alias s = source;
}
if (!s.empty)
{
auto c1 = toLower(s.front);
bool result = c1 == 't';
if (result || c1 == 'f')
{
s.popFront();
foreach (c; result ? "rue" : "alse")
{
if (s.empty || toLower(s.front) != c)
goto Lerr;
s.popFront();
}
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
source = cast(Source) s;
return result;
}
}
Lerr:
throw parseError("bool should be case-insensitive 'true' or 'false'");
}
///
@safe unittest
{
auto s = "true";
bool b = parse!bool(s);
assert(b);
}
@safe unittest
{
import std.algorithm.comparison : equal;
import std.exception;
struct InputString
{
string _s;
@property auto front() { return _s.front; }
@property bool empty() { return _s.empty; }
void popFront() { _s.popFront(); }
}
auto s = InputString("trueFALSETrueFalsetRUEfALSE");
assert(parse!bool(s) == true);
assert(s.equal("FALSETrueFalsetRUEfALSE"));
assert(parse!bool(s) == false);
assert(s.equal("TrueFalsetRUEfALSE"));
assert(parse!bool(s) == true);
assert(s.equal("FalsetRUEfALSE"));
assert(parse!bool(s) == false);
assert(s.equal("tRUEfALSE"));
assert(parse!bool(s) == true);
assert(s.equal("fALSE"));
assert(parse!bool(s) == false);
assert(s.empty);
foreach (ss; ["tfalse", "ftrue", "t", "f", "tru", "fals", ""])
{
s = InputString(ss);
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!bool(s));
}
}
/**
Parses a character $(REF_ALTTEXT input range, isInputRange, std,range,primitives)
to an integral value.
Params:
Target = the integral type to convert to
s = the lvalue of an input range
Returns:
A number of type `Target`
Throws:
A $(LREF ConvException) If an overflow occurred during conversion or
if no character of the input was meaningfully converted.
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) &&
isIntegral!Target && !is(Target == enum))
{
static if (Target.sizeof < int.sizeof)
{
// smaller types are handled like integers
auto v = .parse!(Select!(Target.min < 0, int, uint))(s);
auto result = ()@trusted{ return cast(Target) v; }();
if (result == v)
return result;
throw new ConvOverflowException("Overflow in integral conversion");
}
else
{
// int or larger types
static if (Target.min < 0)
bool sign = false;
else
enum bool sign = false;
enum char maxLastDigit = Target.min < 0 ? 7 : 5;
uint c;
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
{
import std.string : representation;
auto source = s.representation;
}
else
{
alias source = s;
}
if (source.empty)
goto Lerr;
c = source.front;
static if (Target.min < 0)
{
switch (c)
{
case '-':
sign = true;
goto case '+';
case '+':
source.popFront();
if (source.empty)
goto Lerr;
c = source.front;
break;
default:
break;
}
}
c -= '0';
if (c <= 9)
{
Target v = cast(Target) c;
source.popFront();
while (!source.empty)
{
c = cast(typeof(c)) (source.front - '0');
if (c > 9)
break;
if (v >= 0 && (v < Target.max/10 ||
(v == Target.max/10 && c <= maxLastDigit + sign)))
{
// Note: `v` can become negative here in case of parsing
// the most negative value:
v = cast(Target) (v * 10 + c);
source.popFront();
}
else
throw new ConvOverflowException("Overflow in integral conversion");
}
if (sign)
v = -v;
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
s = cast(Source) source;
return v;
}
Lerr:
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(cast(Source) source);
else
throw convError!(Source, Target)(source);
}
}
///
@safe pure unittest
{
string s = "123";
auto a = parse!int(s);
assert(a == 123);
// parse only accepts lvalues
static assert(!__traits(compiles, parse!int("123")));
}
///
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.string : tr;
string test = "123 \t 76.14";
auto a = parse!uint(test);
assert(a == 123);
assert(test == " \t 76.14"); // parse bumps string
test = tr(test, " \t\n\r", "", "d"); // skip ws
assert(test == "76.14");
auto b = parse!double(test);
assert(b == 76.14);
assert(test == "");
}
@safe pure unittest
{
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong))
{
{
assert(to!Int("0") == 0);
static if (isSigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("+0") == 0);
assert(to!Int("-0") == 0);
}
}
static if (Int.sizeof >= byte.sizeof)
{
assert(to!Int("6") == 6);
assert(to!Int("23") == 23);
assert(to!Int("68") == 68);
assert(to!Int("127") == 0x7F);
static if (isUnsigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("255") == 0xFF);
}
static if (isSigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("+6") == 6);
assert(to!Int("+23") == 23);
assert(to!Int("+68") == 68);
assert(to!Int("+127") == 0x7F);
assert(to!Int("-6") == -6);
assert(to!Int("-23") == -23);
assert(to!Int("-68") == -68);
assert(to!Int("-128") == -128);
}
}
static if (Int.sizeof >= short.sizeof)
{
assert(to!Int("468") == 468);
assert(to!Int("32767") == 0x7FFF);
static if (isUnsigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("65535") == 0xFFFF);
}
static if (isSigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("+468") == 468);
assert(to!Int("+32767") == 0x7FFF);
assert(to!Int("-468") == -468);
assert(to!Int("-32768") == -32768);
}
}
static if (Int.sizeof >= int.sizeof)
{
assert(to!Int("2147483647") == 0x7FFFFFFF);
static if (isUnsigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("4294967295") == 0xFFFFFFFF);
}
static if (isSigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("+2147483647") == 0x7FFFFFFF);
assert(to!Int("-2147483648") == -2147483648);
}
}
static if (Int.sizeof >= long.sizeof)
{
assert(to!Int("9223372036854775807") == 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
static if (isUnsigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("18446744073709551615") == 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
}
static if (isSigned!Int)
{
assert(to!Int("+9223372036854775807") == 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
assert(to!Int("-9223372036854775808") == 0x8000000000000000);
}
}
}
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
// parsing error check
foreach (Int; AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong))
{
{
immutable string[] errors1 =
[
"",
"-",
"+",
"-+",
" ",
" 0",
"0 ",
"- 0",
"1-",
"xx",
"123h",
"-+1",
"--1",
"+-1",
"++1",
];
foreach (j, s; errors1)
assertThrown!ConvException(to!Int(s));
}
// parse!SomeUnsigned cannot parse head sign.
static if (isUnsigned!Int)
{
immutable string[] errors2 =
[
"+5",
"-78",
];
foreach (j, s; errors2)
assertThrown!ConvException(to!Int(s));
}
}
// positive overflow check
foreach (i, Int; AliasSeq!(byte, ubyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong))
{
immutable string[] errors =
[
"128", // > byte.max
"256", // > ubyte.max
"32768", // > short.max
"65536", // > ushort.max
"2147483648", // > int.max
"4294967296", // > uint.max
"9223372036854775808", // > long.max
"18446744073709551616", // > ulong.max
];
foreach (j, s; errors[i..$])
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!Int(s));
}
// negative overflow check
foreach (i, Int; AliasSeq!(byte, short, int, long))
{
immutable string[] errors =
[
"-129", // < byte.min
"-32769", // < short.min
"-2147483649", // < int.min
"-9223372036854775809", // < long.min
];
foreach (j, s; errors[i..$])
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(to!Int(s));
}
}
@safe pure unittest
{
void checkErrMsg(string input, dchar charInMsg, dchar charNotInMsg)
{
try
{
int x = input.to!int();
assert(false, "Invalid conversion did not throw");
}
catch (ConvException e)
{
// Ensure error message contains failing character, not the character
// beyond.
import std.algorithm.searching : canFind;
assert( e.msg.canFind(charInMsg) &&
!e.msg.canFind(charNotInMsg));
}
catch (Exception e)
{
assert(false, "Did not throw ConvException");
}
}
checkErrMsg("@$", '@', '$');
checkErrMsg("@$123", '@', '$');
checkErrMsg("1@$23", '@', '$');
checkErrMsg("1@$", '@', '$');
checkErrMsg("1@$2", '@', '$');
checkErrMsg("12@$", '@', '$');
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
assertCTFEable!({ string s = "1234abc"; assert(parse! int(s) == 1234 && s == "abc"); });
assertCTFEable!({ string s = "-1234abc"; assert(parse! int(s) == -1234 && s == "abc"); });
assertCTFEable!({ string s = "1234abc"; assert(parse!uint(s) == 1234 && s == "abc"); });
}
// Issue 13931
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException("-21474836480".to!int());
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException("-92233720368547758080".to!long());
}
// Issue 14396
@safe pure unittest
{
struct StrInputRange
{
this (string s) { str = s; }
char front() const @property { return str[front_index]; }
char popFront() { return str[front_index++]; }
bool empty() const @property { return str.length <= front_index; }
string str;
size_t front_index = 0;
}
auto input = StrInputRange("777");
assert(parse!int(input) == 777);
}
/// ditto
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source source, uint radix)
if (isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) &&
isIntegral!Target && !is(Target == enum))
in
{
assert(radix >= 2 && radix <= 36);
}
body
{
import core.checkedint : mulu, addu;
import std.exception : enforce;
if (radix == 10)
return parse!Target(source);
enforce!ConvException(!source.empty, "s must not be empty in integral parse");
immutable uint beyond = (radix < 10 ? '0' : 'a'-10) + radix;
Target v = 0;
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
{
import std.string : representation;
auto s = source.representation;
}
else
{
alias s = source;
}
do
{
uint c = s.front;
if (c < '0')
break;
if (radix < 10)
{
if (c >= beyond)
break;
}
else
{
if (c > '9')
{
c |= 0x20;//poorman's tolower
if (c < 'a' || c >= beyond)
break;
c -= 'a'-10-'0';
}
}
bool overflow = false;
auto nextv = v.mulu(radix, overflow).addu(c - '0', overflow);
enforce!ConvOverflowException(!overflow && nextv <= Target.max, "Overflow in integral conversion");
v = cast(Target) nextv;
s.popFront();
} while (!s.empty);
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
source = cast(Source) s;
return v;
}
@safe pure unittest
{
string s; // parse doesn't accept rvalues
foreach (i; 2 .. 37)
{
assert(parse!int(s = "0", i) == 0);
assert(parse!int(s = "1", i) == 1);
assert(parse!byte(s = "10", i) == i);
}
assert(parse!int(s = "0011001101101", 2) == 0b0011001101101);
assert(parse!int(s = "765", 8) == octal!765);
assert(parse!int(s = "fCDe", 16) == 0xfcde);
// 6609
assert(parse!int(s = "-42", 10) == -42);
assert(parse!ubyte(s = "ff", 16) == 0xFF);
}
@safe pure unittest // bugzilla 7302
{
import std.range : cycle;
auto r = cycle("2A!");
auto u = parse!uint(r, 16);
assert(u == 42);
assert(r.front == '!');
}
@safe pure unittest // bugzilla 13163
{
import std.exception;
foreach (s; ["fff", "123"])
assertThrown!ConvOverflowException(s.parse!ubyte(16));
}
@safe pure unittest // bugzilla 17282
{
auto str = "0=\x00\x02\x55\x40&\xff\xf0\n\x00\x04\x55\x40\xff\xf0~4+10\n";
assert(parse!uint(str) == 0);
}
/**
* Takes a string representing an `enum` type and returns that type.
*
* Params:
* Target = the `enum` type to convert to
* s = the lvalue of the range to _parse
*
* Returns:
* An `enum` of type `Target`
*
* Throws:
* A $(LREF ConvException) if type `Target` does not have a member
* represented by `s`.
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isSomeString!Source && !is(Source == enum) &&
is(Target == enum))
{
import std.algorithm.searching : startsWith;
Target result;
size_t longest_match = 0;
foreach (i, e; EnumMembers!Target)
{
auto ident = __traits(allMembers, Target)[i];
if (longest_match < ident.length && s.startsWith(ident))
{
result = e;
longest_match = ident.length ;
}
}
if (longest_match > 0)
{
s = s[longest_match .. $];
return result ;
}
throw new ConvException(
Target.stringof ~ " does not have a member named '"
~ to!string(s) ~ "'");
}
///
@safe unittest
{
enum EnumType : bool { a = true, b = false, c = a }
auto str = "a";
assert(parse!EnumType(str) == EnumType.a);
}
@safe unittest
{
import std.exception;
enum EB : bool { a = true, b = false, c = a }
enum EU { a, b, c }
enum EI { a = -1, b = 0, c = 1 }
enum EF : real { a = 1.414, b = 1.732, c = 2.236 }
enum EC : char { a = 'a', b = 'b', c = 'c' }
enum ES : string { a = "aaa", b = "bbb", c = "ccc" }
foreach (E; AliasSeq!(EB, EU, EI, EF, EC, ES))
{
assert(to!E("a"c) == E.a);
assert(to!E("b"w) == E.b);
assert(to!E("c"d) == E.c);
assertThrown!ConvException(to!E("d"));
}
}
@safe pure unittest // bugzilla 4744
{
enum A { member1, member11, member111 }
assert(to!A("member1" ) == A.member1 );
assert(to!A("member11" ) == A.member11 );
assert(to!A("member111") == A.member111);
auto s = "member1111";
assert(parse!A(s) == A.member111 && s == "1");
}
/**
* Parses a character range to a floating point number.
*
* Params:
* Target = a floating point type
* source = the lvalue of the range to _parse
*
* Returns:
* A floating point number of type `Target`
*
* Throws:
* A $(LREF ConvException) if `p` is empty, if no number could be
* parsed, or if an overflow occurred.
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source source)
if (isInputRange!Source && isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) && !is(Source == enum) &&
isFloatingPoint!Target && !is(Target == enum))
{
import std.ascii : isDigit, isAlpha, toLower, toUpper, isHexDigit;
import std.exception : enforce;
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
{
import std.string : representation;
auto p = source.representation;
}
else
{
alias p = source;
}
static immutable real[14] negtab =
[ 1e-4096L,1e-2048L,1e-1024L,1e-512L,1e-256L,1e-128L,1e-64L,1e-32L,
1e-16L,1e-8L,1e-4L,1e-2L,1e-1L,1.0L ];
static immutable real[13] postab =
[ 1e+4096L,1e+2048L,1e+1024L,1e+512L,1e+256L,1e+128L,1e+64L,1e+32L,
1e+16L,1e+8L,1e+4L,1e+2L,1e+1L ];
ConvException bailOut()(string msg = null, string fn = __FILE__, size_t ln = __LINE__)
{
if (msg == null)
msg = "Floating point conversion error";
return new ConvException(text(msg, " for input \"", source, "\"."), fn, ln);
}
enforce(!p.empty, bailOut());
bool sign = false;
switch (p.front)
{
case '-':
sign = true;
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty, bailOut());
if (toLower(p.front) == 'i')
goto case 'i';
break;
case '+':
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty, bailOut());
break;
case 'i': case 'I':
// inf
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty && toUpper(p.front) == 'N',
bailOut("error converting input to floating point"));
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty && toUpper(p.front) == 'F',
bailOut("error converting input to floating point"));
// skip past the last 'f'
p.popFront();
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
source = cast(Source) p;
return sign ? -Target.infinity : Target.infinity;
default: {}
}
bool isHex = false;
bool startsWithZero = p.front == '0';
if (startsWithZero)
{
p.popFront();
if (p.empty)
{
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
source = cast(Source) p;
return sign ? -0.0 : 0.0;
}
isHex = p.front == 'x' || p.front == 'X';
if (isHex) p.popFront();
}
else if (toLower(p.front) == 'n')
{
// nan
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty && toUpper(p.front) == 'A',
bailOut("error converting input to floating point"));
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty && toUpper(p.front) == 'N',
bailOut("error converting input to floating point"));
// skip past the last 'n'
p.popFront();
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
source = cast(Source) p;
return typeof(return).nan;
}
/*
* The following algorithm consists of 2 steps:
* 1) parseDigits processes the textual input into msdec and possibly
* lsdec/msscale variables, followed by the exponent parser which sets
* exp below.
* Hex: input is 0xaaaaa...p+000... where aaaa is the mantissa in hex
* and 000 is the exponent in decimal format with base 2.
* Decimal: input is 0.00333...p+000... where 0.0033 is the mantissa
* in decimal and 000 is the exponent in decimal format with base 10.
* 2) Convert msdec/lsdec and exp into native real format
*/
real ldval = 0.0;
char dot = 0; /* if decimal point has been seen */
int exp = 0;
ulong msdec = 0, lsdec = 0;
ulong msscale = 1;
bool sawDigits;
enum { hex, decimal }
// sets msdec, lsdec/msscale, and sawDigits by parsing the mantissa digits
void parseDigits(alias FloatFormat)()
{
static if (FloatFormat == hex)
{
enum uint base = 16;
enum ulong msscaleMax = 0x1000_0000_0000_0000UL; // largest power of 16 a ulong holds
enum ubyte expIter = 4; // iterate the base-2 exponent by 4 for every hex digit
alias checkDigit = isHexDigit;
/*
* convert letter to binary representation: First clear bit
* to convert lower space chars to upperspace, then -('A'-10)
* converts letter A to 10, letter B to 11, ...
*/
alias convertDigit = (int x) => isAlpha(x) ? ((x & ~0x20) - ('A' - 10)) : x - '0';
sawDigits = false;
}
else static if (FloatFormat == decimal)
{
enum uint base = 10;
enum ulong msscaleMax = 10_000_000_000_000_000_000UL; // largest power of 10 a ulong holds
enum ubyte expIter = 1; // iterate the base-10 exponent once for every decimal digit
alias checkDigit = isDigit;
alias convertDigit = (int x) => x - '0';
// Used to enforce that any mantissa digits are present
sawDigits = startsWithZero;
}
else
static assert(false, "Unrecognized floating-point format used.");
while (!p.empty)
{
int i = p.front;
while (checkDigit(i))
{
sawDigits = true; /* must have at least 1 digit */
i = convertDigit(i);
if (msdec < (ulong.max - base)/base)
{
// For base 16: Y = ... + y3*16^3 + y2*16^2 + y1*16^1 + y0*16^0
msdec = msdec * base + i;
}
else if (msscale < msscaleMax)
{
lsdec = lsdec * base + i;
msscale *= base;
}
else
{
exp += expIter;
}
exp -= dot;
p.popFront();
if (p.empty)
break;
i = p.front;
if (i == '_')
{
p.popFront();
if (p.empty)
break;
i = p.front;
}
}
if (i == '.' && !dot)
{
p.popFront();
dot += expIter;
}
else
break;
}
// Have we seen any mantissa digits so far?
enforce(sawDigits, bailOut("no digits seen"));
static if (FloatFormat == hex)
enforce(!p.empty && (p.front == 'p' || p.front == 'P'),
bailOut("Floating point parsing: exponent is required"));
}
if (isHex)
parseDigits!hex;
else
parseDigits!decimal;
if (isHex || (!p.empty && (p.front == 'e' || p.front == 'E')))
{
char sexp = 0;
int e = 0;
p.popFront();
enforce(!p.empty, new ConvException("Unexpected end of input"));
switch (p.front)
{
case '-': sexp++;
goto case;
case '+': p.popFront();
break;
default: {}
}
sawDigits = false;
while (!p.empty && isDigit(p.front))
{
if (e < 0x7FFFFFFF / 10 - 10) // prevent integer overflow
{
e = e * 10 + p.front - '0';
}
p.popFront();
sawDigits = true;
}
exp += (sexp) ? -e : e;
enforce(sawDigits, new ConvException("No digits seen."));
}
ldval = msdec;
if (msscale != 1) /* if stuff was accumulated in lsdec */
ldval = ldval * msscale + lsdec;
if (isHex)
{
import std.math : ldexp;
// Exponent is power of 2, not power of 10
ldval = ldexp(ldval,exp);
}
else if (ldval)
{
uint u = 0;
int pow = 4096;
while (exp > 0)
{
while (exp >= pow)
{
ldval *= postab[u];
exp -= pow;
}
pow >>= 1;
u++;
}
while (exp < 0)
{
while (exp <= -pow)
{
ldval *= negtab[u];
enforce(ldval != 0, new ConvException("Range error"));
exp += pow;
}
pow >>= 1;
u++;
}
}
// if overflow occurred
enforce(ldval != real.infinity, new ConvException("Range error"));
static if (isNarrowString!Source)
source = cast(Source) p;
return sign ? -ldval : ldval;
}
///
@safe unittest
{
import std.math : approxEqual;
auto str = "123.456";
assert(parse!double(str).approxEqual(123.456));
}
@safe unittest
{
import std.exception;
import std.math : isNaN, fabs;
// Compare reals with given precision
bool feq(in real rx, in real ry, in real precision = 0.000001L)
{
if (rx == ry)
return 1;
if (isNaN(rx))
return cast(bool) isNaN(ry);
if (isNaN(ry))
return 0;
return cast(bool)(fabs(rx - ry) <= precision);
}
// Make given typed literal
F Literal(F)(F f)
{
return f;
}
foreach (Float; AliasSeq!(float, double, real))
{
assert(to!Float("123") == Literal!Float(123));
assert(to!Float("+123") == Literal!Float(+123));
assert(to!Float("-123") == Literal!Float(-123));
assert(to!Float("123e2") == Literal!Float(123e2));
assert(to!Float("123e+2") == Literal!Float(123e+2));
assert(to!Float("123e-2") == Literal!Float(123e-2));
assert(to!Float("123.") == Literal!Float(123.0));
assert(to!Float(".375") == Literal!Float(.375));
assert(to!Float("1.23375E+2") == Literal!Float(1.23375E+2));
assert(to!Float("0") is 0.0);
assert(to!Float("-0") is -0.0);
assert(isNaN(to!Float("nan")));
assertThrown!ConvException(to!Float("\x00"));
}
// min and max
float f = to!float("1.17549e-38");
assert(feq(cast(real) f, cast(real) 1.17549e-38));
assert(feq(cast(real) f, cast(real) float.min_normal));
f = to!float("3.40282e+38");
assert(to!string(f) == to!string(3.40282e+38));
// min and max
double d = to!double("2.22508e-308");
assert(feq(cast(real) d, cast(real) 2.22508e-308));
assert(feq(cast(real) d, cast(real) double.min_normal));
d = to!double("1.79769e+308");
assert(to!string(d) == to!string(1.79769e+308));
assert(to!string(d) == to!string(double.max));
assert(to!string(to!real(to!string(real.max / 2L))) == to!string(real.max / 2L));
// min and max
real r = to!real(to!string(real.min_normal));
version (NetBSD)
{
// NetBSD notice
// to!string returns 3.3621e-4932L. It is less than real.min_normal and it is subnormal value
// Simple C code
// long double rd = 3.3621e-4932L;
// printf("%Le\n", rd);
// has unexpected result: 1.681050e-4932
//
// Bug report: http://gnats.netbsd.org/cgi-bin/query-pr-single.pl?number=50937
}
else
{
assert(to!string(r) == to!string(real.min_normal));
}
r = to!real(to!string(real.max));
assert(to!string(r) == to!string(real.max));
}
// Tests for the double implementation
@system unittest
{
// @system because strtod is not @safe.
static if (real.mant_dig == 53)
{
import core.stdc.stdlib, std.exception, std.math;
//Should be parsed exactly: 53 bit mantissa
string s = "0x1A_BCDE_F012_3456p10";
auto x = parse!real(s);
assert(x == 0x1A_BCDE_F012_3456p10L);
//1 bit is implicit
assert(((*cast(ulong*)&x) & 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF) == 0xA_BCDE_F012_3456);
assert(strtod("0x1ABCDEF0123456p10", null) == x);
//Should be parsed exactly: 10 bit mantissa
s = "0x3FFp10";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(x == 0x03FFp10);
//1 bit is implicit
assert(((*cast(ulong*)&x) & 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF) == 0x000F_F800_0000_0000);
assert(strtod("0x3FFp10", null) == x);
//60 bit mantissa, round up
s = "0xFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FFFFp10";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(approxEqual(x, 0xFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FFFFp10));
//1 bit is implicit
assert(((*cast(ulong*)&x) & 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF) == 0x0000_0000_0000_0000);
assert(strtod("0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFp10", null) == x);
//60 bit mantissa, round down
s = "0xFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FF90p10";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(approxEqual(x, 0xFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FF90p10));
//1 bit is implicit
assert(((*cast(ulong*)&x) & 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF) == 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF);
assert(strtod("0xFFFFFFFFFFFFF90p10", null) == x);
//61 bit mantissa, round up 2
s = "0x1F0F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFFp10";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(approxEqual(x, 0x1F0F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFFp10));
//1 bit is implicit
assert(((*cast(ulong*)&x) & 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF) == 0x000F_1000_0000_0000);
assert(strtod("0x1F0FFFFFFFFFFFFFp10", null) == x);
//61 bit mantissa, round down 2
s = "0x1F0F_FFFF_FFFF_FF10p10";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(approxEqual(x, 0x1F0F_FFFF_FFFF_FF10p10));
//1 bit is implicit
assert(((*cast(ulong*)&x) & 0x000F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF) == 0x000F_0FFF_FFFF_FFFF);
assert(strtod("0x1F0FFFFFFFFFFF10p10", null) == x);
//Huge exponent
s = "0x1F_FFFF_FFFF_FFFFp900";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(strtod("0x1FFFFFFFFFFFFFp900", null) == x);
//exponent too big -> converror
s = "";
assertThrown!ConvException(x = parse!real(s));
assert(strtod("0x1FFFFFFFFFFFFFp1024", null) == real.infinity);
//-exponent too big -> 0
s = "0x1FFFFFFFFFFFFFp-2000";
x = parse!real(s);
assert(x == 0);
assert(strtod("0x1FFFFFFFFFFFFFp-2000", null) == x);
}
}
@system unittest
{
import core.stdc.errno;
import core.stdc.stdlib;
import std.math : floatTraits, RealFormat;
errno = 0; // In case it was set by another unittest in a different module.
struct longdouble
{
static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeQuadruple)
{
ushort[8] value;
}
else static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeExtended)
{
ushort[5] value;
}
else static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeDouble)
{
ushort[4] value;
}
else
static assert(false, "Not implemented");
}
real ld;
longdouble x;
real ld1;
longdouble x1;
int i;
static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeQuadruple)
// Our parser is currently limited to ieeeExtended precision
enum s = "0x1.FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEp-16382";
else static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeExtended)
enum s = "0x1.FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEp-16382";
else static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeDouble)
enum s = "0x1.FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEp-1000";
else
static assert(false, "Floating point format for real not supported");
auto s2 = s.idup;
ld = parse!real(s2);
assert(s2.empty);
x = *cast(longdouble *)&ld;
static if (floatTraits!real.realFormat == RealFormat.ieeeExtended)
{
version (CRuntime_Microsoft)
ld1 = 0x1.FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEp-16382L; // strtold currently mapped to strtod
else version (CRuntime_Bionic)
ld1 = 0x1.FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEp-16382L; // strtold currently mapped to strtod
else
ld1 = strtold(s.ptr, null);
}
else
ld1 = strtold(s.ptr, null);
x1 = *cast(longdouble *)&ld1;
assert(x1 == x && ld1 == ld);
assert(!errno);
s2 = "1.0e5";
ld = parse!real(s2);
assert(s2.empty);
x = *cast(longdouble *)&ld;
ld1 = strtold("1.0e5", null);
x1 = *cast(longdouble *)&ld1;
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
// Bugzilla 4959
{
auto s = "0 ";
auto x = parse!double(s);
assert(s == " ");
assert(x == 0.0);
}
// Bugzilla 3369
assert(to!float("inf") == float.infinity);
assert(to!float("-inf") == -float.infinity);
// Bugzilla 6160
assert(6_5.536e3L == to!real("6_5.536e3")); // 2^16
assert(0x1000_000_000_p10 == to!real("0x1000_000_000_p10")); // 7.03687e+13
// Bugzilla 6258
assertThrown!ConvException(to!real("-"));
assertThrown!ConvException(to!real("in"));
// Bugzilla 7055
assertThrown!ConvException(to!float("INF2"));
//extra stress testing
auto ssOK = ["1.", "1.1.1", "1.e5", "2e1e", "2a", "2e1_1",
"inf", "-inf", "infa", "-infa", "inf2e2", "-inf2e2"];
auto ssKO = ["", " ", "2e", "2e+", "2e-", "2ee", "2e++1", "2e--1", "2e_1", "+inf"];
foreach (s; ssOK)
parse!double(s);
foreach (s; ssKO)
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!double(s));
}
/**
Parsing one character off a range returns the first element and calls `popFront`.
Params:
Target = the type to convert to
s = the lvalue of an $(REF_ALTTEXT input range, isInputRange, std,range,primitives)
Returns:
A character of type `Target`
Throws:
A $(LREF ConvException) if the range is empty.
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isSomeString!Source && !is(Source == enum) &&
staticIndexOf!(Unqual!Target, dchar, Unqual!(ElementEncodingType!Source)) >= 0)
{
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
static if (is(Unqual!Target == dchar))
{
Target result = s.front;
s.popFront();
return result;
}
else
{
// Special case: okay so parse a Char off a Char[]
Target result = s[0];
s = s[1 .. $];
return result;
}
}
@safe pure unittest
{
foreach (Str; AliasSeq!(string, wstring, dstring))
{
foreach (Char; AliasSeq!(char, wchar, dchar))
{
static if (is(Unqual!Char == dchar) ||
Char.sizeof == ElementEncodingType!Str.sizeof)
{
Str s = "aaa";
assert(parse!Char(s) == 'a');
assert(s == "aa");
}
}
}
}
/// ditto
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (!isSomeString!Source && isInputRange!Source && isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) &&
isSomeChar!Target && Target.sizeof >= ElementType!Source.sizeof && !is(Target == enum))
{
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
Target result = s.front;
s.popFront();
return result;
}
///
@safe pure unittest
{
auto s = "Hello, World!";
char first = parse!char(s);
assert(first == 'H');
assert(s == "ello, World!");
}
/*
Tests for to!bool and parse!bool
*/
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
assert(to!bool("TruE") == true);
assert(to!bool("faLse"d) == false);
assertThrown!ConvException(to!bool("maybe"));
auto t = "TrueType";
assert(parse!bool(t) == true);
assert(t == "Type");
auto f = "False killer whale"d;
assert(parse!bool(f) == false);
assert(f == " killer whale"d);
auto m = "maybe";
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!bool(m));
assert(m == "maybe"); // m shouldn't change on failure
auto s = "true";
auto b = parse!(const(bool))(s);
assert(b == true);
}
/**
Parsing a character range to `typeof(null)` returns `null` if the range
spells `"null"`. This function is case insensitive.
Params:
Target = the type to convert to
s = the lvalue of an $(REF_ALTTEXT input range, isInputRange, std,range,primitives)
Returns:
`null`
Throws:
A $(LREF ConvException) if the range doesn't represent `null`.
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isInputRange!Source &&
isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) &&
is(Unqual!Target == typeof(null)))
{
import std.ascii : toLower;
foreach (c; "null")
{
if (s.empty || toLower(s.front) != c)
throw parseError("null should be case-insensitive 'null'");
s.popFront();
}
return null;
}
///
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception : assertThrown;
alias NullType = typeof(null);
auto s1 = "null";
assert(parse!NullType(s1) is null);
assert(s1 == "");
auto s2 = "NUll"d;
assert(parse!NullType(s2) is null);
assert(s2 == "");
auto m = "maybe";
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!NullType(m));
assert(m == "maybe"); // m shouldn't change on failure
auto s = "NULL";
assert(parse!(const NullType)(s) is null);
}
//Used internally by parse Array/AA, to remove ascii whites
package void skipWS(R)(ref R r)
{
import std.ascii : isWhite;
static if (isSomeString!R)
{
//Implementation inspired from stripLeft.
foreach (i, c; r)
{
if (!isWhite(c))
{
r = r[i .. $];
return;
}
}
r = r[0 .. 0]; //Empty string with correct type.
return;
}
else
{
for (; !r.empty && isWhite(r.front); r.popFront())
{}
}
}
/**
* Parses an array from a string given the left bracket (default $(D
* '[')), right bracket (default $(D ']')), and element separator (by
* default $(D ',')). A trailing separator is allowed.
*
* Params:
* s = The string to parse
* lbracket = the character that starts the array
* rbracket = the character that ends the array
* comma = the character that separates the elements of the array
*
* Returns:
* An array of type `Target`
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s, dchar lbracket = '[', dchar rbracket = ']', dchar comma = ',')
if (isSomeString!Source && !is(Source == enum) &&
isDynamicArray!Target && !is(Target == enum))
{
import std.array : appender;
auto result = appender!Target();
parseCheck!s(lbracket);
skipWS(s);
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front == rbracket)
{
s.popFront();
return result.data;
}
for (;; s.popFront(), skipWS(s))
{
if (!s.empty && s.front == rbracket)
break;
result ~= parseElement!(ElementType!Target)(s);
skipWS(s);
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front != comma)
break;
}
parseCheck!s(rbracket);
return result.data;
}
///
@safe pure unittest
{
auto s1 = `[['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o'], "world"]`;
auto a1 = parse!(string[])(s1);
assert(a1 == ["hello", "world"]);
auto s2 = `["aaa", "bbb", "ccc"]`;
auto a2 = parse!(string[])(s2);
assert(a2 == ["aaa", "bbb", "ccc"]);
}
@safe unittest // Bugzilla 9615
{
string s0 = "[1,2, ]";
string s1 = "[1,2, \t\v\r\n]";
string s2 = "[1,2]";
assert(s0.parse!(int[]) == [1,2]);
assert(s1.parse!(int[]) == [1,2]);
assert(s2.parse!(int[]) == [1,2]);
string s3 = `["a","b",]`;
string s4 = `["a","b"]`;
assert(s3.parse!(string[]) == ["a","b"]);
assert(s4.parse!(string[]) == ["a","b"]);
import std.exception : assertThrown;
string s5 = "[,]";
string s6 = "[, \t,]";
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!(string[])(s5));
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!(int[])(s6));
}
@safe unittest
{
int[] a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
auto s = to!string(a);
assert(to!(int[])(s) == a);
}
@safe unittest
{
int[][] a = [ [1, 2] , [3], [4, 5] ];
auto s = to!string(a);
assert(to!(int[][])(s) == a);
}
@safe unittest
{
int[][][] ia = [ [[1,2],[3,4],[5]] , [[6],[],[7,8,9]] , [[]] ];
char[] s = to!(char[])(ia);
int[][][] ia2;
ia2 = to!(typeof(ia2))(s);
assert( ia == ia2);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
//Check proper failure
auto s = "[ 1 , 2 , 3 ]";
foreach (i ; 0 .. s.length-1)
{
auto ss = s[0 .. i];
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!(int[])(ss));
}
int[] arr = parse!(int[])(s);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
//Checks parsing of strings with escaped characters
string s1 = `[
"Contains a\0null!",
"tab\there",
"line\nbreak",
"backslash \\ slash / question \?",
"number \x35 five",
"unicode \u65E5 sun",
"very long \U000065E5 sun"
]`;
//Note: escaped characters purposefully replaced and isolated to guarantee
//there are no typos in the escape syntax
string[] s2 = [
"Contains a" ~ '\0' ~ "null!",
"tab" ~ '\t' ~ "here",
"line" ~ '\n' ~ "break",
"backslash " ~ '\\' ~ " slash / question ?",
"number 5 five",
"unicode 日 sun",
"very long 日 sun"
];
assert(s2 == parse!(string[])(s1));
assert(s1.empty);
}
/// ditto
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s, dchar lbracket = '[', dchar rbracket = ']', dchar comma = ',')
if (isExactSomeString!Source &&
isStaticArray!Target && !is(Target == enum))
{
static if (hasIndirections!Target)
Target result = Target.init[0].init;
else
Target result = void;
parseCheck!s(lbracket);
skipWS(s);
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front == rbracket)
{
static if (result.length != 0)
goto Lmanyerr;
else
{
s.popFront();
return result;
}
}
for (size_t i = 0; ; s.popFront(), skipWS(s))
{
if (i == result.length)
goto Lmanyerr;
result[i++] = parseElement!(ElementType!Target)(s);
skipWS(s);
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front != comma)
{
if (i != result.length)
goto Lfewerr;
break;
}
}
parseCheck!s(rbracket);
return result;
Lmanyerr:
throw parseError(text("Too many elements in input, ", result.length, " elements expected."));
Lfewerr:
throw parseError(text("Too few elements in input, ", result.length, " elements expected."));
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
auto s1 = "[1,2,3,4]";
auto sa1 = parse!(int[4])(s1);
assert(sa1 == [1,2,3,4]);
auto s2 = "[[1],[2,3],[4]]";
auto sa2 = parse!(int[][3])(s2);
assert(sa2 == [[1],[2,3],[4]]);
auto s3 = "[1,2,3]";
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!(int[4])(s3));
auto s4 = "[1,2,3,4,5]";
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!(int[4])(s4));
}
/**
* Parses an associative array from a string given the left bracket (default $(D
* '[')), right bracket (default $(D ']')), key-value separator (default $(D
* ':')), and element seprator (by default $(D ',')).
*
* Params:
* s = the string to parse
* lbracket = the character that starts the associative array
* rbracket = the character that ends the associative array
* keyval = the character that associates the key with the value
* comma = the character that separates the elements of the associative array
*
* Returns:
* An associative array of type `Target`
*/
Target parse(Target, Source)(ref Source s, dchar lbracket = '[',
dchar rbracket = ']', dchar keyval = ':', dchar comma = ',')
if (isSomeString!Source && !is(Source == enum) &&
isAssociativeArray!Target && !is(Target == enum))
{
alias KeyType = typeof(Target.init.keys[0]);
alias ValType = typeof(Target.init.values[0]);
Target result;
parseCheck!s(lbracket);
skipWS(s);
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front == rbracket)
{
s.popFront();
return result;
}
for (;; s.popFront(), skipWS(s))
{
auto key = parseElement!KeyType(s);
skipWS(s);
parseCheck!s(keyval);
skipWS(s);
auto val = parseElement!ValType(s);
skipWS(s);
result[key] = val;
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front != comma)
break;
}
parseCheck!s(rbracket);
return result;
}
///
@safe pure unittest
{
auto s1 = "[1:10, 2:20, 3:30]";
auto aa1 = parse!(int[int])(s1);
assert(aa1 == [1:10, 2:20, 3:30]);
auto s2 = `["aaa":10, "bbb":20, "ccc":30]`;
auto aa2 = parse!(int[string])(s2);
assert(aa2 == ["aaa":10, "bbb":20, "ccc":30]);
auto s3 = `["aaa":[1], "bbb":[2,3], "ccc":[4,5,6]]`;
auto aa3 = parse!(int[][string])(s3);
assert(aa3 == ["aaa":[1], "bbb":[2,3], "ccc":[4,5,6]]);
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
//Check proper failure
auto s = "[1:10, 2:20, 3:30]";
foreach (i ; 0 .. s.length-1)
{
auto ss = s[0 .. i];
assertThrown!ConvException(parse!(int[int])(ss));
}
int[int] aa = parse!(int[int])(s);
}
private dchar parseEscape(Source)(ref Source s)
if (isInputRange!Source && isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source))
{
parseCheck!s('\\');
if (s.empty)
throw parseError("Unterminated escape sequence");
dchar getHexDigit()(ref Source s_ = s) // workaround
{
import std.ascii : isAlpha, isHexDigit;
if (s_.empty)
throw parseError("Unterminated escape sequence");
s_.popFront();
if (s_.empty)
throw parseError("Unterminated escape sequence");
dchar c = s_.front;
if (!isHexDigit(c))
throw parseError("Hex digit is missing");
return isAlpha(c) ? ((c & ~0x20) - ('A' - 10)) : c - '0';
}
dchar result;
switch (s.front)
{
case '"': result = '\"'; break;
case '\'': result = '\''; break;
case '0': result = '\0'; break;
case '?': result = '\?'; break;
case '\\': result = '\\'; break;
case 'a': result = '\a'; break;
case 'b': result = '\b'; break;
case 'f': result = '\f'; break;
case 'n': result = '\n'; break;
case 'r': result = '\r'; break;
case 't': result = '\t'; break;
case 'v': result = '\v'; break;
case 'x':
result = getHexDigit() << 4;
result |= getHexDigit();
break;
case 'u':
result = getHexDigit() << 12;
result |= getHexDigit() << 8;
result |= getHexDigit() << 4;
result |= getHexDigit();
break;
case 'U':
result = getHexDigit() << 28;
result |= getHexDigit() << 24;
result |= getHexDigit() << 20;
result |= getHexDigit() << 16;
result |= getHexDigit() << 12;
result |= getHexDigit() << 8;
result |= getHexDigit() << 4;
result |= getHexDigit();
break;
default:
throw parseError("Unknown escape character " ~ to!string(s.front));
}
if (s.empty)
throw parseError("Unterminated escape sequence");
s.popFront();
return result;
}
@safe pure unittest
{
string[] s1 = [
`\"`, `\'`, `\?`, `\\`, `\a`, `\b`, `\f`, `\n`, `\r`, `\t`, `\v`, //Normal escapes
//`\141`, //@@@9621@@@ Octal escapes.
`\x61`,
`\u65E5`, `\U00012456`
//`\&amp;`, `\&quot;`, //@@@9621@@@ Named Character Entities.
];
const(dchar)[] s2 = [
'\"', '\'', '\?', '\\', '\a', '\b', '\f', '\n', '\r', '\t', '\v', //Normal escapes
//'\141', //@@@9621@@@ Octal escapes.
'\x61',
'\u65E5', '\U00012456'
//'\&amp;', '\&quot;', //@@@9621@@@ Named Character Entities.
];
foreach (i ; 0 .. s1.length)
{
assert(s2[i] == parseEscape(s1[i]));
assert(s1[i].empty);
}
}
@safe pure unittest
{
import std.exception;
string[] ss = [
`hello!`, //Not an escape
`\`, //Premature termination
`\/`, //Not an escape
`\gggg`, //Not an escape
`\xzz`, //Not an hex
`\x0`, //Premature hex end
`\XB9`, //Not legal hex syntax
`\u!!`, //Not a unicode hex
`\777`, //Octal is larger than a byte //Note: Throws, but simply because octals are unsupported
`\u123`, //Premature hex end
`\U123123` //Premature hex end
];
foreach (s ; ss)
assertThrown!ConvException(parseEscape(s));
}
// Undocumented
Target parseElement(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isInputRange!Source && isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) && !is(Source == enum) &&
isExactSomeString!Target)
{
import std.array : appender;
auto result = appender!Target();
// parse array of chars
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front == '[')
return parse!Target(s);
parseCheck!s('\"');
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front == '\"')
{
s.popFront();
return result.data;
}
while (true)
{
if (s.empty)
throw parseError("Unterminated quoted string");
switch (s.front)
{
case '\"':
s.popFront();
return result.data;
case '\\':
result.put(parseEscape(s));
break;
default:
result.put(s.front);
s.popFront();
break;
}
}
assert(0);
}
// ditto
Target parseElement(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isInputRange!Source && isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) && !is(Source == enum) &&
isSomeChar!Target && !is(Target == enum))
{
Target c;
parseCheck!s('\'');
if (s.empty)
throw convError!(Source, Target)(s);
if (s.front != '\\')
{
c = s.front;
s.popFront();
}
else
c = parseEscape(s);
parseCheck!s('\'');
return c;
}
// ditto
Target parseElement(Target, Source)(ref Source s)
if (isInputRange!Source && isSomeChar!(ElementType!Source) &&
!isSomeString!Target && !isSomeChar!Target)
{
return parse!Target(s);
}
/***************************************************************
* Convenience functions for converting one or more arguments
* of any type into _text (the three character widths).
*/
string text(T...)(T args)
if (T.length > 0) { return textImpl!string(args); }
///ditto
wstring wtext(T...)(T args)
if (T.length > 0) { return textImpl!wstring(args); }
///ditto
dstring dtext(T...)(T args)
if (T.length > 0) { return textImpl!dstring(args); }
///
@safe unittest
{
assert( text(42, ' ', 1.5, ": xyz") == "42 1.5: xyz"c);
assert(wtext(42, ' ', 1.5, ": xyz") == "42 1.5: xyz"w);
assert(dtext(42, ' ', 1.5, ": xyz") == "42 1.5: xyz"d);
}
@safe unittest
{
char c = 'h';
wchar w = '你';
dchar d = 'እ';
assert( text(c, "ello", ' ', w, "好 ", d, "ው ሰላም ነው") == "hello 你好 እው ሰላም ነው"c);
assert(wtext(c, "ello", ' ', w, "好 ", d, "ው ሰላም ነው") == "hello 你好 እው ሰላም ነው"w);
assert(dtext(c, "ello", ' ', w, "好 ", d, "ው ሰላም ነው") == "hello 你好 እው ሰላም ነው"d);
string cs = "今日は";
wstring ws = "여보세요";
dstring ds = "Здравствуйте";
assert( text(cs, ' ', ws, " ", ds) == "今日は 여보세요 Здравствуйте"c);
assert(wtext(cs, ' ', ws, " ", ds) == "今日は 여보세요 Здравствуйте"w);
assert(dtext(cs, ' ', ws, " ", ds) == "今日は 여보세요 Здравствуйте"d);
}
private S textImpl(S, U...)(U args)
{
static if (U.length == 0)
{
return null;
}
else static if (U.length == 1)
{
return to!S(args[0]);
}
else
{
import std.array : appender;
auto app = appender!S();
foreach (arg; args)
app.put(to!S(arg));
return app.data;
}
}
/***************************************************************
The $(D octal) facility provides a means to declare a number in base 8.
Using $(D octal!177) or $(D octal!"177") for 127 represented in octal
(same as 0177 in C).
The rules for strings are the usual for literals: If it can fit in an
$(D int), it is an $(D int). Otherwise, it is a $(D long). But, if the
user specifically asks for a $(D long) with the $(D L) suffix, always
give the $(D long). Give an unsigned iff it is asked for with the $(D
U) or $(D u) suffix. _Octals created from integers preserve the type
of the passed-in integral.
See_Also:
$(LREF parse) for parsing octal strings at runtime.
*/
template octal(string num)
if (isOctalLiteral(num))
{
static if ((octalFitsInInt!num && !literalIsLong!num) && !literalIsUnsigned!num)
enum octal = octal!int(num);
else static if ((!octalFitsInInt!num || literalIsLong!num) && !literalIsUnsigned!num)
enum octal = octal!long(num);
else static if ((octalFitsInInt!num && !literalIsLong!num) && literalIsUnsigned!num)
enum octal = octal!uint(num);
else static if ((!octalFitsInInt!(num) || literalIsLong!(num)) && literalIsUnsigned!(num))
enum octal = octal!ulong(num);
else
static assert(false);
}
/// Ditto
template octal(alias decimalInteger)
if (isIntegral!(typeof(decimalInteger)))
{
enum octal = octal!(typeof(decimalInteger))(to!string(decimalInteger));
}
///
@safe unittest
{
// same as 0177
auto x = octal!177;
// octal is a compile-time device
enum y = octal!160;
// Create an unsigned octal
auto z = octal!"1_000_000u";
}
/*
Takes a string, num, which is an octal literal, and returns its
value, in the type T specified.
*/
private T octal(T)(const string num)
{
assert(isOctalLiteral(num));
T value = 0;
foreach (const char s; num)
{
if (s < '0' || s > '7') // we only care about digits; skip the rest
// safe to skip - this is checked out in the assert so these
// are just suffixes
continue;
value *= 8;
value += s - '0';
}
return value;
}
@safe unittest
{
int a = octal!int("10");
assert(a == 8);
}
/*
Take a look at int.max and int.max+1 in octal and the logic for this
function follows directly.
*/
private template octalFitsInInt(string octalNum)
{
// note it is important to strip the literal of all
// non-numbers. kill the suffix and underscores lest they mess up
// the number of digits here that we depend on.
enum bool octalFitsInInt = strippedOctalLiteral(octalNum).length < 11 ||
strippedOctalLiteral(octalNum).length == 11 &&
strippedOctalLiteral(octalNum)[0] == '1';
}
private string strippedOctalLiteral(string original)
{
string stripped = "";
foreach (c; original)
if (c >= '0' && c <= '7')
stripped ~= c;
return stripped;
}
private template literalIsLong(string num)
{
static if (num.length > 1)
// can be xxL or xxLu according to spec
enum literalIsLong = (num[$-1] == 'L' || num[$-2] == 'L');
else
enum literalIsLong = false;
}
private template literalIsUnsigned(string num)
{
static if (num.length > 1)
// can be xxU or xxUL according to spec
enum literalIsUnsigned = (num[$-1] == 'u' || num[$-2] == 'u')
// both cases are allowed too
|| (num[$-1] == 'U' || num[$-2] == 'U');
else
enum literalIsUnsigned = false;
}
/*
Returns if the given string is a correctly formatted octal literal.
The format is specified in spec/lex.html. The leading zero is allowed, but
not required.
*/
@safe pure nothrow @nogc
private bool isOctalLiteral(const string num)
{
if (num.length == 0)
return false;
// Must start with a number. To avoid confusion, literals that
// start with a '0' are not allowed
if (num[0] == '0' && num.length > 1)
return false;
if (num[0] < '0' || num[0] > '7')
return false;
foreach (i, c; num)
{
if ((c < '0' || c > '7') && c != '_') // not a legal character
{
if (i < num.length - 2)
return false;
else // gotta check for those suffixes
{
if (c != 'U' && c != 'u' && c != 'L')
return false;
if (i != num.length - 1)
{
// if we're not the last one, the next one must
// also be a suffix to be valid
char c2 = num[$-1];
if (c2 != 'U' && c2 != 'u' && c2 != 'L')
return false; // spam at the end of the string
if (c2 == c)
return false; // repeats are disallowed
}
}
}
}
return true;
}
@safe unittest
{
// ensure that you get the right types, even with embedded underscores
auto w = octal!"100_000_000_000";
static assert(!is(typeof(w) == int));
auto w2 = octal!"1_000_000_000";
static assert(is(typeof(w2) == int));
static assert(octal!"45" == 37);
static assert(octal!"0" == 0);
static assert(octal!"7" == 7);
static assert(octal!"10" == 8);
static assert(octal!"666" == 438);
static assert(octal!45 == 37);
static assert(octal!0 == 0);
static assert(octal!7 == 7);
static assert(octal!10 == 8);
static assert(octal!666 == 438);
static assert(octal!"66_6" == 438);
static assert(octal!2520046213 == 356535435);
static assert(octal!"2520046213" == 356535435);
static assert(octal!17777777777 == int.max);
static assert(!__traits(compiles, octal!823));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, octal!"823"));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, octal!"_823"));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, octal!"spam"));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, octal!"77%"));
static assert(is(typeof(octal!"17777777777") == int));
static assert(octal!"17777777777" == int.max);
static assert(is(typeof(octal!"20000000000U") == ulong)); // Shouldn't this be uint?
static assert(octal!"20000000000" == uint(int.max) + 1);
static assert(is(typeof(octal!"777777777777777777777") == long));
static assert(octal!"777777777777777777777" == long.max);
static assert(is(typeof(octal!"1000000000000000000000U") == ulong));
static assert(octal!"1000000000000000000000" == ulong(long.max) + 1);
int a;
long b;
// biggest value that should fit in an it
a = octal!"17777777777";
assert(a == int.max);
// should not fit in the int
static assert(!__traits(compiles, a = octal!"20000000000"));
// ... but should fit in a long
b = octal!"20000000000";
assert(b == 1L + int.max);
b = octal!"1L";
assert(b == 1);
b = octal!1L;
assert(b == 1);
}
/+
emplaceRef is a package function for phobos internal use. It works like
emplace, but takes its argument by ref (as opposed to "by pointer").
This makes it easier to use, easier to be safe, and faster in a non-inline
build.
Furthermore, emplaceRef optionally takes a type paremeter, which specifies
the type we want to build. This helps to build qualified objects on mutable
buffer, without breaking the type system with unsafe casts.
+/
package void emplaceRef(T, UT, Args...)(ref UT chunk, auto ref Args args)
{
static if (args.length == 0)
{
static assert(is(typeof({static T i;})),
convFormat("Cannot emplace a %1$s because %1$s.this() is annotated with @disable.", T.stringof));
static if (is(T == class)) static assert(!isAbstractClass!T,
T.stringof ~ " is abstract and it can't be emplaced");
emplaceInitializer(chunk);
}
else static if (
!is(T == struct) && Args.length == 1 /* primitives, enums, arrays */
||
Args.length == 1 && is(typeof({T t = args[0];})) /* conversions */
||
is(typeof(T(args))) /* general constructors */)
{
static struct S
{
T payload;
this(ref Args x)
{
static if (Args.length == 1)
static if (is(typeof(payload = x[0])))
payload = x[0];
else
payload = T(x[0]);
else
payload = T(x);
}
}
if (__ctfe)
{
static if (is(typeof(chunk = T(args))))
chunk = T(args);
else static if (args.length == 1 && is(typeof(chunk = args[0])))
chunk = args[0];
else assert(0, "CTFE emplace doesn't support "
~ T.stringof ~ " from " ~ Args.stringof);
}
else
{
S* p = () @trusted { return cast(S*) &chunk; }();
emplaceInitializer(*p);
p.__ctor(args);
}
}
else static if (is(typeof(chunk.__ctor(args))))
{
// This catches the rare case of local types that keep a frame pointer
emplaceInitializer(chunk);
chunk.__ctor(args);
}
else
{
//We can't emplace. Try to diagnose a disabled postblit.
static assert(!(Args.length == 1 && is(Args[0] : T)),
convFormat("Cannot emplace a %1$s because %1$s.this(this) is annotated with @disable.", T.stringof));
//We can't emplace.
static assert(false,
convFormat("%s cannot be emplaced from %s.", T.stringof, Args[].stringof));
}
}
// ditto
package void emplaceRef(UT, Args...)(ref UT chunk, auto ref Args args)
if (is(UT == Unqual!UT))
{
emplaceRef!(UT, UT)(chunk, args);
}
//emplace helper functions
private void emplaceInitializer(T)(ref T chunk) @trusted pure nothrow
{
static if (!hasElaborateAssign!T && isAssignable!T)
chunk = T.init;
else
{
import core.stdc.string : memcpy;
static immutable T init = T.init;
memcpy(&chunk, &init, T.sizeof);
}
}
// emplace
/**
Given a pointer $(D chunk) to uninitialized memory (but already typed
as $(D T)), constructs an object of non-$(D class) type $(D T) at that
address. If `T` is a class, initializes the class reference to null.
Returns: A pointer to the newly constructed object (which is the same
as $(D chunk)).
*/
T* emplace(T)(T* chunk) @safe pure nothrow
{
emplaceRef!T(*chunk);
return chunk;
}
///
@system unittest
{
static struct S
{
int i = 42;
}
S[2] s2 = void;
emplace(&s2);
assert(s2[0].i == 42 && s2[1].i == 42);
}
///
@system unittest
{
interface I {}
class K : I {}
K k = void;
emplace(&k);
assert(k is null);
I i = void;
emplace(&i);
assert(i is null);
}
/**
Given a pointer $(D chunk) to uninitialized memory (but already typed
as a non-class type $(D T)), constructs an object of type $(D T) at
that address from arguments $(D args). If `T` is a class, initializes
the class reference to `args[0]`.
This function can be $(D @trusted) if the corresponding constructor of
$(D T) is $(D @safe).
Returns: A pointer to the newly constructed object (which is the same
as $(D chunk)).
*/
T* emplace(T, Args...)(T* chunk, auto ref Args args)
if (is(T == struct) || Args.length == 1)
{
emplaceRef!T(*chunk, args);
return chunk;
}
///
@system unittest
{
int a;
int b = 42;
assert(*emplace!int(&a, b) == 42);
}
@system unittest
{
shared int i;
emplace(&i, 42);
assert(i == 42);
}
private void testEmplaceChunk(void[] chunk, size_t typeSize, size_t typeAlignment, string typeName) @nogc pure nothrow
{
assert(chunk.length >= typeSize, "emplace: Chunk size too small.");
assert((cast(size_t) chunk.ptr) % typeAlignment == 0, "emplace: Chunk is not aligned.");
}
/**
Given a raw memory area $(D chunk), constructs an object of $(D class)
type $(D T) at that address. The constructor is passed the arguments
$(D Args).
If `T` is an inner class whose `outer` field can be used to access an instance
of the enclosing class, then `Args` must not be empty, and the first member of it
must be a valid initializer for that `outer` field. Correct initialization of
this field is essential to access members of the outer class inside `T` methods.
Preconditions:
$(D chunk) must be at least as large as $(D T) needs
and should have an alignment multiple of $(D T)'s alignment. (The size
of a $(D class) instance is obtained by using $(D
__traits(classInstanceSize, T))).
Note:
This function can be $(D @trusted) if the corresponding constructor of
$(D T) is $(D @safe).
Returns: The newly constructed object.
*/
T emplace(T, Args...)(void[] chunk, auto ref Args args)
if (is(T == class))
{
static assert(!isAbstractClass!T, T.stringof ~
" is abstract and it can't be emplaced");
enum classSize = __traits(classInstanceSize, T);
testEmplaceChunk(chunk, classSize, classInstanceAlignment!T, T.stringof);
auto result = cast(T) chunk.ptr;
// Initialize the object in its pre-ctor state
chunk[0 .. classSize] = typeid(T).initializer[];
static if (isInnerClass!T)